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VOL. I. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1838, by 

Matthew L. Davis 
in the Clerk's- Office of the Southern District ot New York. 


The following brief correspondence requires no explana- 
tion. The incident referred to merits record. It would 
have been related in his Memoirs if Colonel Burr had not 
forbidden its publication without accompanying evidence of 
the fact. That evidence has but recently been procured by 
the editor of these volumes, and it is now given. 


Rev. Sir — There is an anecdote respecting Colonel Burr, 
worthy, in my opinion, a place on the page of our revolu- 
tionary history. I should have published it if I had pos- 
sessed any other evidence of its correctness than what was 
derived from Colonel Burr's own statement; but, without I 
could obtain that evidence, it was his wish that I should sup- 
press it in the Memoirs of his Life that I was preparing for 
publication. I refer to the manner in which the body of 
General Montgomery (after his fall on the morning of the 
31st December, 1775) was rescued from the British troops 
and conveyed to the American camp. 

Your father, the late Rev. Samuel Spring, accompanied 
General Arnold in his perilous expedition through the wil- 
derness in the autumn of 1775. On the fatal morning refer- 
red to he was with the army on the Plains of Abram, and 
witnessed the melancholy result of the attack upon Quebec. 
May I be permitted to ask you, Rev. Sir, whether he did at 
any time inform you how the body of General Montgomery 
came into the possession of the American troops ? If yea, 



when did he make the communication ? And under what 
circumstances? I am unwilling to give you much trouble; 
but as the incident relates to a most interesting crisis in the 
history of our revolutionary struggles, you will, I trust, par- 
don me when I add that any details which you may be 
pleased to give will confer a favour on, Rev. Sir, 

Yours respectfully, 

M. L. Davis. 


New-York, Brick-church Chapel, October 24, 1838. 

G. Spring's compliments to Mr Davis, with a hasty reply 
to his note of yesterday. 

The facts in relation to my venerable father's interview 
with Colonel Burr are just as I stated them to you at Sara- 
toga. The last visit my father made me, he expressed a 
great anxiety to see Colonel Burr. I objected, and told him 
Burr had lost caste, and it was reputable neither to him nor 
myself to call on him. 

For two or three days he relinquished the design of ma- 
king the call. But on an afternoon just before he left us, he 
said to me, " My son, I must see Burr before I leave the 
city. I went through the woods with him under Arnold. 
I stood by his side on the Plains of Abram, and I have not 
seen him since the morning on which Montgomery fell. It 
was a heavy snowstorm. Montgomery had fallen. The 
British troops were advancing towards the dead body; and 
little Burr was hastening from the fire of the enemy, up to 
his knees in snow, with Montgomery's body on his shoul- 
ders ! Do you wonder I wish to see him ?" 

I conducted my father to Col. Burr's office, and we sub- 
sequently spent part of an evening together at my house in 
Beekman-street. My father was a volunteer chaplain un- 
der Arnold, and, being friends at college, he and Burr were 
much together during that fearful campaign. 

G. Spr(ng. 


In presenting to ihe public ihe ensuing Journal of the late 
Aaron Burr, the editor is not aware that he is, in the least 
degree, violating the wishes of its author, far less that he is 
infringing an)' of the restrictions of proper reserve. The 
journal was originally, indeed, intended only for Mrs. Alston, 
the daughter of Col. Burr. But, after the lamented death 
of this lady, the journal was carefully preserved by her 
father, and committed, with his correspondence, to the edi- 
tor, with unlimited license of publication. It may, then, be 
truly said that it is published with the assent of its author; 
and it is believed to be sufficiently curious, and indicative 
of the character of an extraordinary man, to warrant its pub- 
lication from general considerations. 

The journal, it will be seen, changes its character during 
its progress. At first it seems to have been merely a few 
careless and rough notes of his travels ; but it gradually 
became more expanded and minute, as time grew heavy on 
his hands, until, especially during his residence in Paris 
and his second sojourn in England, it became a faithful tran- 
script of his daily life. 

There are chasms in the journal which the editor has 
been unable, in any extent, to supply from the contempo- 
raneous correspondence of the author; and these deficiencies 
are the more to be regretted, as the periods of time of which 
the record is thus omitted are those which would have been 
highly interesting to the reader. The first serious omission 
will be found in the commencement of his diary, when he 
first arrived in England, ardent in his plans of engaging the 
British government in the emancipation of Mexico from 
Spain, and when his negotiations with the ministry were 
frequent, and not without hope. The second chasm occurs 
when, having been compulsorily detained in Paris for more 
than a year, deserted by almost every friend, without letters, 
and almost without hope of release, he was unexpectedly 
relieved by the Duke of Bassano. How this successful and 
effective interference was obtained, we are not informed by 


his diary. It was undoubtedly through the aid of Denon, 
the celebrated traveller. We know, from other sources, 
that the conduct of the Duke of Bassano was most generous; 
not limited to what alone Col. Burr had, for more than a 
year, in vain requested, a relaxation of the tyrannical refusal 
of his passports, but accompanied by a loan of money, which 
enabled him to leave France free from debt, except to his 
noble and disinterested benefactor. This was, however, the 
only occurrence during his long stay in Paris which called 
for gratitude. From the moment of his arrival in France 
to his departure in the Vigilant, he experienced from the 
government unmitigated discountenance and severity, and 
from Frenchmen utter neglect and inhospitality. He whose 
life, from the time he had first been their companion in arms 
(as he remarked in his memorial to Napoleon), had been de- 
voted to kindness and hospitality to Frenchmen ! 

Besides the hiatus in the journal above alluded to, the 
editor deems it proper to state that he has suppressed cer- 
tain parts. As the journal is now shown, it will probably 
surprise the reader that a father should write and preserve 
such a record for his daughter. It must be remembered, 
however, that the perfect unreservedness with which the 
author of the diary wrote to his daughter was part of the 
system, be it erroneous or not, on which her education and 
their intercourse had been conducted. It was his theory, as 
will partly appear from the journal itself, that female edu- 
cation should in no respect differ from that of young men ; 
and that, between parent and child, there should be the same 
frankness and candour of demeanour and conversation as be- 
tween two friends of equal age. The theory may have been 
most unfounded ; and yet he may be excused for adhering 
to it, when he saw before him, produced by it, or in spite of 
it, such a model of purity, intelligence, and loveliness as 
Theodosia Burr Alston. 

The editor anticipates criticisms on the journal for its ab- 
sence of political and general remark, and the apparently 


unimportant incidents which it records. By some it will, 
perhaps, be thought that it exhibits only laborious trifling, 
" operose nihil agendo.''' 1 There are some considerations 
which may be submitted to obviate such remarks. It is very 
evident, in the first place, that the absence of all political 
observations in this journal is the result of systematic reso- 
lution. The journal, in its early and careless stages, and in 
free and constitutional England, had been seized by order of 
the ministry ; and on the Continent, from Mr. Burr's arrival 
in Hamburgh till his embarcation from the Helder, he must 
have been daily and hourly sensible of the all-pervading 
vigilance and power of the French police. The journal 
shows, by its very reserve, not that its author did not ob- 
serve, but that he knew too well that Napoleon was em- 
peror, and Fouche had but just ceased to be his minister. 

It should also be borne in mind that the diary was in- 
tended only as a memorandum for conversation with his 
daughter on his return to America. He repeatedly mentions 
this in his notes. The idea of publication certainly never 
occurred to him. If in its later portions it became more like 
a regular narrative, it was because the periods it then re- 
cords were those in which his detention in France by the 
government, and in England by absolute want of money, left 
him no occupation and no amusement but that of writing to 
that beloved daughter, who, during her four years' absence 
from his society, seems to have been scarcely one moment 
absent from his thoughts. 

Why, then, it may be asked, is this journal published ? 
Because, unless the editor deceives himself, unambitious as 
it is, it will amuse the reader ; because it illustrates the 
character of a distinguished man, whose influence has been 
felt in his country's fortunes, and whose name will live in 
her history ; and because the character illustrated is amia- 
ble, interesting, and not without instruction to the observer. 
This man of dark intrigue and remorseless design, as it has 
pleased politicians and reviewers, clerical and lay, to repre- 


sent him, is here shown in an artless auto-biographic narra- 
tive, which could not be feigned, to have been one of the 
most amiable and playful of men ; like the little children 
whom he so remarkably and characteristically loved, he was 
pleased with the slightest incidents, lively and happy in the 
humblest circumstances, and incapable of harbouring a last- 
in <r resentment. Few of the readers of this journal will 
peruse the cold-blooded insults and injuries which he re- 
ceived in France from the representatives of the United 
States without feeling a more intense indignation than seems 
to have been excited in him who was the sufferer by 
them. And in the uncomplaining constancy and unabating 
cheerfulness under the most trying circumstances, which 
never for a moment forsook him during his long and dreary 
detention in miserable lodgings in Paris, without a friend or 
correspondent, and with only indefinite restrictions and pri- 
vations in prospect ; nor in his obscure garret in London, 
with impending starvation before him. Let those who may 
object to the absence of philosophic remark in the following 
pages answer whether, in such exhibitions of temper and 
control of mind, there was not the highest and most admira- 
ble philosophy ? 


New-York, November 15, 1838. 


On the 5lh of August, 1807, the trial of Colonel Burr for 
treason commenced at Richmond, Virginia. Judge Marshall 
presiding. On the 1st of September the jury returned a 
verdict of not guilty. On the 9th of September another 
jury was empannelled to try him on an indictment for mis- 
demeanor. In this case, as in the former, the jury pro- 
nounced a verdict of not guilty. 

Colonel Burr remained in Richmond until the month of 
December, making preparatory arrangements for a voyage 
to England, with the view of inducing the British ministry to 
aid him in his project of revolutionizing Mexico. As early 
as the 8th of October, 1807, he stated to Blennerhassett that 
" he was preparing to go to England ; that the time was 
now auspicious for him," &c* 

During February and March, 1808, Colonel Burr was in 
Baltimore, and from thence came to the city of New-York 
in April. Here he remained for a few days incognito. He 
then passed over to the country-seat of the late Peter Kem- 
ble, Esq., in the neighbourhood of Belleville, New-Jersey. 
In the latter part of May he returned to New-York, and 
remained at the house of a friend until his departure for 
England, via Halifax, in the British packet. His last inter- 
view with his daughter Theodosia was on the evening of 
his embarcation, at the house of Mrs. Pollock. They never 
again met. 

On the 1st of June, 1808, he commences keeping a diary. 
It consisted at first of a very few and brief memoranda, but 
gradually swelled into a copious narrative of his life. It is 

* See Memoirs of Aaron Burr, vol. ii., page 398. 

A 3 


to be regretted that the earlier period of his European trav- 
els, when sanguine of success in his schemes, and when he 
was unremitted in his negotiations, or attempts to negotiate 
with the British ministry, is the least minutely recorded. 
Chasms of days and weeks occur in his early memoranda; 
and, where he has left any written record, it is very concise 
and obscure. The best mode of supplying these deficien- 
cies will be to give, in connexion with what is found of his 
diary, such letters as he preserved copies of, particularly 
those to his daughter, Theodosia B. Alston. 

It must be borne in mind, that at the time the journal com- 
mences he was in the city of New-York or its vicinity, en- 
gaged in preparations for his journey, and preserving a strict 
incognito. The letters, &c, referred to will make it stri- 
kingly appear how great importance he attached to this in- 
cognito, and the pains he took, particularly on his departure 
from and on his return to America, to shroud himself in 
mystery. Doubtless this partly proceeded from the love of 
concealment which formed so marked a trait in his charac- 
ter, and was not required to the extent to which he carried 
it by the circumstances of his situation ; but it is equally 
certain that, at the time when the following journal com- 
menced, he would have been greatly embarrassed had his 
plans or even his residence been known. 

Extracts from Letters to Theodosia. Dates not given. 
Supposed to be previous to 1st June, 1808. 

That we may not clash in our communications, I submit 
to your perusal a letter just written to H. N. Seal and for- 
ward it. It is probable that he would, within a few months, 
have known of the friend there spoken of, and it was, there- 
fore, best to let it come from me or you. The water con- 
veyance is to be preferred, and if to Charleston, undercover 
to Charles Kershaw, with a line. 

Another parcel of papers is herewith sent, for the pur- 
poses before mentioned of former deposites. 


H. has sounded his friend, and, finding all right, has put 
him in full communion. This circumstance, the longer 
knowledge of the state of your health, and the receipt of 
three letters for important personages, indemnify me for my 
share of the vexation, and the loss of time and money on a 
late occasion. Perhaps more good may arise from it. 

Did you talk to E. W. L. about C. ? What course will 
he take ? He (E. W. L.) must co-operate with us, or great 
mischief may ensue. 

Your parcel, written yesterday, with a note acknowledg- 
ing the receipt of mine, has come in at two P. M. I shall 
not commit violence on Miss G. nor a burglary on the house 
of her uncle. The letter will be sent with a written mes- 
sage containing my address. After which, I stand on the 

The newspaper which you intended to enclose was for- 
gotten. Have no apprehension about the orders I may draw 
on you. 

Ask Dr. Eustis his charge, and say that you will forward 
it to Mr. Alston. Don't waste the money or his labour by 
reserve or concealment. I don't think he will take any- 

English papers, this day arrived, say that Mr. Armstrong 
had been ordered to leave Paris, and had arrived in London, 
intimating thereby a war between France and the United 
States, which I believe to be all a stock-jobbing lie. 

I have paid S. his dollar, and will pay you twelve. Be 
assured that the one hundred and sixty barrels of rice will 
arrive in the Mary Ann, subject to your orders ; and then 
you'll be rich. 

J. K. B. is a young gentleman of great fortune, of no oc- 
cupation, of good character and connexions, and of great 
civility of manner. I do not know either P. or P. even by 
reputation. No doubt, however, they would be very suita- 
ble acquaintances. Inquire when on the spot. I always 
" turn over" — " nocturna versate manu" 


The affection of the nerves arises wholly from the disease, 
and can only be cured by removing those diseases. AH 
nervous medicines, unless for momentary relief, are quack- 
ery and nonsense. The spring waters of Ballston or Sara- 
toga are the best ; the only tonic which performs at once the 
double cure. Have faith, and you shall be saved ; but not 
without good works — meaning, thereby, the persevering use 
of means. 

Heighho ! news just come in that the packet does not 
go till Thursday. Things seem to be well arranged. All 
attempts at interview must be abandoned for this night, at 
least. To-morrow we will see. 

The depositions of Bayard and Smith* may be shown 
without any reserve. There is no delicacy connected with 
them. Be sure you get the right ones ; not their first depo- 
sitions, unless, indeed, both sets be shown or published to- 
gether ; but that would be too voluminous. There is no ob- 
jection even to the publication. It is a mere point of policy. 
If published, it ought to be accompanied by remarks from 
AristidesA Talk to him of it. Your old young beau and 
swain, J. V. N. Y., could do it, either in prose or verse. 

Mr. G., who negotiates with C, says he is now all milk 
and honey. The affronted neighbours can be appeased at 
any time in half a minute. It is not now worth while ; 
make no effort, except for X. The S.'s are fools by inherit- 
ance of five generations. What you say about changes is 
very true. The wonder is that you did not discover it 

What courteous friends ! I wish you two hundred miles 
off; and you, in revenge, wish me three thousand miles off — 
" Leplus loin, le plus serre" You may make H. prescribe 
a sea voyage. I should feel confident of everything — " te 
numine? What a long letter. I wish you were off. 

A. Burr. 

* See Memoirs of A. Bun, vol. ii., page 122. 
t The late Judge William P. Van Ness. 



Order Dr. Hosack to be with you this evening. I forgot 
to remind you of Anabelle Shedden. You ought, in one 
line to E. A., to acknowledge the interest she has taken in 
the question of tutor. You may also say that Bab., having 
been formally and earnestly applied to", both by you and me, 
you cannot, with propriety, apply to another. Acknowledge, 
also, that the defects of his character form no serious ob- 
jection to his office of tutor to A. B. A., and that his knowl- 
edge of the Spanish language more than atones for many 

If you should be directed to write to Julien, sign Mary 
Anne Meville, and let him know that you are the daughter of 
George Meville. 

I never travel without giving to my confidential servant 
or attendant directions for the disposition of my papers, 
clothes, &c, in case of sudden death. Do you the same. 
Sam will be your agent, and F. your depository. 

My letters to you will be often in a strange handwriting, 
and with various signatures. Sometimes feminine. 

Godwin's Enquirer. His life of Chaucer, also, has much 
on language. It is, indeed, rather a history of the English 
language than of the poet. Make your list of books, or 
rather of subjects. 

If you should have a newspaper containing a letter from 
B. to Gov. Williams, February, 1807, send it to me; but 
don't hunt for it yourself. 

Tell Sam to engage the carriage for this evening. I do 
not yet know the hour or place of meeting. You will hear 
before nine. My baggage will go in the packet, myself in 
the schooner. Ask Mrs. P., with suitable apologies, to write 
her friend H. a line to the following effect : 

" My friend, Mr. Edwards, who has a letter of introduc- 
tion from me to you, has sent part of his baggage to your 
care ; lest it might arrive before him, be pleased to take 
charge of it till his arrival." 


What is the Christian name of Mrs. P. ? I send you a 
letter of R. R., that you may see the goodness of herself and 
cousin. How are you ? A. Burr. 


There is dignity and fortitude in your letter. Need it be 
added that I am charmed with it ? We had come to the 
same conclusion by sympathy. A long letter was sent in 
quest of you a few minutes ago. It will, probably, not find 
you till late. C. has just come in. I rejoice to see him. 
T.'s letter shall be reviewed and returned to-morrow. 

The swelling is a mere indication of the weak and slug- 
gish state of the vessels. One week at Saratoga will carry 
it off. I think your departure should not be deferred more 
than one day, so that you may hear, &c. Conjecture may 
carry me with you. A. Burr. 


My dear T., the weather is so inauspicious that I tremble 
at the thought of the enterprise you are about to undertake. 
If the " turn" is such as I suppose, a cold night prove fatal. 
Let us hazard nothing for the gratification of our feelings. 
You will have yet some hours to make minutes or notes of 
all you have to say or ask. That you may be more in the 
way of sending to me, suppose you should go and pass the 
day at Robert Swartwout's ; no, there again you might be 
exposed during the transit. Stay at home, and write and 
send Sam as your postboy. 

If we should not meet to-day, I shall write something, in 
which I shall speak of you in the third person, under the 
name of Anne, and will be designated by H — n. 

Express to Mrs. P., if you can, all my gratitude and 
affection. Tell me something more of Miss Grattan — her 
age and pretensions. Is she daughter, or any way related 
to the Irish orator ? 

Since writing the above the weather has become clear. 


I submit the propriety of your expedition to yourself and 
0. ; but if the " turn" be as I hope, there will be hazard, 
and there ought to be none. A. Burr. 


"Tuesday night;" and why did you not write me on 
Wednesday morning ? The captain's I think safer than L. 
I will be there at ten. You may go when and how he 
and you may agree, and with or without your little girl. 

I have for some time been apprehensive that you had 
rheumatic affections. The symptoms you describe may be 
of that character, but more probably are some of that infi- 
nite variety of spasmodic and nervous affections which are 
the invariable companions of extreme debility ; whichever 
it may be, the waters will cure ; for every species of rheu- 
matism, they are infallible. 

Before leaving town, which ought not to be till Friday, 
write E. W. L., requesting that he would call now and 
then on Saltus, to know and advise you when any remit- 
tance may be received for you, and how to draw for it. 

We shall have only one hour together. You say that my 
note by T. was received, &c. Pray, were there not three 
notes and a parcel beside ? I thought you had been long 
since cured of this slovenly way of acknowledging. If I 
had been at a great distance, this circumstance would have 
given great uneasiness. As it now is, I shall know the 
truth a few hours hence ; but, in the mean time, I am far from 
being tranquil. 

One other point in which you have improved, but you are 
yet far from being perfect, and after we are separated I 
must exact the most rigid attention ; that is, to answer 
every part of a letter which appears to require any answer. 
To this end, always have before you the letters you are 
about to answer, read them over before you begin, and 
make short notes of the heads requiring a reply. 

A. Burr. 



I submit to you the choice of seeing me on Thursday or 
Friday evening, and the manner of which I have had a talk 
with S. 

See that our amiable friend Mrs. P.'s letters are ready. 
W. will call to-morrow evening to aid with the packing. I 
want no provisions. If Mr. L. should have given you 
money in paper, give it to S. to put into gold ; if he can- 
not get guineas, let him get it in gold of the United States. 

The label on the larger trunk is marked E. W. L. ; this 
ought to be changed, and G. H. E. or something else put on. 

There is, in my opinion, nothing to apprehend from R. 
There are strong motives of interest to check him. If he 
should again call on you, treat him sternly. A. Burr. 


It was two o'clock this morning before I could have the 
privilege of reading your letters ; and, first, I admire your 
manner of writing. There is a selection, an energy and ap- 
titude in your expressions, which, to use the vulgar male 
slang — is not feminine. But to business. 

You may tell Mari the expression of in any way, 

and quoting any authority you please. It was made about 
three or four days after my arrival in Georgetown. 

Be very slow and cautious in believing the professions, &c, 
of H — n. The fit might have been on in that moment. It 
was not the first, and, like the former, will doubtless be tran- 
sient. I congratulate you on the company of Miss J. 

H., the friend and relation of H., is a God-send. Most cer- 
tainly shall I avail myself of it to the utmost extent. H. is 
to see me this morning ; I have resolved to go down in a 
pilot-boat the night preceding the departure of the packet. 
We will do things better. H. and T. shall be brought to- 
gether this morning. 

E. W. L. is mistaken about the notes. Three thousand 
dollars are due, and will undoubtedly be paid in December — 


residue 1st March ; but they may be discounted sixty days 
before due ; so that, by ordering this to the man in Balti- 
more, three thousand dollars might be had 1st October. 
, To whom did you give the books and ring? O., I 
suppose, in which case I shall see them by-and-by. Poor, 
dear little soul ; yes, I have indeed robbed thee of every- 
thing but thy talents. God reward thee. 

Anabelle takes by will and not by inheritance ; the birth 
is therefore no matter. Why will not H. give me a copy 
of the will ? Coz is Moore. The cloak may be made into 
a bundle and sent with my baggage. If 1 thought M. had 
not yet replaced it, I would send it back, for it will only be 
worn while I am somebody else. 

The tin box is discarded, and the maps packed into the 

Mrs. Reade is the wife of Reade, of Red Hook, and 

daughter of R. G. Livingston. I have been often, very 
often, most hospitably and kindly entertained at her house. 
She sometimes at mine, but the balance is in her favour. 
Her daughter, a pretty little blonde, must have married one 
of the Stuyvesants. Mrs. Reade is sincere in any offers of 
kindness or civility which she may make you, and you need 
not fear disappointment in accepting them. They live very 
handsomely, and know better how to receive their friends 
than almost any you will meet. 

I see great difficulties in any attempt to meet. Perhaps 
at some third place. Gates's, if it were nearer. If any- 
thing should occur to you tending to clear the way, note it 
to me. A. Burr. 


You will rejoice to see my young friend D., and to know 
that he goes with me the first stage. I am so impatient to 
hear from you, that I have sent him to see you, and to ask 
your plans for the evening, and to know how you are. That 
cough is distressing. A. Burr. 



So soon as you shall hear of my being off, write E. A. that 
at the moment of writing this Pernet is one hundred miles 
from New- York and all well. Write the same to Colonel 
De Pestre, only instead of Pernet say Meville. 

It is not probable that I shall have an opportunity of wri- 
ting you one word, but one of the party will call on you. 
To H — n, write the doctor is at a great distance, I cannot say 
where, and well. 

My papers may be lodged with young Gouv. Kemble if 
you should doubt of their safety at P.'s. A. Burr. 


Thursday, P. M. 9 o'clock, 
on board the Packet. 


The enclosed was written from the pilot-boat. My recep- 
tion has been perfectly satisfactory. The captain, by the 
pains he took to accommodate and facilitate my embarca- 
tion, has redeemed his character. 

I have desired Mr. G. M. 0. to introduce to you his 
brother, Francis B. 0. I am greatly indebted to them. 

A. Burr. 

Journal, June 1, 1808. 

Having paid sixty dollars for the cabin of the Clarissa 
Ann, and also for a pilot-boat to put me on board, I was to 
meet the pilot-boat near the Narrows. At ten A. M., T. ar- 
rived at , where I lodged. At four P. M., left in a 

skiff, with a man and a boy — heavy wind. We went on 
Long Island at the place agreed on, and there passed the 

June 2. At nine A. M. crossed to Staten Island, having 
seen neither S. nor pilot-boat — returned. At eleven A. M. 
took boat and landed at Communipas. The boy and I went 
to the Vineyard, and reached there one P. M. 


June. 3. Remained till eight A. M. Left for the Nar- 
rows with . Reached the house of G. Kemble. 

June 4. G. Kemble arrived. Very politely received by 
Mr. K . 

June 5. Remain here. 

June 6. R. Swartwout. At nine P. M. went with him to 
N. Y. Lodged with J. S. 

June 7. H. introduced W. E. Hosack. Ten P. M., met 
T. At eleven A. M. went on board pilot-boat with F. B. 
O. Set sail. 

June 8. No wind. At three P. M. anchored between 
Narrows and Sandy Hook. 

June 9. At seven P. M. set sail. At six P. M. see the 
packet Queen Charlotte. Fair wind. Passengers, Ed- 
wards,* Luscomb, Clough, Hosack, Mackay, Harrison, wife 
of Judge Thorpe and six children, Henley, and Charles 
Alexander Williamson. 

The two following letters were written just before sailing. 


The transition was fortunate, and the new location made 
under good auspices, but the moment of separation was im- 
bittered by tears and reproaches, to which, unfortunately, 
your page was a witness. 

I fear you suffered from your late expedition. Tell me 
frankly, and never again attempt to deceive me. The at- 
tempt you once made will poison my happiness by impair- 
ing my confidence in your communications on that subject, 
unless it can be restored by new assurances ; but this you 
need not now answer. 

Give Amidi fifty dollars. If you should not have less 
than one hundred, give him a bill to change, for he must pay 
thirty dollars for me to-day. 

I may probably put you in correspondence with several 
literary characters. In your replies, recollect what is due 

* Colonel Burr's assumed name. 


to yourself. Avoid all extravagant indications and expres- 
sions of " being flattered by the notice," dec. Of all races 
of animals, authors are the vainest ; but the sensorium of van- 
ity is in their offspring. No eulogies of their works can be 
too gross or too often repeated. But here again recollect 
what is due to yourself. General and indiscriminate flat- 
tery may commit your sincerity and impeach your judg- 
ment. Every work, not wholly unworthy of notice (and 
with the author of such you will have no intercourse), has 
some particular point of merit. Seek out that, and even if 
you should hyperbolize a little, your discernment will be 
manifest in the selection, and the excess will be justly as- 
cribed to courtesy and good breeding. All such letters will 
some lime or other get into print! There is a dignified 
condescension which becomes your sex and your reputation. 

Put all my papers and manuscript books into some one 
box (you may get one made for the purpose, if you please), 
and leave it with Mrs. P., keeping yourself the key. Tell 
her, in a manner which she may or may not understand, 
that they are yours. Wille will do the labour for you. Set 
Amidi to hunt up a sloop for you. 

It does not appear to me that we can conveniently meet 
this evening, but certainly one whole night before separation. 
Make haste, in the mean time, to gather strength for the oc- 
casion. Your efforts on the late one were wonderful. God 
grant that they may not have wholly exhausted you. 

Just as I was writing to F. to summon him down to exe- 
cute the power of attorney, it occurs to me that Gamp, must 
be entitled to the whole in right of his wife. You will, for the 
first time in your life, acknowledge the justice of such ty- 
rannic laws. Don't cry, dear, for your loss. It would go 
to mar. A. Burr. 


Make publish, about the time you get these, that 

•Gamp, passed through that place on the — day of June, on 


his way to Canada, accompanied by one Frenchman and 
two Americans or Englishmen. On the same day Mrs. 
Alston passed through on her way for Saratoga, for her 
health (or some such thing). 

My dear creature, I regret sorely that we cannot meet 
this evening ; but, somehow and somewhere, to-morrow ab- 
solutely we will. 

Perfect arrangements are made for the grand Hegira, and 
all seems well. Sleep ; refresh and strengthen yourself. 

A. Burr. 

The memoranda of his voyage are merely brief notices 
of the wind and weather. The packet sailed for Halifax, 
where Colonel Burr received letters from Sir George Pre- 
vost to his mother in England and to Mr. Mallet in London. 
In his instructions to Cdl. Burr, Sir George says, " You may 
converse freely with Mr. Cooke." 

Government House, Halifax, June 20, 1808. 

You will allow the bearer (Mr. G. H. Edwards) to pro- 
ceed without delay from Falmouth to London ; the said G. 
H. Edwards having despatches for the Right Hon. Lord 
Castlereagh, at whose office he is immediately to present 
himself on his arrival in London. 

George Prevost. 

Collector of His Majesty's Customs, 1 
or who else it may concern. J 


Ballston, June 21, 1808. 

This is the commencement of my 26th year. After your 
departure, my dear brother, we were alarmed with a report 
that you had been taken by the French ; but as it was im- 
mediately contradicted, I yielded to my belief in the supe- 
riority of the English at sea, and to my reliance in the pro- 
tection of your friend Neptune. I am extremely anxious 

* Col. Burr. 


and impatient to hear from, and learn the particulars of your 
voyage. Never were hopes brighter than mine. To look 
on the gloomy side would be death to me, and without re- 
serve I abandon myself to all the gay security of a sanguine 

The ride here, though very fatiguing to me, was by no 
means as much so as you apprehended. The waters, as 
yet, have not been of material service, although I think my 
strength begins to increase. Ah, if I had but you to nurse 
me ! How good the tea was that you made. How tenderly 
were all my wishes anticipated, every inconvenience pre- 
vented. But do not imagine that my spirits are low, or that 
I am so weak as to wish you back. Do me more justice. 
I am cheerful always, and if my feeling ever amount to 
great gayety, your present voyage is the source of it. 

My lodgings here are very comfortable. The house, 
though a public boarding-house, is quiet and neat ; and I 
may truly say that my situation is as comfortable and 
pleasant as yourself could wish. I shall remain six weeks, 
as you advised, in the conviction that the waters must cure 
me, if you said so. Adieu. A. B. A. is well, and kisses 
you, as does your devotedly affectionate 

Mary Ann Edwards.* 

July 13. Arrived at Falmouth at eight P. M. Custom- 
house, &c. 

July 14. At nine P. M. took mail, with Capt. Gerrard of 
the Marines and Mr. Luscomb. Breakfast at Tinro. In- 
solence of landlord. Arrived at Exeter at nine P. M. 

July 15. Leave Exeter at four A. M. Breakfast at 

very bad and very disobliging. Luscomb leaves us. 

July 16. Arrived at half past six at London. Set down 
at Gloster Coffee-house. Piccadilly with Gerrard. Garret 
rooms. No breakfast till nine. Breakfast in coffee-room. 
Call on John Lewis Mallet — bien rem. On Reeves with 

* Theodosia. 


letter of Willot. His surprise — joy. On Castlereagh and 
Cooke. Out of town. Soir — opera — galere. 


London, July 19, 1608. 

I was deposited in this city on the 16th. Your absence 
is extremely distressing and embarrassing, as it is a contin- 
gency against which I had made no provision. Though the 
new state of things defeats, for the present, the speculations 
we had proposed, yet it opens new views, not less impor- 
tant. I have met courtesy and respect as far as I have 
moved, which is hitherto only in the threshold. You 
should have left me some letters of introduction, or instruc- 
tions more precise than those which our young friend has 
communicated. Perhaps the omission may be repaired if 
this should find you at the post from which your last was 

It was my good fortune to be fellow-passenger with 
Charles Alexander, a most amiable and interesting boy. 
His engaging manners and amiable temper endeared him 
to the whole ship's crew. I could relate you some anec- 
dotes of him which would charm and flatter you. He is 
under the immediate care of Mr. W. E. Hosack, a Scotch 
merchant of very respectable standing and character, who is 
established at New- York, and is now on his way to Scotland. 

You must not fail to advise me, from time to time, of your 
movements. In whatever I may engage, I shall invite you 
to participate. A. Burr. 

In London Col. Burr received from Col. Charles William- 
son the following letter : 


* Colonel Williamson was the brother of Lord Balgray, and was at one time 
the agent for the Pulteney estate in this country. He was early and fully advised 
of Colonel Burr's views in regard to Mexico. 


On board the Royal George, > 

Lord Collingwood, off Cadiz, June 19, 1808. £ 

My dear Sir, 
Just when under orders to embark, your letter, dated in 
April from New-York, reached me in England. That I may- 
be absent when you arrive is to me distressing. Unfor- 
tunately, the person who brought me your letter last winter 
was from London, and I could not see him. I, in that case, 
did the only thing left for me, and which I thought could be 
of use to us all, which was, to put it in your power to advise 
what means would most certainly prevent the French in the 
present crisis from having the command of the Floridas and 
Mexico. No man can give so valuable information as your- 
self; and the most unlimited confidence may be placed in 
those to whom I have suggested the information being given. 
From the person to whom such information will be accepta- 
ble, you will likely know where I am. Be assured nothing 
would be so grateful to me as to meet you there. 
With perfect regard, your friend, 

C. Williamson. 

On his arrival at Falmouth Col. Burr addressed the fol- 


July 13. 1808. 

At two P. M. we are within the harbour, and shall land 
about four o'clock. As all will then be bustle and hurry, I 
seizx the only moment which may be at my command to an- 
nounce this fortunate transit. I shall be at headquarters 
(two hundred and eighty miles) on the 16th. 

It was omitted in my last to say that 69 has given me let- 
ters to the two principal partners of the house of 70. 69's 
had not arrived. My health has been improved by the jour- 
ney. Communicate thus much to 71 and 72. 

Part of my clothes and many other articles were left (maps 


also), by whom or where I know not. Probably chez our 
dear enthusiastic Coz. Inquire for them and take them into 
your custody. This restraint is extremely painful, yet it 
must be endured for a few weeks. 

The above was written in the harbour of Falmouth, in the 
hope that we should find a packet just about to sail. It had 
sailed the day previous to our arrival. I left Falmouth at 
four o'clock on the morning of the 14th, in the mail, and ar- 
rived in London at six A. M., the 16th, being about fifty 
hours on the road. A. Burr. 

[Journal here becomes very defective.] 

July 26. Rode in stage to Weybridge to see Mrs. Pre- 
vost, about nineteen miles. Arrive at one P. M. Dine at 
Robson's with Hosack et ux. Madame Prevost — Constant 
et ux. Dinner very simple. After dinner, cards. Retire 
with Mrs. Prevost and Mrs. C. at eleven. Lodge at inn 
called The Ship. Mem. Picture of Sir George Prevost, 
painted by Miss de Tott, daughter of Baron de Tott, who 
now resides with the Margravine of Anspach. 

The following notes are the only memorials we find of 
Col. Burr's attempts to enlist the ministry in his plans : 

Mr. Cooke presents his compliments to Mr. Burr, and will 
be obliged if he would do him the honour of calling upon 
him to-morrow morning, at No. 1 North Row, Park Lane, 
about ten o'clock. 

Downing-street, July 18, 1808. 

Mr. Hammond presents his compliments to Mr. Burr, and 
has the honour to inform him that Mr. Canning will be happy 
to see him at No. 24 Burton-street, to-morrow forenoon at 
eleven o'clock. 

Downing-street, July 21, 1808. 

Vol. I.— B 

26 private journal 

I waited for you at Lord Castlereagh's office on Monday 
until four. On Tuesday I was particularly engaged. This 
day I am employed about a house for Mrs. Thorpe and fam- 
ily, but to-morrow evening I should be happy to meet you 
at seven o'clock at Story's Coffee-house. 

I hope your business is going on well. Believe me, with 
great respect, yours, &c, 

Robert Thorpe. 

Admiralty, Thursday morning, 10 o'clock, 
July 20, 1808. 


My dear Col., 
Lord Mulgrave will be glad to see you here at twelve 
o'clock. In haste, most truly yours, 

M. A. Gerrard. 


London, July 18, 1808. 

I hope you will find a leisure moment for perusing the 
enclosed. Col. Williamson's letters will afford you some 
interest, among the deal of matter relating to my passport. 
T. Wilson's letters, together with- my project, and the cor- 
respondence with Baring, will prove to you that I have been 

I forget if you saw Parish's letters. Mr. M. told me, 
indeed showed me a letter from Parish the day I sailed, in 
which he promised to forward other more useful letters; 
and this you will see recited in my letter to Baring. The 
letters for Paris, too, may not be amiss for you to see ; for 
we have a wide field before us, and the world's unsettled 
state may, in time, bring some of all these circumstances 
into notice. 

Thus much is presented to you for consideration when 
you can spare a moment from your own more serious con- 
cerns. And, my hopes having vanished, I am left without 


any other resource than upon your own superior view of 
things. Accordingly, as you shall advise, so shall I be at 

D. M. Randolph. 


1808. August 10. Declaration of Aaron Burr, an alien, 
taken before John Reeves, Esq., the 10th day of August, 

Declare, 1st, your name, age, place of birth, rank, occupa- 
tion or profession (the same in French). 

Aaron Burr, United States, rank of citizen, forty and 

2d, Your residence, when last in your own country. — 
New- York. 

3d, Your last arid principal residence before your arrival 
in this kingdom. — New-York. 

4th, To whom known in this kingdom, and the place of 
his or her residence. 

5th, For what reason or purpose are you come ? 

/ am known personally to Lord Mulgrave and Mr. Can- 
ning, to ivhom the motives to my visit have been declared. 
Those reasons have long been known to Lord Melville. 

6th, When and where did you land in this kingdom ? 
July. Falmouth. 

7th, Where you now reside, and have resided since your 
last arrival ? London, Craven-street, No. 30. 

Sign your name. 

The undersigned was born within the king's allegiance 
and his parents British subjects. 

A. Burr. 

1808. August 11. Received invitation from Jeremy Ben- 
tham inviting me to pass some days chez lui. 

13. Dr. Joseph Moore introduced me to Fuseli, to view 
Royal Academy. 



18. At nine this morning found my trunk. At ten got into 
the stage for Gadstone. To Croydon 10 miles, where waited 
two hours, and then hired postchaise to take me to Barrow 
Green, near Gadstone, 13 miles; in fact 12. Arrived there 
at four P. M. Found Jeremy Bentham, and his secretary J. 
Herbert Koe, waiting for me at the gate. Affectionate re- 
ception. Introduced to his "workshop" — license over his 

19 and 20. With Bentham at Barrow Green. 

21. Sunday. Returned to town. Took bed at 30 Craven- 

22. Lodged at Bentham's house at Queen's Place. Very 
kind reception by Madam Stoker. Wrote Bentham by mail 
this afternoon, and by baggage-wagon this evening. Letter 
from Beckett, first under secretary to Lord Hawkesbury, 
asking me to call on Friday last. 

24. Letter to D. M. Randolph to consult Marquis Iruko 
about J. Bentham's Tactics. At ten got into stagecoach 
for Croydon. Stopped to see the railway. Four horses 
were drawing sixteen wagons, each containing two tons 
fifteen hundred, equal to forty-four tons, being eleven tons 
to each horse. 

26, 27, 28, and 29. At Barrow Green. Amiable sim- 
plicity of J. Bentham. He was interested by the picture of 
Theo. "Dear little creature. Let her take care." Gave 
me a letter to General Bentham. 


Lansdown Place, August 9, 1808. 

I am desired by Mr. Reeves to request you will have 
the goodness to call upon him, at the alien office, to-morrow 
morning about twelve, in order that the needful may be 
done to comply with the alien regulations. 
I am, in great haste, yours, 

Thos. H. Mallet. 



Philadelphia, August II, 1808. 

Dear Sir, 

I stayed at New-Orleans from January to the 27th of 
June, with sufficient professional success to defray my ex- 
penses, but I clearly saw that, with twenty-two physicians 
in the place, I never should do more. Besides, the Ameri- 
cans shun me : and Clark himself, on his return, anxious to 
make his peace with his enemies, and causing the govern- 
or to be invited to a dinner which was given to Clark (who, 
of course, refused to come), rather avoided me ; wished me 
not to call on him, and came to see me by stealth. Dis- 
gusted with this state of things, I left the place and arrived 
in New-York a few days ago. On the passage I had an 
attack of a vile fever, something like the yellow fever. 
Dashing of sea water over me during the height of it has 
saved my life, of which my fellow-passengers despaired. 
Since my arrival here I have been seized with a quotidian 
intermittent, of which I am still suffering. I was glad, on 
my arrival at New-York, to learn that you had embarked 
for England, where I hope you will meet with a change of 

Madame Marigny I found consumptive on my arrival at 
New-Orleans, though none of her physicians would believe 
it. She became my patient when it was too late. On the 
approach of the mild season I sent her to sea, accompanied 
by her father and sister, for Philadelphia, because the em- 
bargo prevented a longer voyage, which would have been 
preferable. She mended at sea, but died a week after her 

In New-Orleans the usual apathy prevails among the 
original inhabitants as to rulers and masters. Judge Work- 
man, now practising as a lawyer, is the only man of energy, 
which is constantly excited in the old cause. His looks 
are steadfastly turned to the South. 


I intend to embark for Bordeaux as soon as my health is 
established, and from thence straight to proceed to my old 
friend whom I knew in England and in this country. If he 
is not quite changed by prosperity, to which I think him 
superior, I hope to obtain an advantageous employment 
in this part of the world, where, if the plans of Bonaparte 
in Spain are successful, there must be so much to be 
arranged and settled. 

William Maclure and Monsieur Volney in Paris will know 
of me. You know c'est un Sol brulant. I shall, of course, 
expect no communication from you, except by a perfectly 
safe personal conveyance. I have seen none of your friends 
yet, but shall call on Mr. Reckless, in Jersey. 

Leonora is now also here ; well and industrious. She 
has nearly finished a little novel, which will be read with 
avidity. She does not know of this opportunity, staying in 
the country. The bearer, Mr. Prime, a fellow-passenger of 
mine from New-Orleans, an Englishman, came half an hour 
ago to inform me that he should set off at twelve o'clock in 
the mail-stage for New-York, to go in the British packet, 
ready to sail. Yours, 

Erich Bollman. 

to samuel swartwout. 

Barrow Green, August 19, 1808. 

If I had nothing but amusement in view, this would be 
my residence for at least six months. Unless I should 
visit town on Sunday, which is not quite decided, my return 
will depend on the advice which may be received from and 
through you. 

The enclosed to Mr. Slade must be sent immediately on 
receipt of this. It contains an apology for not dining with 
him on Saturday (to-morrow). You would not be troubled 
with it if his number could be recollected. It may be 
known from Mr. Randolph or Mr. Hosack. Pray do not 


The key of the drawers which contain my papers is here- 
with enclosed. Please to select out Gould's Surveys of the 
Coast of Florida, four sheets. A map of North Carolina, 
four sheets. Map of Mexico, large sheet, manuscript. A 
map of certain roads, &c, on very thin paper. A map of 
the Lake Nicaragua, one sheet, manuscript. Two maps on 
common paper, and coarsely executed, very long and nar- 
row ; one of the river Chatahouche, the other of a route 
from Washington City to Mobile. A map of part of New- 
Orleans territory and Florida, manuscripts, thin paper. Let 
all these be rolled up in one roll, and on a round stick. The 
widest first, and so on. These, with anything else you may 
have to forward to me, must be put into the hands of Mrs. Sto- 
ker, at J. Bentham's house, Queen Square Place, Westmin- 
ster, by nine o'clock on Monday morning. This lady is Mr. 
Bentham's housekeeper. Ask at 30 Craven-street for let- 
ters for me. 

Write me the result of your breakfast, which is, I think, 
to take place on Sunday. It is still possible, not very prob- 
able, that I may be in town on Saturday evening. 

A. Burr. 


Barrow Green, August 21, 1808. 

Yesterday was transmitted to you a memorandum, to be 
communicated to the Marquis Iruko, on a subject which ap- 
peared to me to be at this moment of peculiar interest to 
his country. I have perused so much of the work* as satis- 
fies me of its very great merit. The usages in the ancient 
parliaments, and modern political and legislative assemblies 
of France, are contrasted with those of England ; their sev- 
eral defects demonstrated, and the true course pointed out 
in a manner the most conclusive and satisfactory. I speak 
with the more confidence on this subject, being one in which 
it is, in our country, believed that I possess superior knowl- 
edge. Of its very great importance, no one in the least 

* Tactics of Legislation. 


degree conversant with the transactions of public bodies 
can be unconscious. 

■It occurred to me, the moment the work came into my 
hands, that the marquis might be disposed in some way to 
give it the sanction of his name ; and thus, in rendering an 
important benefit to his country, at the same time recom- 
mend himself to the notice of the newly-organized authori- 
ties. I was led to this conclusion by other considerations 
which cannot here be detailed. If he should be disposed to 
take any interest in the translation and transmission of the 
work, and should desire an interview with me on the occa- 
sion, I will come to town for the purpose. 

To prevent any misapprehension of the motives, it is 
proper to add that Mr. Benlham is a man of independent 
fortune, and never desires nor seeks to derive any pecuniary 
emolument from his literary labours. His great work on 
morals and legislation, the only one on that subject extant 
in any language which merits the name of a system, has 
had an extensive sale in Spain, no less than seven hundred 
copies having been sold there, although that work is written 
in French. This information I have from his editor. Hence 
the name of Mr. Bentham must already be familiar to the 
reflecting men of that country; and, being known, must be 
admired and respected, almost to admiration, by those who 
are capable of estimating his worth. 

Please to communicate this without delay to the mar- 
quis, and to favour me with your answer. A. Burr. 


August 22, 1808. 

It has been my misfortune to attract the notice of Lord 
Hawkesbury. On my arrival in town last evening a note 
from that department was found at my lodgings, dated on 
Thursday last, requesting my attendance on the day then 
following at the office of secretary of state. I shall, there- 
fore, as in duty bound, advise them of my arrival, and of my 


readiness to lend a gracious ear to their farther requests. 
This business, whatever it may be (and I have a presenti- 
ment that it is for no good, having no business nor wishing 
to have any with that department), will unavoidably detain 
me to-morrow, and very likely the next day, of which I 
hasten to give you this notice. 

I called last evening at the Bird-Cage,* and handed your 
note to Mrs. S. Her reception gave me the most flattering 
testimony of the very friendly tenour of your instructions to 

Among the articles which you will receive to-morrow 
will be found a roll directed to me, which you are author- 
ized and required to open. It contains some articles which 
may assist in the cross-examination. Something farther will 
be brought by the deponent himself. The examination shall 
be had in the natural way. 

I called on the Spaniard. Had not the good fortune to 
find him home, but have taken measures to ensure an inter- 
view to-morrow. It is not possible that I should leave town 
without conferring with him on the subject proposed. Were 
Lord Hawkesbury out of question (would to God that he 
were !), this alone would detain me. God bless and pre~ 
serve you many years. A. Burr, 


Bird-Cage, 11 P. M., August 22, 1806. 

At nine P. M. possession was taken, by depositing the 
" rat-traps," and entry of their owner. Having before been 
only in the two rooms on the left, and barely looked into the 
garden, no idea had been formed of the extent and beauty of 
the premises. 

My first work was to hunt for the " Tactics." The book 
was presently found ; but my disappointment is very great 
that this volume contains only a part of the sixth essay. Of 
this, however, something will be said anon. 

* The city residence of Jeremy Bentham. 



The Hawkesbury affair turned out to be just nothing. If 
no other dignified personage should honour me with his no- 
tice, I shall dine with you on Wednesday. A. Burr. 


Craven-street, Strand, August 22, 1808. 

I wish to visit a friend at Weybridge, another at God- 
stone, and a third at Gaddesden. Those places being re- 
spectively about nineteen miles from London. If it should 
be necessary that permission should be had for journeys of 
this extent, I pray that you will be so good as to transmit me 
what may be deemed necessary. A. Burr. 

LLLLLLDLL August 22, 1808. 

What you mention will be wanted ; and if you will send 
me your license, I will do it myself. I think I may take 
that upon me, because I have had no answer to the letter I 
wrote and put into your hands. I suppose it was delivered. 

I go out of town early to-morrow. So I beg of you to 
send me your license this evening. Yours truly, 

J. Reeves. 


Great Marlboro'-street, August 25, 1808. 

Letters of the superscription you describe are certainly in 
my hands, and I am to entreat you will enable me to give 
them up with propriety, considering that I have not the 
honour of knowing you. 

To me this caution appears necessary when I reflect that 
the political and personal enemies of Col. Burr might not 
look on the Atlantic as an obstacle to their persecution ; 
but endeavour surreptitiously to obtain, even on this side the 
water, communications certainly confidential, probably in 
their nature important. 

The impression of high respect for Col. Burr's talents 


which I have received from Col. Williamson would not 
have the tendency of throwing me off my guard. 

Charles •mith. 

to mrs. prevost.* 

Barrow Green, near Godstone, August 27, 1808. 

After the lapse of ten days, it is time to avail myself of 
your license, and to give some account of myself. 

You may recollect that I left your house to travel to 
London en philosophe, or rather en pelerin. After walking 
three or four miles, the good fortune of procuring a chaise 
enabled me to reach town in season to fulfil my engagement 
to Mallet. I met there, besides former acquaintances, Mrs. 
Young, a very engaging women, and Miss C. Baring, a fine, 
animated, sensible girl, who amused me very much. It 
happened that I was out of talking distance of Mrs. Young. 
They are both sisters of Mr. M. 

On the day following I came to this place, the summer 
residence of Mr. Bentham. He received me with something 
more than hospitality. After assigning to me my apartment, 
he led me immediately into what he calls his "workshop" 
(a spacious room, fitted up with great convenience for his 
purposes), showed me his papers, and gave me an unquali- 
fied privilege to read anything and at any time. It was im- 
possible to have given me a more flattering mark of confi- 
dence. We pass about six hours a day in our separate 
rooms, and the residue together — hitherto without ennui. 
Mr. Bentham loses nothing by being seen and known. I 
have daily new reason to admire the amazing extent and 
acuteness of his mind ; but I am most agreeably surprised 
to find that he is frank and social in his temper, cheerful 
even to playfulness : qualities extremely rare in men habitu- 
ated to intense intellectual labour. 

On Thursday (the 30th) I shall go to town, under a sort 
of half engagement, however, to return immediately, and 

* The mother of Sir George Prevost, 


pass the next month here — an engagement which most 
probably, I may say certainly, will not be performed. I 
have, or ought to have, something else to do besides philoso- 
phizing at Barrow Green. What that something is cannot 
be said, not being exactly known even to myself. But in 
truth, my friend, I have no plan, nor will any be adopted 
till I have seen you. Blessings on you for all your goodness. 

Your letter to Mrs. M. was sent, together with my card, 
the morning of my leaving town. Nothing has been heard 
from her ; nor, indeed, has it been possible, seeing my ab- 
sence, though I have been one night in town ; but it was at 
the house of my philosophic friend, and merely to hunt there 
for papers. 

I pray to be kept in the recollection of the Gunns. It 
would gratify me to hear the denouement, or sequel, if any 
there was, of our fete champetre. 

Accept assurances of my devotion and respect. 

A. Burr. 


Barrow Green, August 27, 1808. 

Your letter of the 25th has been received at this place, 
whither I had come on a visit to a friend. 

It is impossible that I should not approve the caution 
which governs you with regard to my letters. In order to 
give you the most perfect satisfaction of which the subject 
is susceptible, I would propose a personal interview. For 
this purpose I will be in London on Monday evening, and 
will call on you on Tuesday or Wednesday, at any hour and 
place you may find convenient, either in town or country. 

A. Burr. 


Sunday, P. M., August 28, 1808. 

Since writing to you this morning, I have laid my hands 
on a printed abstract of the work in question, and herewith 


enclose it to be shown to the marquis. It will give a better 
idea of the nature of the work than the perusal of any de- 
tached part. The reputation and known ability of the author 
are a sufficient guarantee for the execution. You may leave 
it with the marquis, if he shall appear to desire it, from a 
wish to promote the publication ; but you must be very 
careful to stipulate for the return of this sheet; to be re- 
turned Tuesday morning. Mr. Dumont, a literary man of 
some note, has been for some time employed in making, 
and has now completed, an abridgment of the work, having 
selected such parts only as, in his opinion, might be imme- 
diately useful to and necessary for the Cortez. Of the merit 
of Mr. D.'s performance I cannot speak, not having seen it; 
but, from what I have seen of his labours in a similar way, 
have no doubt but he has executed this with ability. Of the 
original work you have already my opinion. 

A. Burr. 


Queen's Place, September 1, 1808. 

There is no longer a hope of the patronage, nor even of 
the good-will of the Don for any improvement in Political 
Tactics. The horrors of innovation have invaded him. 
" The Cortez must, and ought to, and will proceed in its own 
way, and according to its ancient usages. The attempt to 
instruct it by the example of foreign assemblies, especially 
of any so tainted with democratic infection as those of 
France at one lime, and those of England at all times, would 
be odious and alarming," &c, &c. 

It is a task, one would think, of no great difficulty, to dis- 
criminate between the forms which preserve decorum and 
dignity, and facilitate the attainment of an end, and those 
changes in principle which may either impair or extend the 
power, or vary the objects of an institution. If similar ap- 
prehensions, and they would be equally rational, should ob- 
struct their improvement in military tactics, God help the 


patriots of Spain. The truth is, my friend has an interest, 
a deep and imperious personal interest, in the perpetuation 
of abuse. How would you reason against fifty thousand 
dollars per annum ? Only by holding out the prospect of 
one hundred thousand, which I fear neither you nor I can do 
just now. Les commissaires will nevertheless, it is hoped, 
be free from the influence, if not wholly from the prejudices, 
of this new patriot. 

Dumont arrived this evening, as I was told, at his lodg- 
ings. He being abroad, we did not meet. The hourly ex- 
pectation of seeing him has prevented me from going either 
to Hampton or to Gaddesden. 

In the recital of that tale of a tub, to which you listened 
with so much politeness, it was asserted that the chief jus- 
lice of a colony had forged a record for the malicious pur- 
pose of vexing an individual, whom he had in vain attempted 
to criminate. The letter of Harding, then referred to, is 
herewith enclosed. By-the-by, I am a little out of humour 
with you for having extolled that long idle tale, and a good 
deal so with myself for having yielded to the friendly du- 
ress. A man is ever ridiculous when he talks of himself. 
There are, indeed, two or three exceptions. This case, how- 
ever, does not fall within either of them, but is exposed to 
the full force of the rule. I have vowed vengeance for this 
degradation. A. Burr, 


Queen's Place, September 2, 1808. 

I have transmitted your letter to General Bentham, and 
said that I would call on him to-morrow. On Monday my 
Gaddesden engagement will be fulfilled. Tuesday and 
Wednesday will be employed in making up my despatches 
for North America. Then, if the Political Tactics should 
not detain me, I shall hasten to ramble with you through 
the fields of Barrow Green. 

Dumont has not called. It is with reluctance that I shall 



leave town without having seen him. Yet it is probable that 
I can be of no use in the business he has in hand. Impo- 
tent zeal is only an annoyance. 

Turnerelli refuses to give or sell me a bust without your 
order. Will you be pleased to send me such order for one 
or two, as he and I may agree, paying, &c. ? One I must 
have for your little friend and admirer, Theodosia. 

I found readily the letters to Lord Pelham and the Plea 
for the Constitution, and have read them with very great in- 
terest ; but it gave me a fever to see by what sort of reasons 
the project was defeated. The particular items, indeed, do 
not appear, yet the nature of those reasons is sufficiently 
manifest. These letters are a gross libel on the govern- 
ment ; and if you had developed the details, I think it prob- 
able you would have made a practical experiment on the 
doctrines of Pitt and Portland by a voyage to New South 
"Wales. I am resolved that the Panopticon shall be known 
in America. It will appear incredible to you that I should 
never have even heard of it till I read the sketch contained 
in Dumont's book, about three years ago. Such is the fact. 

What a mass of papers there are on the Scotch reform. 
Is the letter to Lord Grenville an abridgment of the whole, 
or of a small part only ? A very idle question, when the pa- 
pers are before me ; the quantity has discouraged me from 
even looking into them. I have not been up stairs to look 
for the Tactics, nor do I propose it till the work of Dumont 
shall have been seen. It will be as incomprehensible to 
you as it is to myself, that, since my return to town, I have 
not had time for any (i.e.), for any useful employment. By 
the help of God, and of you, we will reform. 

A. Burr. 



Queen's Place, September 2, 1808. 

Col. Burr presents respectful compliments; encloses a 
letter for General Bentham ; will have the honour of calling 
on the general to-morrow, and, if he should be found disen- 
gaged, will take dinner with him enfamille. If any apology- 
should be deemed necessary for this freedom, Col. Burr 
throws himself on Mr. Jeremy Bentham, by whom it has 
been authorized. 


Wey bridge, September 1, 1808. 

I began to fear that you had returned to the antipodes, 
dear sir, when your welcome letter informed me of your de- 
sirable situation. I applied to the Achauds. They said you 
was gone out of town ; had changed your lodgings, and did 
not know your address. The arrival of the packet made 
me more anxious. I had no letters from my son, Sir George, 
by the last Halifax mail, but my daughter-in-law, Mrs. James 
Prevost, received one from him, date the 31st of July, when 
he was preparing, with Sir J. B. Warren, to go to various 
parts of Nova Scotia, in a tour, which was to last three 
weeks, at the expiration of which, he flattered himself, his 
family would arrive, which unfortunately cannot be, having 
only sailed from Portsmouth on the 17th ult. 

I trust to your promise of visiting Weybridge soon, where 
you will meet Mr. and Mrs. Barnett. The Gunns have en- 
joyed a whole week of happiness during the Eghorn races, 
where they went every day. The fetes ended with a ball, 
to which the Duchess of York presided, the Dukes of York 
and Cumberland having been the stewards. I suppose they 
met the other duke, though I have not heard it, and he has 
not been here since ; et je suis privee du plaisir de vous 
donner le dniouement de la piece. Mrs. Mallet, of Briam- 
ton-street, has lamented her absence from it when you left 


your card. She was then in Hert's, and is now in London. 
I believe alone, for everybody is out of it. You will find it 
deserted at your return. The general war to partridges be- 
gins to-day. Some unexpected visiters obliges me to con- 
clude, and gives me only time to assure you of the sincere 
best wishes of A. Prevost. 


Queen's Place, September 3, 1808. 

As I went out on my way to Hempstead (very true, I had 
like to have gone to Hampton) I met Koe at the gate with 
your letter, covering that of Dumont, which have been has- 
tily perused and cannot now be answered, seeing that I have 
announced myself to your brother, and have not a minute to 
spare. Immediately on my return you shall hear from me. 

The headache has passed off. Your Lord Pelham letters 
must have given it to me. At this instant Dumont is an- 

He has kept me half an hour, and now waits below to 
walk with me. He thinks his work so imperfect that some 
months will be necessary to complete it for translation. All 
nonsense ; but we (D. and I) are to meet at dinner to-mor- 
row. Till when, adieu. •» A. Burr. 


Queen's Place, September 7, 1808. 

Your brother received me with that frankness and kind- 
ness which puts one at ease. Your advice about transmit- 
ting the letter and consulting the females had been antici- 
pated ; but the journey, as to the objects of business, turned 
out much like that of the philosopher's who had permission 
to pass three days in Heaven for scientific purposes. He 
happening to be occupied at the moment of my arrival, I 
fell in with the children, with whom I was so charmed that 
I paid very little attention to him. I never saw a more love- 
ly family, nor by any approach so well brought up. I got 


so much in favour with them that they were all willing to 
come off with me to make a visit to uncle. They have 
nearly recovered from the whooping-cough. Mrs. B. is still 
confined with it to her chamber, so that I did not see her. 
He seems almost to have forgotten the Panopticon. Thinks 
there are some drawings which he promised to search for, 
and also for a copy of the parliamentary proceedings on the 

Now, to come back to Dumont, with whom you left me 
at the close of my last. As we were walking through the 
Park I took occasion to urge the necessity of despatch in the 
matter of the Tactics. He stopped short, and, putting his 
hand on my shoulder, exclaimed, with a good deal of anima- 
tion, " Why, you are just like Bentham, always in such a 
hurry !" &c, and thence, all the way to Henham Court 
Road, for he had the complaisance to walk so far with me, 
he lectured me on the folly of precipitation. 

I had not yet seen his work, nor had he proposed to show 
it to me, though I had given some broad hints, and had very 
modestly intimated my wish to be useful. (By-the-by, he 
seems to have no idea of my being able to be of any sort of 
use, in which, no doubt, he is right ; but mum of that.) So 
T called on him very early Monday morning, determined to 
get sight of his book, and, if possible, to get possession of it. 
I did get sight of it, and turned over the leaves for half an 
hour; but when I began to contrive how I might get the 
reading of it, he said that we should be here all the winter, 
and I could then read it at my leisure ! He has a long list 
of omissions, made with the aid of some friend of yours (I 
suppose Romilly), from which he read several items. Some 
of them appeared to me important; but whether the neces- 
sary ideas and instructions to those points might not be found 
in other parts of the work, I am ignorant. At any rate, they 
might be supplied in eight days. Upon the whole, I am 
nearly in despair as to doing anything in what I deem the 
most seasonable time. 


He (Dumont) had procured for me (it must have been 
him) a friendly invitation from the ladies of Holland House 
to dine that day (Monday), and thither he enticed me to go, 
instead of going to Gaddesden, as in duty bound. Nothing 
was said of the Tactics. One thing I learned, however, 
which gratified my spleen a little, viz., that the Don is not 
in favour with his compatriots, les commissaires, nor has in 
the slightest degree their confidence. His apostacy is there- 
fore the less to be regretted. 

I engage to defend you, penna et pugnis, against Dumont's 
gods ; and if, as is to be expected, I should take my flight 
before you, Theodosia shall do it forme (not pugnis). How 
her little heart will swell with pride when she shall receive 
your message with the " combustibles !" If some one of 
them could be addressed to her with your own hand, it 
would descend in the family like an heirloom. 

You are not to reply to this. Dispensation is hereby 
given. Nay, more, I prohibit all or any reply. Yet, if any 
commission is to be executed, so far you are licensed. This 
goes per coach with Townsend. By mail I shall say some- 
thing of myself, if any discoveries should be made on that 
head. Don't be alarmed ; no more scrawls of this length, I 
promise you ; but in this wilderness I am in a constant state 
of stupefaction, inanity, and confusion. I do nothing that 
I intend, and, what is worse, do many things not intended, 
and better let alone. No hope of cure but in Bedlam or 
Barrow Green. I ask your prayers. 

Your draught on your nieces was duly, and promptly, and 
cheerfully honoured and paid. We adopted the practice of 
drawing and redrawing, which you know is a fund inex- 
haustible. A. Burr. 


London, September 8, 1808. 

Your letter was most welcome ; but it was very perverse 
of you to address to Godstone when I told you I should be 


here on the 30th August. Thus have I been kept out of it 
till this day. Mrs. A.'s story of my having changed lodgings 
is all a fable. No. 30 Craven-street is still my address. 

It affords me great pleasure to hear that Sir George is 
well, and is making a tour of pleasure, for such his journey 
through Nova Scotia will be, I can assure you. If Lady 
Prevost shall postpone her voyage for a fortnight, she will 
sail in the very best season of the year. 

I have seen Mrs. Mallet, and was very glad to find her 
so well preserved and in such good spirits. This is another 
evidence of the superiority of your climate over ours. Your 
friend Miss M. (Catharine, I think, is her name) will be here 
on Wednesday next, an epoch which I anticipate with great 
satisfaction. It is understood that you have invited her to 
pass some time with you, and, from what Mrs. M. said, she 
will be disposed to avail herself very promptly of the invi- 
tation. Now, if you will only order her to come under my 
protection, our party is made. I have already tendered 
myself as her escort. 

In obedience to a friendly invitation from Lady Holland 
and Lady Affleck, I dined at Holland House on Monday 
last. I like much their establishment, which, however, I 
should judge not to be altogether English. You perceive 
that you are, malgr6vous, to be the depository of all my 
trifling incidents and remarks. 

My time, for the residue of this week, will be employed 
in writing to America by a vessel which will sail from this 
port for New- York on Monday. On that day I shall visit 
my philosophic friend at Barrow Green. Return to town 
on Thursday to meet Miss M., and to obey such orders as 
you may deign to give, being, with entire respect, your de- 
voted servant, A. Burr. 



London, September 8, 1808. 

My letter by the August packet will have prepared you 
to expect nothing very interesting. Yet, were it not for the 
restraints under which I write (the uncertainty of letters), you 
should at least be amused ; but even this satisfaction is de- 
nied by the apprehension of frauds and accidents. My 
journal would now be sent, but for these reasons. Have 
patience, and I will pay thee all. 

Once more I crave your indulgence for all those little in- 
cidents which are an index to the feelings, the habits, and the 
pursuits of the moment. You shall have them, and the 
volume will not be small. At present we must be content 
with generals. 

Immediately on my arrival I became domesticated in the 
houses of Mrs. Prevost (mother of Sir George), of Achaud, 
and of Mallet. Mrs. Achaud is niece of the late Col. Prevost, 
and, of course, first cousin to Frederic* Mallet is about 
second cousin. His wife, a very young woman, lately mar- 
ried, is sister of that Mr. Baring who married in South Caro- 
lina : handsome, intelligent, and amiable. Mrs. Prevost and 
Achaud are ladies of very superior understanding and knowl- 
edge of the world. Madame Constant is the eldest daughter 
of Achaud. She married, perhaps ten years ago, Mr. Con- 
stant, a man of talents and of very considerable acquire- 
ments, and who has resided in every quarter of the globe. 
Madame Prevost resides altogether in the country at Wey- 
bridge, nineteen miles from London. The houses of 
Achaud and Mallet are frequented by literary men, and for- 
eigners of literary fame or acquirements. Madame Con- 
stant is a most striking likeness of that lovely angel Anne 
Louise. At my first visit to this family I was ignorant of 
its connexion with that of Prevost. When Madame Con- 

* Son of Mrs. Burr by her first husband, and a resident of Westchester county, 


stant entered, I was astonished and affected to a degree 
which you only can conceive. A. Burr. 


London, September 10, 1808. 

Here is work indeed. Look and read for yourself. This 
precious and very singular document, now here enclosed, was 
received this evening, Saturday, September 10, A. D. 1808. 
Mr. Nicholas has not yet gone, but does positively go at five 
to-morrow morning. What is to be done with the fire-irons 
and the wheel ? Mrs. Stoker (our housekeeper), perceiving 
the very great importance which these articles had suddenly 
acquired, has put up the fire-irons (shovel, tongs, and poker, 
all made of steel, yet lighter than wood) in a snug box, which 
she got made for the purpose ; having first covered them 
with a paste, which she says will for ever prevent rust. 
"What to do with the wheel, which is about twenty-six inches 
diameter, passes all our skill. If there were lime we might 
meditate and contrive. Unfortunately, however, it will be 
quite impracticable to get either one or the other on board of 
this vessel, and you must, therefore, be hung up in suspense 
for one month. 

Now, what if this ship should be sunk or taken ? To be 
sure, I might ensure both the letter and the wheel ; but 
what sum in money could compensate the actual loss ! A 
little explanation is necessary to enable you to understand 
the first part of the letter of Mr. Bentham. In answer to his 
letter of the third, I wrote him that you would be so proud 
of books written by him, and by him specially given to your- 
self, that they would be handed down in the family to the 
latest posterity like an " heirloom ;" for what is an heirloom, 

see Blackstone, or Jacob's Law Dictionary. 

A. Burr. 

Friday, September 9. 

It is even so. When one has nothing to do, one finds no 
time to do anything. A few lines which went yesterday 


with the mail for the packet, will inform you that I am oc- 
cupied about you; but I almost regret to have sent that let- 
ter, as it will make you expect more than I shall perform. 
I can only give you, at this time, some of the dramatis per- 

At the three houses above mentioned I have met inter- 
esting persons of both sexes, of several of whom you will 
learn more hereafter. I hasten to make you acquainted with 
Jeremy Bentham, author of a work entitled Principles of 
Morals and Legislation (edited in French by Dumont), and of 
many other works of less labour and research. You will 
well recollect to have heard me place this man second to no 
one, ancient or modern, in profound thinking, in logical and 
analytic reasoning. On the 8th of August I received a let- 
ter from him, containing a most friendly invitation to come 
and pass some days with him at a farm (where he passes the 
summer) called Barrow Green, near Godstone, and twenty 
miles from London. I was not tardy in profiting of this in- 
vitation. He met me at the gate with the frankness and af- 
fection of an old friend. 

Mr. Bentham's countenance has all that character of in- 
tense thought which you would expect to find ; but it is im- 
possible to conceive a physiognomy more strongly marked 
with ingenuousness and philanthropy. He is about sixty, 
but cheerful even to playfulness. I have passed twelve 
days there, and shall return to-morrow, to stay, most prob- 
ably, till he shall return to town. His house in the city, 
which I now occupy solely and exclusively (N. B., three ser- 
vants in the house at my command), is most beautifully sit- 
uated on St. James's Park, with extensive gardens, and built 
and fitted up more to my taste than any one I ever saw. In 
his library I am now writing. 

By this time you will begin to wonder whether we ever 
talk of you. Not a little, as you will see. In a letter of the 
third instant he writes : " Make up, if you can find room, for 
my dear little Theodosia, a packet of all my combustibles 


that you can find, viz., Panopticon ; Hard-labour Bill ; Pel- 
ham's Letters and Plea for the Constitution ; Poor Manage- 
ment: Judicial Establishment ; Political Tactics and Eman- 
cipation ; Hard Labour ! Tactics, Emancipation, and Hard- 
labour Bill not being otherwise than in sheets, unsorted 
and unsewed ; but there is not any one on whom the labour 
can be shifted off." Thus you see you are to possess his 
works by his own special gift. Hard labour I have found 
it, I assure you. This whole day have I been occupied in 
the search, and have found only a part. But some others of 
his works, particularly Les Principes de Legislation, &c, 
herewith sent, will atone for the delay of others. He (Mr. 
Bentham) has somehow heard that 61* had read and ad- 
mired this work. 

I am very much charmed with his Panopticon ; and as the 
State of South Carolina is just now about to erect a peniten- 
tiary, it would undoubtedly adopt his system if seasonable 
knowledge was given of it. At the close of the third volume 
of Les Principes Traites de Legislation you will find a 
summary of the plan. Lest, however, the instructions re- 
specting the building should not be sufficiently minute to 
give a perfect idea of it to an ordinary capacity, I will, by 
the next ship, send some plates or drawings which will sup- 
ply the deficiency. You must send to Mr. Alston! what 
you may suppose sufficient to enlighten him, and tell him to 
make use of the knowledge at the next session. I presume 
that he continues to be a member. 

By the next ship, also, I shall send you a bust of Mr. 
Bentham, a very good representation of him, but has not 
the force of the original. Still you will admire it; and so 
you ought, for you may rank him among your admirers. I 
could fill a little volume, and one which you would find 
amusing, with anecdotes, &c, of this great and amiable 
man, which have fallen within my own knowledge — Ben- 

* Colonel Burr. 

t Joseph Alston, Theodosia's husband. 


thama?ra. Don't you hate anas ? So do I ; yet I have just 
bought one, which shall be sent with Bentham's bust. 

I have not vet learned how to get things in London. It 
has cost me fifty miles' walking to get something for you 
and the boy. We shall learn and do better. A History of 
England and a picture are all I can now send him. To 
you, the only offering is the very few books and pamphlets 
of which a list is annexed ; and I am extremely apprehensive 
that the whole, even those of Bentham, will be left, for the 
ship has gone down the river, and, of course, has cleared out, 
and the captain may be scrupulous of taking anything which 
can be called " merchandise." If you should not receive 
them, you will know to what to ascribe it. This letter will 
be closed before I can know it; indeed, it must be closed 
now, for I am tired. 

Bless us ! what unpardonable negligence. It quite es- 
caped my recollection to tell you that sent for me. 

I did condescend to go, and dined with them. All very, 
very we'l ; but of this more by-and-by. 

Your little letter of the 20th June is received — the only 
one. It only increases my solicitude for another. Did that 
doctor come whom I ordered, on pain of death, to call on 
you ? What nonsense to ask questions across the Atlantic ! 

If I should not write to E. .A by this vessel, pray keep 
peace for me. Acknowledge the receipt of a letter of July 
16 from New-York. A most amiable and pleasing letter. 
When people want to flatter me they talk of you, and they 
never fail. Don't be surprised that nothing is said of X* in 
this letter, either near or remote. This world affords a va- 
riety of occupations. While we both live we can be at no 
loss for some one that is useful and agreeable. Tell me 
what your boy is about, that I may know what to send him. 

I send you a reply to the Anti-vaccinists by James Moore. 
He is son of Moore the traveller, and brother to General 
Moore ; a man of wit, intimate at Achaud's and Mallei's. 

* Mexico. 

Vol. I.— C 


Has been very civil to A. B. When read, give or lend the 
pamphlet to Dr. Hosack. Mitford on Harmony in Language. 
This is your old friend the Grecian. I bought it from the 
title and his name. Have not read it. 

A. Burr. 


Queen's Square Place, September 12, 1808. 

She will run mad, no doubt — stark mad ; but your orders 
are obeyed. The letter is gone, the fire-irons, " combus- 
tibles," and all ; all, save the wheel, which, the ship being 
at Gravesend, defied all reasonable package and storage ; but 
it has been announced, and it must go if a ship be chartered, 
for the purpose, or the boy will run mad too. The bust, to 
my great regret, remains ; or, rather, it is not yet in esse. 
Your Jew requires three weeks. He has not been Jewish 
to me. Till now, Monday, September 12, I could not get 
time to relate these important trifles. The passengers went 
down on Sunday. How my time for these three days has 
been employed (wasted), and with how much labour, vexa- 
tion, and inutility, would be ridiculous to write. 

Saturday, indeed, was a day of great and useful occupa- 
tion. I mounted to the housetop to see the state of the 
combustibles. On the way beat out my brains against the 
stove-pipe. After viewing the subject, descended to put on 
an appropriate dress. On ascending, a second brain beating : 
• a third blow will, I think, bring down the pipe, if the scull 
should stand it. My labours were, however, crowned with 
success. After all, there are only six numbers of the Judi- 
ciary. No title-pages for the Panopticon could be found. 
My set (that which you gave me at Barrow Green) were, 
therefore, sent to her. During the process up stairs I be- 
stowed some curses on J. H. Koe, but they were harmless, 
being issued under I he influence of that brain beating. They 
have been recalled, and are turned into gentle admonition to 
have things put in better order. Only to think, in that chaotic 


mass, covered wilh cobwebs and dirt, I discovered a large 
parcel very neatly lied up, purporting, from its endorsement, 
to be the journal and letters of General Benlham from Rus- 
sia ! Nut knowing but there might be some mystical and 
hidden method, intelligible onlv to you and to Koe, in that 
which appeared to me horrid confusion, I replaced the parcel 
as nearly as possible in the spot where it was found ; but 
the precious antique dust I could not replace, a great por- 
tion of it being transferred to my person. On my descent 
one might have taken me for a coal-heaver, by the drapery, 
if not by the form. 

The same day, Saturday, I went out to Holland's, intending 
to ascertain whether, in truth, he took any interest in the 
Tactics. He not being at home, there's an end to that; for 
you know it would be a violation of English etiquette if I 
should repeat the visit before he should, by some equivalent 
act on his part, have manifested a desire to continue in force 
the treaty of amity and commerce. I shall now, before 
leaving town, make Dnmont, by a letter, a proposition for 
expediting the publication. Of this we will talk; the plan 
requiring your ratification and something more, not much, 
to be operative. " We will talk," and when ? Nothing now 
occurs which can put it beyond Wednesday ; but this letter 
will be retained till I can speak confidently. I am now 
going to Hempstead. 

P. M. More bad luck ; the general is away in Kent, and 
the day of his return uncertain. I left a line repeating my 
wishes on the Panopticon matter. Madame sa femme est 
toujours le meme. The children quite recovered ; they 
loaded me with kisses and kind greetings for you. 

New cause of delay ! Gods, how weary I am of delays ! 
My soul is with you at Barrow Green, and the mortal part of 
me would follow it, if not kept back by violence. But can T, 
ought I to disappoint poor Swartwoul ? On my return from 
Hempstead I find here a letter from him, written at Liver- 
pool, whither I had sent him to do something for himself, 

C 2 


seeing no prospect that I should be able to do anything for 
him. This is that Swartwout who was seized, robbed, 
transported two thousand miles, immured in a solitary prison, 
denied the use of pen, ink, and paper; denied a habeas- 
corpus, not allowed to speak with a human being, and all on 
suspicion of being connected with one who was suspected of 
an intention to commit a crime. This he bore with some- 
thing more dignified than mere passive firmness. This 
Swartwout writes ; but here is the letter, read and pronounce 
(my apotheosis is now put off till Thursday certain). " The 
influence of your name /" He too must be mad ; but then, 
as I am the leading cause of it, he has claims to my indul- 

I had something more to say, but your letter, received last 
evening, has put it all out of my head. I am oppressed by 
your goodness. Yet, if I should be serious, I might incur 
your reproaches. Everything shall be answered orally on 
Friday. Expect me at dinner. Another letter from Swart- 
wout puts off his arrival " till Thursday or Friday ;" but your 
demand is irresistible, and shall be obeyed. 

My letter to Theodosia charged her specially on the Pa- 
nopticon, which I hope to introduce immediately in South 
Carolina. The Northern States have already formed their 
establishments. All I have said to you of Theodosia was 
in good earnest. A. Burr. 


Weybridge, September 15, 1808. 

This is the day fixed for your return to town, and I hope, 
ere long, the one selected to visit Weybridge, where I shall 
be happy to see you when convenient and agreeable to you. 
Dear sir, the sooner the better. I have informed C. Mallet 
of your wish, and mine of rendering the journey pleasant, 
by performing it together. I addressed my invitation to B. 
street, and have sent it by a friend's servant, who, perhaps, 


has neglected it. You will clear up the business, and do me 
the favour to forward the enclosed. 

I long to hear from Halifax, and to have your opinion of 
the European affairs. If you have none in London, it must 
be a disagreeable place at this time of the year. The father 
of the Gunns is here. I have not yet seen him. He is a 
true Paddy, I am told. His daughters are me plais pas. 
Have you heard any account of yours by the last arrival ? 
Remember to bring her picture. Believe me sincerely 
yours, &c., A. Prevost. 


Barrow Green, September 19, 1808. 

This lime it is my fault that your letter was not sooner 
received. You ought to have been informed of my move- 
ments, and on leaving town I felt some reproaches for hav- 
ing neglected to do it. The fact is, that, having by various 
trifles been detained in town till Monday of last week, I 
thought it best to wait the arrival of Miss C. Mallet, who 
had written that she would be at home on Wednesday. On 
that day she actually came, and I saw her on Thursday morn- 
ing; but I was disappointed on learning that she had no 
thought of going immediately to Weybridge, and that she 
proposed to write to you and to wait your answer. I there- 
fore resolved to improve the interval to fulfil my engage- 
ment to my amiable philosophic friend at this place. Ac- 
cordingly, hither I came on Friday. First, however, my 
services were tendered in all form, though, in truth, without 
any form, to Miss C, to escort her any day and how she 
might command. She condescended to gratify my wishes 
in this particular, and engaged to give me written notice of 
the day, and I am now here impatiently waiting her orders. 
I shall write to her by this mail, lest your message should 
not have been conveyed to her. 

The appearance of Miss C. is more prepossessing than 
you had led me to expect. Her person is graceful and 


comely ; a countenance full of intelligence and sensibility. 
I am in great hopes that we shall not ennuyer each other 
between London and Wey bridge. 

You have doubtless before this time been made happy by 
very recent letters from Halifax, as the mail of a packet 
which had a remarkable short passage arrived in London on 
Thursday. My letters are, unfortunately, under cover to a 
gentleman who is absent ; a most vexatious circumstance. 
I hope to be able to get at ihem on my return to town, and 
to bring you some account of my daughter. 

The news from Portugal has been the subject of great 
rejoicings; at least of much noise of cannon, drums, &c, 
in town. My feelings do not concur with these expressions 
of joy. I had hoped for something belter. I am afraid to 
express, or even to indulge the conclusions which force 
themselves on my mind. It is possible that circumstances 
of which we are ignorant may justify the proceedings ; but 
Junot* is certainly an able negotiator, whatever he may be 
as a general. I shall endeavour to gather more details on 
my way through town, and bring them out for your amuse- 

No mode has yet occurred in which your letter can be 
forwarded to Geneve. I will consult the Achauds and 
Dumont. Your letter of the 15th was received last evening. 

A. Burr. 

* The allusion is to the Convention of Cintra (in Portugal), where General 
Junot, by his negotiation with Sir Hugh Dalrymple, the commander-in-chief of 
the British forces, frustrated all the advantages which had been gained over the 
French in the field by Lord Wellington. Colonel Burr's view of the matter sin- 
gularly agrees with that which Byron afterward expressed in his Childe Harold, 
where he says of the Convention, 

" It turn'd a nation's shallow joy to gloom, 
When lolly dash'd to earth the victor's plume. 
And policy regain'd what arms had lost." 



Barrow Green, September 19, 1808. 

As you are very near Somerset House, and will pass it 
every hour in the day, I insist that you step in and pay one 
guinea for a license to wear hair-powder for Henry G. Ed- 
wards.* Make haste hither; but do not come without my 
letters. A. Burr. 


Barrow Green, September 19, 1808. 

A letter received last evening from our amiable friend, 
Mrs. Prevost, informs me that she has repealed her invita- 
tion to you, through the servant of a friend, and has recom- 
mended that we (you and 1) perform the journey together. 
Whether the journey to Weybridge merely, or any longer 
and more important one is the object of her recommenda- 
tion, does not very distinctly appear ; but this we shall have 
opportunities to discuss and adjust. Lest the servant might 
be negligent, she desires me to repeat the message and " to 
clear up the business :" very equivocal again. 

I am very greatly indebted to Mrs. Prevost for doing me 
the honour to make me a medium of communication, and 
still more for the party she has been pleased to project for 
us, and have only to repeat assurances of the cheerfulness 
with which I shall obey your summons. That I may not, 
however, for a moment incur even the tacit imputation of 
tardiness, it is proper to apprize you that the course of con- 
veyance to and from this place does not admit of my being 
in London until the third dav, counting that on which your 
commands shall be transmitted. Thus, if you should write 
on Thursday, I shall be in town Saturday evening. Very 
respectfully, A. Burr, 

* Col. Aaron Burr. 



Exmouth, September 19, 1808. 

I regret that my absence from London should have been 
the means of preventing you from receiving the enclosed 
letter sooner ; but I hope that this delay will not be produc- 
tive of any material inconvenience to you, and I so seldom 
leave town that I trust it will not again occur. 

We have now been here for about three weeks, during 
which we have had very indifferent weather; but weather 
is of less consequence at the seaside than in any enclosed 
country ; and it has not prevented Mrs. Mallet from deriving 
benefit by bathing and living much in the air, and great 
pleasure from the society of her relations and friends. We 
shall remain absent a fortnight longer, and intend being in 
town at the latter end of the first week in October, when I 
hope we shall have the pleasure of finding you in good health 
and spirits. 

Several events of some importance have taken place since 
the end of August, but none likely to give a decided turn 
to the tide of affairs. Country gentlemen, who live all the 
year upon good beef and partridges, and know of no greater 
conquests than the killing of a hare, are very grievously dis- 
appointed that Junot and his plunder should not have been 
sent to this country. But the fact is, that a much greater 
degree of importance as to its probable consequences was 
attached to the affair than it deserved ; and that the conquest 
of Lisbon, sword in hand, with such opponents as Junot and 
Laborde, might have cost us five weeks and five thousand 
men ; and it is of great importance that our hoofs should 
reach their ulterior destination before the rainy season of the 
South of Europe. 

Mrs. Mallet desires her best compliments, and I remain, 
&c, John Lewis Mallet. 



London, September 23, 1808. 

I trust you will believe me, my dear sir, that I have not 
maliciously delayed to quiet the alarm our friend Mrs. Pre- 
vost has occasioned you ; indeed, I have done so only with 
a hope that I should be able to speak with more certainty 
of the time when I might claim your promise of allowing 
me to thank you at Weybridge for your obliging offer of 
escorting me thither. I shall endeavour to " perform the 
journey" early in next week, but would not by any means 
interfere with the term of your present visit, as mine with 
Mrs. Prevostwill probably be so sufficiently prolonged as to 
admit of my expecting the pleasure of seeing you before I 
return to town, even should you not go to Weybridge so soon 
as she wishes. If, however, any new arrangement should in- 
duce you to seek her next week, I shall be obliged by your 
apprizing me of your intention, when I promise not to tax 
your chivalry by any unreasonable demands. With Mrs. 
Mallet's best compliments, accept mine, and believe me, 
&c., Catharine Mallet. 


London, Gower-street, September 25, 1808. 

Mr. Guillemard, on his return from an airing yesterday, 
found Col. Burr's card on his table, and regretted and re- 
grets his absence from home. His return to town was oc- 
casioned by a fit Of the gout, which prevents his going about. 
He will be at home all to-day and to-morrow, and will be 
sure to be at home any day or hour when Col. Burr will do 
him the honour of calling in Gower-street, or partaking of 
oumble fare under his roof. 

C 3 



Pelham (N. Y.), September 30, 1808. 

Not one word from you has reached me since ihose few 
lines from \\\e first stage. I did not expect to have remained 
thus long in this painful suspense. There are a thousand 
vague reports about you. As il regards myself, conjecture 
on the subject is at a stand, and I write now almost without 
a hope of being read. 

Adieu. I write without pleasure, and only, indeed, to 
satisfy my desire of seizing every opportunity to gratify 
you, even though I should have only one chance of success 
in a million. 

Except myself, all your friends are well. But the world 
begins to cool terribly around me. You would be surprised 
how many I supposed attached to me have abandoned the 
sorry, losing game of disinterested friendship. Frederic 
alone, however, is worth a host. Adieu once more. Vale, 
iongum Vale, Jole. Mary Ann Edwards.* 


London, September 24, 1808. 

A short letter from Theodosia depresses the hope I had 
entertained of her speedy recovery. She remained at the 
mineral spring, but without apparent benefit. My American 
letters contain no material facts of a political nature not al- 
ready known through other channels. The two most mate- 
rial of these letters are in cipher, and have not yet been 
read. You shall have copies when deciphered, if worth 

Swartwout has really engaged in a very important enter- 
prise. His affairs will occupy me several days. Theo- 
dosia's letter has quite unhinged me. Were it not for 
Swartwout I would be with you to-morrow. 

Gcss's Journal is herewith sent. A very dull talp, but I 

* Theodosia, 


believe honest. When it shall have been perused, please 
to return it to Mrs. S. A. Burr. 


Monday, September 20, 1803. 

The letter which was transmitted to me by Mrs. Prevosi 
is herewith enclosed, to be disposed of as you may .think 

I go this morning, in pursuance of an engagement long 
since made, to pass two or three days with an old military 
man in Hertfordshire. Immediately on my return, which 
will not be later than Thursday, you shall have the details 
of any amusement which may have fallen to the lot of 

A. Burjsl. 


London, September 26, 1808. 

Mr. Burr presents respectful compliments. He regrets 
very much that an engagement to pass some days in the 
country obliges him to leave town this morning at too early 
an hour to admit of his seeing Mr. Guillemaid before his 
departure. He will have the honour of calling on him im- 
mediately after his return, which is expected to be Thurs- 
day next, when he hopes to find Mr. G. recovered from 
his indisposition. Many thanks for his obliging note, which 
was received last evening. A. Burr. 


Little Gaddesden, September 28, 180& 

It will not be possible for me to leave this until Friday. 
Pray improve the interval in regaining your health, and in 
•making notes of all you have to say and to ask. I regret 
extremely that you could not accompany me hither. You 
svere expected, and would have been greatly amused. 

A. Bur&. 



London, Q. S. P., September 30, 1808. 

I arrived from Little Gaddesden this day at noon, and 
have, as you see, returned to the Bird- Cage. Swartwout is 
still in a bad way, but will go off in pursuance of his project 
on Monday. Another letter from America, received this 
day, and of a date subsequent to that of Theodosia, speaks 
of her health in terms more favourable, but by no means 

The Messieurs Koe must have told you that I saw them 
but for a minute, and at the moment of my departure. Your 
letter contains the most flattering evidence, and of the most 
unsuspicious sort, that you had been occupied with me and 
my concerns in my absence. " Your reward shall be in 
Heaven." I think to make some use of that letter with my 
new acquaintance, Lord Bridgwater. He received me in 
the most hospitable and friendly manner. He has the con- 
fidence of the ministry, and having offered me his house, 
that is, bed, &c, I propose to avail myself of his hospitality 
to a certain extent. My plan is to return thither on Tuesday. 

I am interrupted by the visit of an American captain, who 
is going to various parts in his own ship. He offers me, 
with the frankness of a sailor, the use of his cabin, &c., as 
long as the vessel, which is his own, shall hold together. 
He says this is partly in revenge for the good offices which 
I did him some years ago. I have not the slightest recol- 
lection of the circumstance to which he alludes. 

A. Burr. 


Queen's Square Place, October 1, 1808. 

The history of my late visit to Hertford must be reserved 
till we meet. It will afford you some moments of amuse- 
ment. The stock will be greatly increased by the experi- 
ence of the approaching week, for Lord Bridgwater has 


proposed various objects of amusement. Yet, shall I con- 
fess to you, these very recreations to me are labour? I 
participate with coldness. All I say is weighed, and gen- 
erally forced. There is, indeed, some gratification of curi- 
osity, and a slight hope that new channels of commiseration 
and of influence may be discovered. 

The overtures of the captain, whose visit was mentioned 
in my note of yesterday, occupy much of my thoughts. He 
is going to the Mediterranean. To touch at various ports. 
Will land me anywhere, or take me anywhere. It is a very 
fine ship of 250 tons, with an elegant cabin. He the sole 
owner. Now, if you were ready, and disposed to seek milder 
climes, how I should bless the occasion. But this is out of 
the question, for he will sail on the 10th instant. Yet I have 
amused myself not a little with the illusion. 

My letter to C. has not been sent. It is suspended till 
the arrival of Merry, and till I shall see whether no other 
engines can be brought into use for the occasion. If it fail, 
heighho for the Mediterranean. 

I think to return from Lord Bridgwater's on Sunday, 
sooner if I can get off, and to go immediately thereafter to 
Barrow Green, to make my report and ask your blessing. 
Nevertheless, if there should remain even a remote hope of 
obtaining the countenance of this government, I will not 
quit the field. 

My American friends have very sagaciously concluded 
that the present state of things in Spain is calculated to pro- 
mote my views ! Hence some ferment. The ciphered 
letters are so imperfectly made out by Swartwout, on whom 
I devolved the labour, that they would only perplex you 
and waste your time. A French letter is enclosed for your 
perusal. The writer was aiddecamp to Dumourier. The 
person called his brother is that Marquis de St. Mard of 
whom something has been said. 

A. Burr. 



London, October 2, 1808. 

Major Gamble desired me to inform you that he had re- 
ceived no answer to his last letter. I have engaged to be 
at his house again on Tuesday, and have it in command 
from him to invite you 1o be of the parly. If you should 
assent, which would afford me also the utmost pleasure, 
have the goodness to inform me of the mode of conveyance 
which you will prefer. The stagecoach, which will start 
from Oxford-street at twelve on Tuesday, is convenient and 
rapid. A. Burr. 


London, September 24, 1808. Received Guillemard's 
note, and cards of Gov. Franklin and Mr. Luscombe. 

26. Took postchaise for Little Gaddesden, and arrived 
at Major Gamble's at seven P. M. Kind and hospitable 

27. Visited Bartlett — les dames Barllett ordered horses, 
and rode with me eight or ten miles. 

28. Visited Lord Bridgwater (Egerton, earl of Bridg- 
water), not chez lui ; left cards. His building three hundred 
feet front; wall three hundred feet deep. Went with Mrs. 
Bartlett and Mrs. Span, her daughter, in their carriage, lo 
dine at six P. M. at Asp Ridge House. Handed in Ma- 
dame Bartlett. Lord Bridgwater hands Miss Bartlett to din- 
ner. Lady Bridgwater and Madame Span get on as they 
can at dinner. Came off at ten. Lord Bridgwater going 
to-morrow to London. Apologizes for postponing his visit. 
Offer of service — politesse. On returning chez Gamble, 
debate on handing in a lady — on English ease and politeness. 
Prop, to call next day on Lord Bridgwater — " very correct." 
That Lord Bridgwater might hand in, but nobody else — 
" no ceremony." Debate about etiquette at the Court of 
France. "But the Court of France is here." 


29. Mr. Gilbert, the rector, and Bartlett call. Visit les 
dames Bartlett, &c. Walked to see the garden of Asp 
Ridge. Dine at Gamble's at five. Bartlett ux and Span. 
Renew debate on etiquette, handing in, &c. M'Carthy and 
les dames sustain Gamp. Cards. Visited Gilbert, who 
walked with us to see the church, supposed to be built when 
the Monastery des Bonhommes was Asp Ridge in 1200. 
Lord Bridgwater calls, and with him Mr. . Lord Bridg- 
water invites me to dine, take bed, &c, &c. 

30. Left Little Gaddesden at six A. M., having engaged 
to return on Tuesday. Arrive in London, 27 miles, at 
eleven. At 30 Craven-street, found note and card from Cap- 
tain Sinclair. Called on him at the Virginia Coffee-house, 
and, being abroad, left note inviting him to dine with me. 

October 1. S. Swartwout called with his letter from 
Lees. Called on Dr. Lettsome, who was not at home. 
Being engaged to the play with S. and M., was obliged to 
send excuse, feeling the approaches of a headache. 

2. Kept bed till four P. M., fasting; hard headache. At 
nine P. M. took tea. 

3. Rose at half past eight, quite well. At Ridgway's; 
left with madame, an obliging woman, a mem. of books for 

A. B. A. At Gibert's, bootmaker — a great liar. Boots not 
done. At Me. Mallet's veuve. Catharine went yesterday to 
Weybridge, having left a civil message for A. B. at Madame 
Achaud's. All the family, except Mr. Achaud, gone to Tun- 
bridge, whither Constant et ux had gone some days before. 
Madame Wilk — n, Craven-street; in the evening, at the 
trunkmaker's. Coach hire nine shillings. 

But first in the morning on Reeves. Prayed to dine 
which accepted-y-George Chalmers, author of certain com 
pilations. Brown, who had been long in Russia. Madame 

B. Sa mere stayed till nine o'clock. 

4. Rose at six. Sent porter for trunk and boots. Neither 
done. Clothes not come from wash. Stage for Gaddesden to 
start at twelve, and nothing ready ; bought two shirts. Clothes 


and trunk came at half past eleven. Packed up tout suite, 
and drove comme diable to stagehouse, Oxford-street. Dis- 
covered that the hour of departure was one, and not twelve 
o'clock. Start at half past one o'clock. Arrive at seven. 
Servant of Major Gamble waiting at the inn to receive and 

conduct me. Took tea at Bartlelt's. History of ball at . 

Nonchalance de madame. Mode of leading out dame. 

5. Rose at seven. Called on Mr. Gilbert, the rector, to 
return his visit. He got up horses to ride with me. Called 
on Lord Bridgwater-y-Lord Grimstone and two daugh- 
ters. Went on to Berkhamstead, into the church to 

Queen Elizabeth. Left horses at the Swan. Called at 
Ford's, Berkhamstead Place, half a mile from town, to see 
the ruins of the castle. Returned at four ; dinner at five-y- 
Rev. Mr. Gilbert and Bartlett. Cards. Won two shillings 
and sixpence of the rector. 

6. Rose at eight. Bartlett and the rector rode to show 
me the remains of a Roman camp eight miles off. Mag- 
nificent and extensive view. Returned by Dunstable, fa- 
mous for straw-hat making. Strange dialect of the peas- 
ants. At six to dine at Asp Ridge-y-Rev. Nor et ux. Mr. 
Nor is one of the king's chaplains. At half past eight start 
in four carriages for the ball at Berkhamstead. Dancing 
had commenced when we arrived. Supper at one. Got 
home at three. 

7. Called at Asp Ridge — personne — all airing. During 
my absence to-day, Lady Bridgwater called in her gig, dri- 
ving herself, and left for me C.'s History of Hertfordshire. 

8. Dined at Bartlett's-y-Barker et ux. He is uncle of 

Lord Lake, Rector of , and Chaplain to the Prince of 

Wales. Music and dancing. Barker invites me to dine on 
Monday, which I accept. Break up before twelve. 

9. Breakfast at M'Carthv's at ten, having agreed to ride 
with him to see the place of the Earl of Bute, said to have 
the best collection of pictures in England. M'Carthy has 
eight children, all handsome and most of them beautiful. 


Having stayed longer than was intended, thought it too late 
to visit the Earl of Bute's, so rode over to Hamel Hemstead. 
Called on Meade, brother-in-law of M'Carthy. Returned 
by Berkhamstead, and reached home at four. 

10. Called by appointment on Lord Bridgwater. Left for 
his perusal letter of J. Benlham. M'Carthy calls at eleven. 

Rode with him and Bartlett. Called on , amiable, frank 

old man, very deaf; uncle of Mrs. Gordon, also of Whit- 
bread. Polite and hospitable overtures. Tea with the Bart- 
lett's. Came home at nine. Retire to write and pack up. 
Wrote Lord Bridgwater, returning the book and paper, and 
asking for Bentham's letter. 

12. Rose at five. Got in stage at six, intending to take 
postchaise from Hamel Hemstead to St. Alban's to visit 
Lord Grimstone ; but no chaise was to be had, so came into 
town, where arrived at ten o'clock. To Faleur, not content 
with his work. Impertinence of his goldsmith, whom I or- 
dered out of the room for obtruding his opinions. F. is to 
mend his work, and I am to call to-morrow — thence to S. 
Swartwout. It was fortunate that I came to town, for yes- 
terday he received orders to go on to Liverpool forthwith. 
Received letter from D. M. Randolph ; very melancholy. 
Speaks of the death of a most valued friend in America, 
which must be particularly afflicting to me. Who can he 
mean ? I have heard of no death of the least consequence 
to anybody. To Beck, tailor, about culots, badly made. 
Bentham has written that he will be in town on Friday. 
Mrs. S. says I may lodge — Received a very civil letter 
from Sir Andrew Grant, enclosing the letter of his corre- 
spondent near Carlisle, about Mrs. Miller's legacy, which 
turns out to be just nothing. Also, a very pretty letter from 
Miss C. Mallet, as well in her own as on Mrs. Prevost's be- 
half, inviting me to Weybridge. At four, walked to Ridg- 
way's ; madame had procured the books for which I left a 

14. Called at Queen's Square Place ; Mrs. Stoker has re- 


ceived a letter from Bcmham delaying his return until Mon- 
day I6ih, unless I shall be in town and wish him to come 
sooner. It is now twelve, and, having suffered my fire to 
go out two hours ago, I am going to bed. 

15. Rose at eight. After saying at twelve last night that 
1 was going lo bed, I made a good fire, got wine, water, and 
sugar, and sat up till past 2. I went on Thursday to Robert 
Shedden, Gower-street, on the business of the lovely Ana- 
bella, now, I hope, Mrs. A. B. R. Mr. Shedden was not at 
home, so I left a note, written at his house, of which, see the 
copy made from memory. 

From this date until the beginning of November no entries 
are made in the journal. 

Queen's Square Place, October 4, 2 o'clock A. M., 1808. 

Whenever I make a movement, no matter for what time 
or space, there is as much preparation, assoriing, packing, 
and repacking, as if it were for a voyage to the antipodes. 
Thus you see me up at ihis unreasonable hour, to be up 
again at six, the labour being but half performed. 

Merry has written that he will not be in town till near the 
close of this month; but another, unsought and unexpected, 
has tendered himself. Timeo Danaos, &c, &c. Yet, as 
nothing is hazarded, I have permitted him to make his ap- 
proaches. The result lo be known at my return from Little 

This day (yesterday, Monday meaning), meeting your 
friend Reeves (in whose holy keeping I am by appointment 
of the Rt. Hon. Lord Hawkesbury, &c), he gave me a most 
friendly and affectionate reception ; prayed me to dine, which 
was accepted. Met there Mr. and Mrs. Brown, who have 
been much in Russia, and Chalmers (do you hear me?), all 
very social — very happy to know Mr. Burr! 

It is nevertheless, my dear friend, but too obvious that I 
am a mere encumbrance here, and ought to be gone. Yet 


the attempt proposed shall be made, humiliating and hope- 
less as it is. Thus I shall at least escape the reproaches 
of my friends, and, what is of more moment, my own. 

A. Burr. 


Little Gaddesden, October 7, 1808. 

My last was by the Alknomac, which sailed from London 
11th September. It covered a letter from Jeremy Bentham 
to you, and was accompanied by a parcel of books ; partic- 
ularly many of the works of Bentham, a present from him- 
self to you, and a set of fire-irons on a curious construction. 
There were also some books for the boy, and a parcel of 
newspapers. All under the particular care of Mr. Nicholas, 
of Philadelphia. 

Immediately after despatching those articles, I returned 
to Barrow Green, the summer residence of Mr. Bentham, 
where I stayed about ten days. Then for a week to this 
place, on a visit to Major Gamble, and now again here at 
the imitation of Lord Bridgwater (the Earl of). I write 
you a great deal, but do not choose to trust it to ordinary 
modes of conveyance. The next safe private hand, you 
shall have some details. I have on hand (that is, in my 
head) a stock that will serve you for some years of amuse- 
ment. I write by this conveyance to 71, whom I must ever 
recommend to your affection and confidence. 

Your letter from B. T., July 6, or thereabout (I have left 
it in London), is the last received. Let me hear that you 
are settled with Frederic, and are gaining health, and I shall 
be able to write with some spirit. 

Matters of business remain as at the date of my last. 
Out of the money which you will receive on 1st December, 
remit to Jeremy Bentham, for me, two hundred guineas. 
T. W. Moore will put you in a way to remit with safety 
and without loss. My health est toujours le mcme. Ow- 
ing to accident and misinformation, I have most shamefully 


neglected to write to you till within one hour of the closing 
of the mail. Pardon, and I will do better. 

The packet, you know, sails from Falmouth, which is 
280 miles from London. No parcel or book can be sent, 
unless, fortunately, one should meet with a passenger about 
to go in the mailcoach. A piece of good fortune which has 
not happened to A. Burr. 


Little Gaddesden, October 8, 1808. 

In consequence of your letter of yesterday, received this 
morning, I shall postpone, for one day at least, my return to 
town, proposing to avail myself of the interval to visit Lord 
Grimstone, at St. Alban's. I shall not be here long enough 
to admit of receiving another letter from you. 

A. Burr. 


Little Gaddesden, October 10, 1808. 

Col. Burr returns with thanks Chauncey's Antiquities and 
the newspaper. He regrets very much that he cannot have 
the honour of dining with Lord Bridgwater to-morrow, hav- 
ing engaged to leave town at an early hour in the morning. 

He takes the liberty of requesting that his lordship will 
have the goodness to return by mail, addressed to No. 30 
Craven-street, Strand, London, the letter left this morning 
for his perusal. Under the same address, Col. Burr will be 
happy to receive his further commands. 

He begs leave to offer respectful compliments and ac- 
knowledgments for his lordship's civilities. 


Weybridge, October 9, 1808. 

Mrs. Prevost having expected the pleasure of seeing you 
at Weybridge last week, thinks it just possible you may 
have wished her to answer the letter which announced your 


intention of visiting her, and requests me, therefore, to take 
the present opportunity (of sending a billet by a private 
hand) to say how happy she would be to see you whenever 
you can disengage yourself from London. I shall only add 
that I hope your purpose will be resumed while I may hope 
to profit from it. 

Mrs. Mallet promised to explain to you that it was en- 
tirely -par discretion that I declined accepting your obliging 
offer to escort me, as I was apprehensive my journey might 
interfere with your other plans. I see now that I was right. 
I am sure you must feel obliged to me. Believe me, dear 
sir, yours, &c, C. Mallet. 


London, October 14, 1808. 

My return from Hertfordshire, Wednesday evening, would 
have been immediately announced to you but for the ex- 
pectation of seeing you here this day. Mrs. Stoker, whom 
I have just now seen, informs me that your removal is post- 
poned till Monday, which is embarrassing. Swartwout is 
still here, but has received his final summons, and will go 
on Sunday evening. We have so much to do, and, with my 
habits and his, so many things are left till the last moment, 
that I cannot leave him till the moment of his departure. 

No plan has yet been adopted. All those which you 
have heard loosely suggested are still under consideration. 
Swift says that suspense is the life of a spider. Indecision 
is something worse, and claiming no sympathy. Yet how 
can one decide without a knowledge of facts ? It seems, 
however, that I ought not to remain longer in this kingdom. 
But the whither, and the how, and the when, are points on 
which I greatly desire to confer with you, and I had hoped 
that you would also have heard Swartwout on the subject. 
There is, nevertheless, a certainty that I shall be in or near 
London at and for some days after your arrival. Were it 
otherwise, I should forthwith take postchaise, and be with 
you in two hours. 


I am apprehensive that a letter which I wrote you on the 
morning (at two o'clock) of my departure for Gaddesden 
has been mislaid or lost. Mrs. S. has no recollection of 
having sent it. You will not, therefore, understand me 
when I speak of my new friend Reeves. He is out of town 
for some days. Lord Bridgwater gave me a line of intro- 
duction to Charles Long, who is now also in the country. 
But I have no longer the slightest hope of the countenance 
of the ministry for anything which might be proposed. I 
am an object of suspicion and alarm. I shall at least wait 
the arrival of another packet from North America, now daily 
expected. That hemisphere menaces itself only. God 
bless you ever, A. Burr. 


London, October 23, 1808. 

Your first letter has been received and acknowledged ; 
the second has not yet come to hand. I am a little appre- 
hensive that you and your friends may have overvalued the 
resources of the Floridas. It is a country very thinly peo- 
pled, there being not more than 2500 families in the whole 
extent of six hundred miles, from St. Augustine to Baton 
Rouge. The American settlement (above the Spanish line) 
on the Mobile is about 400 families, and dependant wholly 
on the towns of Mobile and Pensacola, having no other 
course to market but down the Mobile. The Natchez set- 
tlement, just above the line, and bordering on the Missis- 
sippi, is flourishing and wealthy, and, if you can get access to 
it, will take all your merchandise, and supply as much cot- 
ton as you may be disposed to purchase. The persons whose 
names I have given you will put you in the way to accom- 
plish everything that may be practicable, and will aid you in 
the execution. The two excellencies to whom you have 
letters are to be approached with caution. Colonel M. and 
Dr. W. will advise you. Perhaps it may be expedient, in 
the first instance, to sound them as a merchant, without dis- 


closing yourself further. One cannot conjecture the sort of 
influence which the late political changes may have had on 
their minds. The country overflows with the productions 
you want. 

I have been out, got three guineas' worth of books for 
the donna, and sent them to Meeker. You will put them 
up and address them properly. Adieu, my dear friend. 
Your enterprise will call for the exertion of all your talents, 
your industry, and your discretion. I feel a strong confi- 
dence in your success. My most ardent wishes you will 
have. A. Burr. 


London, October 21, 1S09. 

On the 15th I wrote you by way of Liverpool, and with 
it sent a small parcel for A. B. A. Since that date the ar- 
rival of the packet has brought me your letter of the 3d Sep- 
tember. It is a deadly blow to my hopes. Some great, 
some immediate and violent change must be made in youT 
habits. A sea voyage and a climate wholly different would 
promise much. In three days a vessel will sail from this 
port for New-York, and in ten days the packet from Fal- 
mouth. By one or both my final advice will be given. I 
have consulted physicians, but the communication of the re- 
sult would not afford much satisfaction nor immediate re- 
lief. They insist that the case is certainly curable, and not 
dangerous if not longer neglected. The physician most 
relied on has promised me a letter, which, if received, will 
be forwarded by packet. This goes by way of Philadel- 
phia. The opportunity is considered as precarious. No 
further details on this interesting head can now be given. 
Since the date of my last I have been passing a few days 
with Mrs. Prevost, who is always my good friend and yours. 

To fill up this blank page, take one of the many epigrams 
on Sir Hew Dalrymple. It was made impromptu by one 


of my friends in my presence. Perhaps it may have been 
published, but not to my knowledge. 

" When knights of old their falchions drew, 
Their mot de guerre was Hack and Hew ; 
Our modern knight, of fighting shy, 
Should make his motto Hew and cry." 

The following ridiculous epitaph made me laugh. If it 
raise a smile on the wan cheek of my Theodosia, I should 
deem it valuable indeed. The subject of it, who is more 
famed for his wealth and his long services in the corpora- 
tion than for classic erudition, is in the habit, as is said, like 
our worthy vice-president, of using this-ere and that-are, as 
Exigra : Take this-here knife and cut that-there goose. 
The epitaph was produced at a feast at which he was pres- 
ent, and the story adds that he joined in the laugh with 
great good humour. 

" Here lies William Curtis, our late worthy lord-mayor, 
Who has left this-here world and gone to that-there." 

A. Burr. 


New-York, October 31, 1808. 

Your letters and presents by Mr. Nicholas reached me a 
week ago. You are well and happy, but X* is abandoned ! 
This certainly was inevitable, but I cannot part with what 
has so long lain near my heart, and not feel some regret, 
some sorrow. No doubt there are many other roads to hap- 
piness, but this appeared so perfectly suitable to you, so 
complete a remuneration for all the past ; it so entirely coin- 
cided with my wishes relative to you, that I cherished it as 
my comfort, even when illness scarcely allowed me any hope 
of witnessing its completion. My knowledge of your char- 
acter, however, consoles me greatly. You will not remain 
idle. The situation in which you are placed would excite 
apathy itself, and your mind needs no external impetus. 

* This has allusion to the projected expedition against Mexico. 


I presume that when you last wrote to me, none of your 
plans could be matured ; but, as soon as you have formed any 
determinations, I conjure you to inform me of them as soon 
as possible. I know that entreaty is not necessary. I am 
too proud of your confidence to affect a doubt of it ; but my 
mind is anxious, impatiently anxious in regard to your fu- 
ture destiny. Where you are going, what will occupy you, 
how this will terminate, employ me continually ; and when, 
forgetful of myself, my brain is dizzy with a multitude of 
projects, my poor little heart cries out — and when shall we 
meet? You, or rather circumstances, have deprived me of 
my greatest support during your absence. Give me a sub- 
stitute for it. Tell me that you are engaged in some pursuit 
worthy of you. This is the subject which interests me most ; 
for a long time it has been the object of all my thoughts. 
Thus it was first mentioned; but do not, therefore, imagine 
that I was not sensible to your kind and truly flattering at- 
tentions. Any present from you charms me ; but I can- 
not tell you what pleasure it gave me to find lhat you had 
already introduced me to so great and celebrated a person 
as Jeremy Bentham. At such a distance, amid so many 
new and interesting objects, to think constantly of me ; that 
I should be present to your thoughts, and the subject of your 
conversations during your first interview with a man so cal- 
culated to absorb all your attention, and so likely to con- 
verse on things of a very different order from me and my 
concerns, delights and flatters me really more than I can 

Would to Heaven Jeremy Bentham's letter had been re- 
ceived at some more auspicious moment. Never has my 
disease affected my intellects so much as at present. It 
renders me absolutely stupid ; and I fear that my answer 
will prove rather an evidence of your parental partiality than 
of my merits. Indeed, the constant conviction that I am for 
ever showing myself in the very worst light ; the conscious- 
ness that my every speech and every action do me injustice, 

Vol. I— D 


prey upon my spirits, and, perhaps, add to my complaints. 
I will write an answer, however, in pursuance to your max- 
im, to show some sensibility to attention, if I can show no- 
thing more ; and you will deliver it or not, as you may deem 

I shall study his works, not merely read them, for I well 
remember the high and repeated encomiums bestowed on 
them by the Delphian Oracle. Thank you for Mitford's 
Treatise on the Harmony of Language. Had I my entire 
sense, language would now be my favourite pursuit. I 
should enter on it with enthusiasm. Should you have it in 
your power, you would gratify me very much by some 
sketches of the lives and characters of eminent persons 
among whom you now reside. I wish always that your 
friends or associates should be, at least, my acquaintance. 
I wish to meet you on any ground interesting or pleasing to 
yourself. Of the public characters, I believe there are lives, 
or the outlines of the biography, published. 

I have at length heard from the physician whom you de- 
sired to visit me at the Springs. Indeed, your conviction 
that the summons would be attended to, and some reasons 
which he gave me to expect him, kept me three weeks in 
waiting there after I was quite certain that no advantage 
could be derived from the waters, and at an enormous ex- 
pense ; so that I spent nine weeks there instead of six, as 
we agreed. But a fortnight ago I received the medicine, 
and commenced the treatment prescribed by him ; for not a 
month has elapsed since we came to a perfect understand- 
ing, and began a regular correspondence. He expressed 
great regret at the appearance of neglect towards me in which 
circumstances had involved him, and has since been very 
attentive. He has been informed of my case, and says that, 
although between eighteen and nineteen months is a long 
time for the duration of such a complaint without a symp- 
tom of relief, yet there is great reason to hope that the med- 
icine you recommended will effect a cure. As I have taken 


it only a fortnight, it has not yet produced any alteration in 
my feelings or habit. Yet now I think we have every rea- 
son to believe that my health will soon be restored ; and, 
after all, it will be owing to your prescription. If you had 
been with me, I should have recovered long since. 

Oh, my guardian angel, why were you obliged to abandon 
me just when enfeebled nature doubly required your care ? 
Alas, alas ! how often have I deplored the want of your 
counsel and tenderness ! How often, when my tongue and 
hands trembled with disease, have I besought Heaven either 
to reunite us, or let me die at once ! Yet do not hence im- 
agine that I yield to infantine lamentations or impatience. 
As soon as relief from pain restored me in some measure to 
myself, I became more worthy the happiness of being your 
daughter. Now my strength is greatly increased, my nerves 
are less irritable ; and, if the disorder did not so strangely af- 
fect my head, I should feel almost well. No doubt the mer- 
cury will remedy all my evils. 

It is near a month since I heard from M. I shall cer- 
tainly remain here this winter, but my situation will not have 
the charms we supposed. Indeed, I find that your presence 
threw a lustre on everything around you. Everything is 
gayer, more elegant, more pleasant where you are. But I 
am determined to remain, nevertheless, on account of my 
health, which renders such a measure highly necessary ; nor 
have I forgotten my promise. Here, too, I am exempt from 
many vexations. But F.'s house is more uncomfortable than 
either of us supposed. From my town friends I receive 

lukewarm invitations. Mrs. , on whom we reposed in 

security, is quite unhappy that I should be at such a distance 
from her ; she wishes she could persuade me to take lodg- 
ings near her ! ! Since we parted, however, I have made a 
charming acquaintance (that is not English). She is pos- 
sessed of that unsuspicious candour, that softness and play- 
fulness of disposition which you so much admire. Modest, 
without too much diffidence of herself; possessing a good 



understanding, which she depends upon without vanity ; 
wealthy, she is fond of splendour ; and with fine spirits, she 
likes gayety. Yet neither occupy her much, because it is 
through her heart only that she can be really interested ; 
and, perhaps, from this singular union of delicacy, sensibil- 
ity, vivacity, and good sense, she lives in the world without 
becoming a part of it; and at thirty every variation of her 
feelings displays itself in her changes of colour and counte- 
nance. Thus far this character of her is just. No doubt 
she has faults, but our intimacy is not great enough to ren- 
der them conspicuous ; and I never take the trouble to seek 
what it would give me no pleasure to find. She is all at- 
tention to me. I passed several days at her country-house 
(that formerly owned by Daniel Ludlow), and am invited to 
visit her in town during the winter, but I have no means of 
passing to and fro. Nothing shall tempt me to live long 
with her, and thus inevitably destroy all the pleasure, all the 
zeal of her friendship. Dansee monde selon moi, il en est 
de l'amitie comme de tout outre chose, pour en jouir il ne 
faut que l'afleurer ; quand en vent trop savourer le parsum 
d'une fleur, ou la ceuille, et elle meure. Qu'est ce qui ne 
s'use pas, parle grand service ? II n'y a que toi, qui soit doue 
d'une ame, et d'une esprit inexpuisable. My friend's name 
is Waddington, wife of Joshua Waddington, merchant, and 
daughter of Abraham Ogden, of New-Jersey. Her mother, 
Mrs. Ogden, is fond of me. She said you and my mother 
were quite intimate at her house. You wrote a long letter 
once on the birth of one of her sons, calling him Prince. 
Does this bring her to your recollection ? She amused me 
with many anecdotes of you. 

I have seen E. A. since your departure. She offered, 
and I believe was sincere, to come and nurse me ; but I 
would not avail myself of what would have been a source 
of enjoyment to me, really because it would not be in my 
power to make her as comfortable at F.'s as I should wish. 
I do not require nursing, but society would be pleasant. 


Burr was delighted wilh his books. I shall send you no 
list for myself. I do not think you are very able to make 
many presents. Will you scold me for a robber, or laugh 
at me for a baby, if I tell you that I kept the two loose little 
pictures you sent among B.'s books ? They were so pretty ! 
The caricature made us all laugh very much. 

I am residing with my old friend Mrs. Pierpont. I was 
welcomed with the utmost hospitality. Indeed, there cannot 
exist a more pleasant family to reside with. He is an ami- 
able man, devoted to his wife. You know her as goodness 
and sweetness itself. Without pretending to style, their 
house is very handsomely furnished, and overflows in all 
the comforts and luxuries of life. She sends her love to 
you — and she does love you. Notwithstanding the pleasures 
of my present residence, I shall soon leave this, to be un- 
comfortable at F.'s. True to my system. F. will never tire 
of me. Poor fellow, the more I love him, the more un- 
happy it renders me to be with him, and witness all the 
difficulties he experiences. 

The notes of which you left me mistress are deemed 
sacred. I cannot now foresee any accident which will in- 
duce me to avail myself of them. When shall I receive the 
journal ? Good Heaven, how it will delight me ! Do not 
fail to let me hear your plan. What will you do when 59 is 
gone ? Answer this question, above all. 

I would to Heaven I could be with you. I long to visit a 
region where the muses and graces have some favourites. 
Perhaps pride should render me less desirous of showing 
myself to disadvantage ; for you would occasion me to be 
stared at, and circumstances have, for a long time, been in- 
imical to my advancement in any respect. Nevertheless, 
nothing would gratify me more than a visit to Europe — Paris 
particularly. But tjm ht would be madness in you to think 
of going. JP " 

You ask what the boy is learning. My illness and our 
disappointment in obtaining a tutor has kept him very sta- 


tionary, except that he improves in speaking French, and in 
reading that and English. In your great world is there no 
such thing as some easy introduction to history ? The lit- 
tle volume sent will be valuable in its place ; but I believe 
it important to begin with the earliest periods, and come 
down regularly. 

Our politicians and wise ones predict that Madison must 
be president and the embargo continued. The Legislature 
of Connecticut, or, rather, a committee named for the pur- 
pose, have framed some very spirited resolutions on the sub- 
ject of the embargo, protesting against its indefinite contin- 
uance as an infringement of the rights of the people. In- 
deed, from the temper of the Eastern States at present, it is 
very generally believed that, unless the embargo is raised, 
rebellion in that part of the Union will take place speedily. 
The Eastern States are all federal. Theodosia. 


Philadelphia, November 6, I806T. 

I am again in Philadelphia, my dear friend. But here, as 
in all places, deprived of your protection, I feel like a corps 
sans ame. Sometimes the passing pleasures of the hour 
amuse me ; but that support which your unalterable friend- 
ship afforded me ; on which I leaned in proud defiance of 
the vicissitudes of fortune, of the caprices of chance, is re- 
moved by your absence and the constraint in which I live, 
obliged to devour my thoughts, my hopes, my feelings, for to 
whom can I communicate them ? is aggravated by the rec- 
ollection of the hours of delightful liberty in which your 
goodness once indulged me. 

is kind, almost to a fault. He has been very ill 

since August, and mends slowly. Yet, notwithstanding, he 
would have sailed for France if cerj^feevents which I sup- 
pose he will inform you of had not prevwited him. 

Everybody here is dull. Nothing heard but complaints 
of the embargo and the times. Just before I left New-Or- 


leans I received a present of elegant medals from my friend 
in Mexico. 

I wish, if not prevented by more serious business during 
your stay in London, that you would see Flaxman, the clas- 
sical engraver, and get him to send me a set of his works, 
addressed to Bradford and Inskeep. I have one volume of 
engravings. I believe the only one in this country, from 
Euripides. The model of this exquisite artist is his beauti- 
ful Italian wife. Perhaps, in complying with this request, 
you may make an agreeable acquaintance. 

But, indeed, you are too far off. Approach us. Come 
only a little nearer. Come where I can meet you, and I 
will fly to find near you that happiness which none but you 
can impart ; which I have never known except in your 
presence ; which I do not wish to feel till I again behold 
you. Y. Z. 


London, November 9, 1808. 

After reading and reflecting on the subject of your health, 
and taking the best advice which can be had in this country, 
I can perceive no hope of your recovery but in a voyage 
to England. Every arrangement which the case admits of 
has been made for your reception on this side, and Dr. 
Lettsome promises to devote to you all his medical skill, 
mingled with parental interest. This goes by the Hope- 
well, and a copy will be sent by packet. 

The British packet will, I think, be the best conveyance ; 
and, if you should improve it, Mr. Moore will attend to your 
comfort. If, however, a very good and fast-sailing ship be 
found for Liverpool or London, you may take it. See that 
there be fire, and in your cabin a bell. I recommend you 
to bring Sam and your black woman. If you should land 
at Falmouth, address yourself to Mr. Fox, the collector of 
the port. If at Liverpool, to William Lees, merchant. If 
perchance at Plymouth or Portsmouth, to Mr. Lockyer, 


mayor of Plymouth and collector of the port. At whatever 
port you may arrive, write immediately to Jeremy Benlham, 
Queen's Square Place, Westminster, and to J. L. Mallet, 
Esq., Somerset House, London, according to circumstances 
and the advice which you receive from the persons indica- 
ted. It is needless to add that, if your debarcation be in 
London, you will forthwith announce your arrival to the two 
gentlemen last named. I write to Dr. Hosack by both 
opportunities, and enclose him a letter from Lettsome. See 
Hosack immediately on receipt of this. 

When you write to Mr. Alston enclose him my letter. 
Dr. Hosack will write at the same time. Desire him to 
show you what lie shall write, and also that which I now 
write to him. The moment you have fixed on your ship, 
write me by every possible occasion ; but, as your strength 
and life are fast ebbing, I hope you will come by the first 
ship, and precede every letter which you might write. The 

funds in the hands of will serve you. No part need 

be remitted to me ; but, if you should be delayed, you may 
remit me one hundred guineas. 

A bust of Bentham goes by the Hopewell, and also two 
or three books. All to the care of Edward. Bring any 
papers you may please, and all the American productions 
you can lay your hands on. Beg some friend to get those 
named in the enclosed list. Kiss A. B. A. for Gamp. 

A. Burr. 


London, November 10, 1808. 

My daughter's letter, written since her return from Ball- 
ston, contains the afflicting intelligence that she has found no 
relief from any one of her complaints. I have consulted 
Dr. Lettsome, and he unites with me in opinion that the 
only chance of saving her is by a speedy and thorough 
change of climate and habits — that is, a voyage to England. 
He also expects much from the sea voyage. His letter is 


enclosed, but he has expressed himself much more strongly 
in our conversation than in his letter, having been restrained, 
it seems, by professional delicacy towards you. Of the cli- 
mate of this country, as compared with that of ours, he says 
nothing, because he knows nothing of the latter. You and I, 
however, can vouch for its superiority. He offers, and I am 
sure with sincerity, professional aid and friendly attentions. 

Feeling a strong conviction that her recovery, and even 
her life, depend on the prompt adopiion of this measure, 
and being persuaded, from what passed between us on the 
subject in April, that it will meet your approbation, I entreat 
and conjure you to promote it without loss of lime. By 
this conveyance I write to my daughter to come immediately 
to town to confer with you. As much will depend upon the 
state of her mind, I rely on you to diminish the prospect of 
inconvenience and hazard, and to animate her hopes. A 
winter passage may be rude, but it will be short. She is 
always better at sea, and, judging from my own experience, 
this climate cannot fail to be beneficial to her. The benefit 
of my presence and attentions you can estimate. 

After you shall have conversed with her, and adjusted the 
plan of her voyage, I beg you to write Mr. Alston in such 
terms as may convince him of the expediency and necessity 
of the measure, and reconcile him to it. Show this letter 
to Theodosia, and act in concert with her. You are aware 
that this is the most interesting concern of my life. Do by 
me as I should by you. 

Favour me also with your opinion as to the policy of my 

returning to the United States, and the most suitable lime. 

I have hoped that, by April, the objections lately existing 

might cease. Theodosia will give you my address, and will 

inform you of my occupations here. A. Burr. 

D 3 



London, November 10, 1808. 

You must have been long since informed of Theodosia's 
return to New-York, in the same melancholy state of health 
in which she left it. This afflicting intelligence confirms 
my apprehensions, and greatly impairs the hopes I had en- 
tertained of her recovery. Yet, with her constitution and at 
her years, while there is life we ought not to despair nor to 
relax of our exertions. I have taken the best medical advice 
which can be had in this city, and no part of the world af- 
fords so good ; and by this opportunity enclose to Dr. Hosack 
a letter from the celebrated Dr. Lettsome on the subject. 
He unites with me in the opinion that the only chance of 
saving her is a sea voyage, and a total and immediate change 
of climate and of habit. He advises a voyage to England. 
Something may undoubtedly be hoped from the voyage ; 
much from the climate, to which no part of the United 
States can bear any comparison ; and still more, perhaps, 
from the enlightened and experienced medical aid which is 
found here. Dr. Lettsome has performed wonderful cures 
in analogous cases ; the accounts of some of which 1 have 
read, and there is, I believe, no man in Europe who inspires 
so much confidence in female complaints. He is in person, 
in manners, and in intellect extremely like the late J. Dick- 
enson. He promises to unite parental interest and tender- 
ness with his medical skill. I propose to unite with him 
Dr. Bailey, a man of genius, of profound learning, and of 
vigorous and intuitive mind. With such aid, and under my 
direction and control, we may justly hope for all that human 
means can effect ; and if finally she be destined to perish 
thus early, there will remain the gloomy consolation that, 
in this stage at least, nothing has been left unessayed for 
her preservation. I ought to add that Dr. Lettsome pro- 
fesses the most confident belief that he will be able to effect 
a cure, though my hopes are by no means so sanguine. 


I have provided for her reception at every port at which 
she may probably land, and on her arrival here she will be 
assured of every friendly attention from the mother of Sir 
George Prevost, and from two other ladies whom I have 
named to her. In case of any accident to me, she will find 
a father in that venerable sage and philosopher Jeremy 
Bentham, of whose literary works you have so often heard 
me speak with enthusiastic admiration. He is, indeed, the 
most perfect model that I have seen or imagined of moral 
and intellectual excellence. He is the most intimate friend 
I have in this country, and my constant associate. I live 
in his house and compose a part of his family. The boy 
will be educated with the children of General Bentham, 
brother of the other, and who are incomparably the best 
educated children I have ever seen, as regards both their 
talents and their acquirements. 

If there can arise in your mind objections not already 
removed, they must be, first, the season of the year. Sec- 
ond, pecuniary means. It is true that the season does not 
promise a pleasant passage, but then, which is more impor- 
tant, it ensures a short one. The dangers of the sea are 
nothing. The packets are such stanch ships and so well 
found, that for the last five-and-twenty years there is but 
a single example of one being lost, and that by an accident 
which will not probably occur in fifty centuries. But, even 
were there danger at sea, to remain on shore is certain and 
inevitable death. As to money, I have transferred over to 
Theodosia the small sum which had been destined for my 
own expenses (say four or five hundred guineas) ; this will 
pay her passage and expenses to this place, and maintain 
her in the way I propose she shall live for four or five 
months. Your power of attorney, authorizing her to take 
up a given sum on your account, might be relied on as a 
resource. It will readily occur to you that, by the eslimate 
above noted, she must be abridged of some comforts. We 
have provided a small house for her. It is probable that 


her fate will be determined within six or eight months. If 
she survive, I shall return with her to the United States. 

I have now discharged my duty ; it remains for you to 
fulfil yours. It would be as insulting as unnecessary to 
address anything to your feelings, or to claim your sympa- 
thy with mine. A. Burr. 


Philadelphia, November 12, 1808. 

In the month of August last I informed you of my return 
to Philadelphia, of my sickness on the passage, and my in- 
tention of going to the Continent of Europe. 

My bad state of health has continued, and I cannot even 
now say that I am perfectly recovered. Yet I should have 
embarked on board the ship Union, lately despatched by 
government for France, if Mr. Jefferson, hearing of my in- 
tention, had not ordered the collector of this port to prevent 
my going in that vessel. This pitiful resentment could not 
forego this opportunity of thwarting my pursuits. 

Finding it impossible to exist in this country, I shall avail 
myself of the first chance of going for St. Domingo, the 
Island of Cuba, or the Continent of Europe, and I shall 
write to you again immediately before my departure for 
either of these places. Letters directed to me to Philadel- 
phia, and forwarded by the British packet, will not be sub- 
ject to be intercepted, and will be taken care of by a friend, 
who may be depended upon in case of my absence. 

The late occurrences in Europe must have been unfavour- 
able to your views ; but it appears to me highly probable 
that they soon will be followed by others which may totally 
change the complexion of affairs, and open to you the most 
promising prospects. 

I have often regretted not to be with you. Indeed, I 
would have followed you if any method had occurred to me 
of providing for my wants in England without becoming 
burdensome to yourself. 


The embargo law has given an ascendency to the Federal 
interesi in New-England ; but the other party, on the whole, 
continues to predominate, and there is not the smallest doubt 
Mr. Madison will be the next president. There remains 
scarcely any expectation that the embargo will be raised, 
but perhaps it may be transformed, into a non-intercourse 
law with England and France. 

The 6000 men which were to be raised are all enlisted, 
and will rendezvous at Carlisle to be reviewed, by General 
Wilkinson. This hero was lately here, as witness on the 
trial of Bartholomew White, to which I was also summoned. 
He has been but little attended to. The trial was postponed. 
He then went to Baltimore and challenged Mr. Harper, who 
refused to meet him on the ground of not considering him 
as on a footing with himself, or on account of the low esti- 
mation in which he stood in the opinion of the public and 
in his own. The general, in reply, has put Mr. Harper out 
of the ranks of honour. 

Hoping that even in Europe you will conserve me your 
friendship and good-will, I am, Erich Bollman. 


London, November 13, 1808. 

The Hopewell has not yet gone. I am distressed at the 
delay, believing that every day you remain in America will 
protract for two days your cure. It affords me, however, 
the opportunity of repairing some omissions. Only half the 
money will be due in December. The residue not till 

February or March, I forget which. You must get to 

point out the mode of anticipating this latter moiety; or, 
finally, Charles Loss, through his friend Francis M., which 
he will comprehend, though you may not. If you should 
fail in this negotiation, yet the other half will bring you here 
and something more. Do not, therefore, postpone a day on 
this account, but direct that the residue of the money be 
sent after you to J. L. Mallet, Somerset House, London.' 


Be kind to E. A. for my sake. On every principle of re- 
ciprocity, you ought for your own. Just before setting off, 
announce to her, to 72 and 73, your intention, and ask their 
commands. God bless, and prosper, and speed thee. What 
a ten weeks of hopes and fears are before me. 

A. Burr. 


Q. S. P., Thursday, Nov. 14, 1808. 

Dr. Roget, an intelligent physician, a nephew of Romilly, 
dines with me to-morrow (Friday), so, therefore, must you. 
I expect you, if in the course of the day I hear nothing from 
you to the contrary. J. Bentham. 


London, November 15, 1808. 

A further delay ; the Hopewell does not sail till to-morrow. 
Mr. Bentham has just been down to my room, knowing that 
I was writing to you, to say that you must come directly to 
this house. He has arranged the whole plan, and assigned 
you your rooms. It is not, however, my plan to adopt his 
arrangement. But I am quite of the opinion that you should 
make no delay at the port of arrival ; but come directly on 
to town in a stagecoach, not in the mail. Do not stint 
yourself in baggage of any kind. The transportation of it 
is very, very cheap and perfectly safe. You send it by 
wagons, or, if you should be at Liverpool, by canal, taking 
the receipt of the proprietor. Tell Sam to see that the 
trunks are well corded, and cards of address on the top, and 
at least one end of each. 

Your best mode of travelling, if landed at Falmouth, would 
be postchaise. You then stop where you please and as long. 
The expense of a postchaise from Falmouth to London is 
about twenty-five guineas. You, the boy, and blackey, could 
ride inside. AYhatever mode you adopt, pay no very great 
distance at once ; for, if your health should oblige you to lay 


by, you would lose your money. In case of arrival at Liv- 
erpool, it is possible that, in your state of health, the canal 
would be found most agreeable. I am told that they have 
very neatly-furnished rooms with fireplaces, and that the 
living on board is better than at the taverns. They go forty 
or fifty miles a day, and are not half the expense of land 
travelling. But of all these matters further particulars will 
be found in the letters which you will find at your port of 

If there be lime, write to Eustis to send you a bottle of 
Berthody's medicine — the preparation of an Italian physi- 
cian — which I have heard him call " divine." It might be 
well to take it on the passage, as it will produce no restraint 
in diet or other inconvenience. 

The captain has sworn a great oath that he will go to- 
morrow morning, and I believe he will. I have only to en- 
close my map of the city, by studying of which you may, be- 
fore your arrival, be as well acquainted with London as any 
hackney-coachman. A. Burr. 


London, November 13, 1808. Sir Mark A. Gerard and 
Captain Percival of the marines came to breakfast. The 
former was fellow-passenger with me from Halifax. The 
latter was introduced to me by him yesterday. We took 
dinner together at Story's Gate Coffee-house. After break- 
fast Sir Mark walked with me to Miss Beetham's, to pay 
for a picture — profile en noir. Miss B.not at home. Paid 
her sister Mrs. 21 shillings. Belle femme et d'esprit. 

Called on Dumont at five, and went together to dine at 

Achaud's-y-Sir Samuel Romilly et ux, formerly Miss , 

of Knil, where now lives her brother. Belle et bien elevee. 
The young Baron D'Arabit and his sister, wards of Con- 
stant. Sir Samuel has an amiable and intelligent counte- 
nance. Came off at ten o'clock. 

14. Don Castella called on me at ten. He had yesterday 


seen 89. Three letters on X.'s affairs. Went to Falieri's ; 
got home, sans accident. William Graves called at five. 
The Hopewell does not sail till the 16th. No vessel yet 
provided to take the mail to New-York. 

15. Wrote Sir Mark to call on me. Note from Captain 
Percival that Lady Hamilton was not in town. G. called 
with Capt. Stewart, an amiable young Scotchman. Sir 
Mark has discovered les personages, and will present B. A. 
on Friday. Passed the day in writing to the United States 
at home, except calling on Reeves at four about passports. 
Did not see him. K. abroad. Evening with Bentham ; 
conversed of tattooing, and how to be made useful ; of in- 
fanticide ; of crimes against Nature, &c, &c. 

16. Castella called at eleven, and sat an hour. Called at 
four on Dawe, painter ; pas talents. At five, home, safe. 
Dinner with B. and K. Tea ditto. Pass evening with . 

17. Did nothing till two, then called on Reeves about pass- 
ports. He had done nothing, would do nothing, and was 
just going out of town for four days ! Me voila prisonier 
d'etat ! At J. Wedgwood's, 328 Oxford — elle ne veut plus 
me parler. Strolled and pensant a T. et tous mes petits 
plans. Called on Madame Beetham — dehors. Sat half an 
hour au la mere, who did not know me, but received me with 
politeness. On Madame Langworthy, la mere de la belle 

18. Castella called before I was up. Breakfasted with 
me, and gave me many interesting details respecting South 
America arid of persons there. Called on General Picton, 
Dr. Blackburn, and on Mr. Duval ; waited till he came in to 
dinner, and dined with him. To Mrs. H. Surry, who con- 
fessed that there was no such person as the Hon. Mrs. 
Bruce, but that the whole was a fable imposed on her by 
Mrs. G., sister of Mrs. C, and so on me. Mrs. G. lives in 
handsome style, handsome carriages, and many servants ! 
Called on Madame W. ; found there a card from General 
Picton, and a note from Mr. Duval, with whom I am to dine 


on Sunday. Tea with Beniham. Wrole to Hosack in reply 
to his of the 17lh, and a long letter to Mrs. Prevost, Con- 
fab an hour with K. Read Thierrie an hour with B. 

20. To Madame W. Abroad. To Madame H. Surrey, 
to see further about the Hon. Madame Bruce. To the Sa- 
lopian Coffee-house, to meet Sir Mark by appointment. He 
came not, but met there Capt. Percival. Chez nous to 
dress. To Duval's to dine at five. A family party. Only 
the two sons, who are amiable and pleasant. The counsel- 
lor, Lewis, very intelligent. I had lent, for a few days, the 
picture of Theodosia, which was hung up there, and em- 
ployed more of my thoughts than the dinner and company. 
We drank her health, &c. It is very remarkable that one 
of the sons looks like Phil, and the other speaks like him. 
You will be struck with it at your first interview. Read an 
hour more of Thierrie, and laughed a great deal. Made out 
a law opinion requested by Hosack, which took me two 
hours, being obliged to hunt up the treaty of 1794 and cer- 
tain laws of the Slate of New-York. General Picton called, 
on me yesterday at the hour I was chez lui. 

21. At War-office to confer with General Hope about li- 
cense, &c. Note, I had met General Hope at dinner at 
Mr. Cooke's. He declared himself to have been an intimate 
friend of the late Col. Williamson ; to have heard him speak 
much and affectionately of me ; to have greatly desired my 
acquaintance. Gave me his address, &c. To Mrs. Ons- 
low's, about two and a half miles, new road. Au retour pres 
five. Called again at the War-office to see General H., 
having been told by the porter that he would certainly be 
in at that hour. His carriage waiting at the door. Denied ! 
Dinner chez nous with B. scul. Koe came in, and we read 
Thierrie. B. always goes to bed at eleven, at which hour, 
of course, I come down to my room. Wrote to you, and 
for you, and about you till two. 

22. Sir Mark came in at twelve to apologize for his de- 
fault on Sunday. Walked with him to be introduced to 


Signora ; truly a very lovely woman ; native of 

Corsica; widow of a British officer ; peut etre thirty-two; 
pari Ital., French, and English ; une physionomie tres in- 
terressante ; nous y rencontrames four autres dames estran- 
geres. Walked with the general to Tottenham Court Road, 
having twice egared on the way. We parted. To Ons- 
low's — je la trouve superlement mise et au beaucoup de 
gout. Jouames Eches — je gagnai. Elle ne joua quelques 
airs assez joliment sur la Harpe. Left at half past four. 
In returning, stopped at Ridgway's. After dinner, read Thi- 
errie a little. 

23. Castella came in and took breakfast. Stayed two 
hours. Had received a very interesting letter from his 

friend , in Spain. He is to call again on Friday. 

Many things proposed for consideration. Baron N. left 
word that he had called at the particular request of the sis- 
ter of Sir W. Poultney. This another inquiry about Amer- 
ican laws. To Falieri's. After essaying an hour, he deter- 
mined to abandon this, his second work, and try again. 
Note, I have already paid him £30 sterling ! ! Returning, 
at M. Duval's, to thank her for the pretty manner in which 
the picture was sent home. She said rolling injured it, and 
she had procured a very handsome portfolio, made just to 
receive it; an attention which very much pleased me. To 
Achaud's ; gave instructions about the letters they are to 
write to Portsmouth, Falmouth, and Liverpool. To Reeves's, 
who prayed me to dine. Engaged to return after dinner. 
Dinner chez nous B. scul. Koe enters at six. At seven 
went to Reeves's. Gave him up his license. Claimed the 
privileges of a British subject as a birthright, which I had a 
right to resume, and gave him notice that I should go where 
I pleased. This violent measure, however, grew out of his 
suggestions. He promised to report the case to Lord 
Hawkesbury, who would probably refer it to the attorney- 
general. R. is to communicate to me the result. Returned 
to tea. Read Thierrie with B. and K. When returning 


home, called at Turnevelli's, the statuary, and engaged to 
give him a sitting to-morrow. 

24. Went to Turnevelli's. He would have a mask. I 
consented, because Benlham et others had. A very unpleas- 
ant ceremony. To Sir Mark's ; he was sitting down to break- 
fast. Walked together. Called at Herries and Farquar's, 
James's-street, agents of the late Col. Charles Williamson, 
to see for letters from Theodosia. None 1 none ! Return- 
ing with G., found a note from Baron Norton, requesting an 
interview. No doubt some law business. Wrote him to 
call at twelve to-morrow. Sir Mark had engaged me to call 
on Signora B. Just as we were going out, casting my eyes 
in the mirror I observed a great purple mark on my nose. 
Went up and washed it, and rubbed it — all to no purpose. 
It was indelible. That cursed mask business has occasioned 
it. I believe the fellow used quicklime instead of plaster of 
Paris, for I felt a very unpleasant degree of heat during the 
operation. I sent Sir Mark off, resolved to see no signora 
till the proboscis be in order. Wrote Ons., with whom I had 
engaged to pass the evening, apologizing. Sent Tom with 
the packet for S., to be put into the mail for Falmouth. Also 
a letter for E. in French. Dinner with Bentham, Koe being 
gone to Hamstead. I have been applying a dozen different 
applications to the nose, which have only inflamed it. How 
many curses have I heaped on that Italian. Read to B. 
review of Leckie's work, which took till nine. K. came in, 
and we finished Thierrie. I shall go early to bed (say 
twelve), in hopes to sleep off my nasology. 

25. Did not get to bed till one. Rose at nine. Nose the 
same. At eleven, went to Turnevelli's to sit. Relieved my- 
self by abusing him for the nose disaster. He bore it like 
one conscious, and endeavoured to console me by stating 
that the same thing happened to Lord Melville and to sev- 
eral others, and that the appearance passed off in a few 
days. Took a hack, not liking to walk and exhibit my 
nose. Stayed two hours with Turnevelli. He will make a 


most hideous, frightful thing, but much like the original. 
After leaving T., being unfit for any reasonable thing, rode 

to Madame O.'s to apprize her . Rode to F.'s to give 

him a written memorandum of the defects, and containing 
precise directions. Stayed at Madame O.'s till nine. On 
return home, B. was writing. Couche. 

26. Called at the house which C. gave me as his resi- 
dence. The lady said he did not lodge there, she not being 
able to accommodate his family ; that is, his niece. Home 
to dress for dinner, being engaged to General Picton at the 
Tower Coffee-house. Went there, the nose notwithstand- 
ing, at 5-y-Capt. Charles Smith, Baron Montalbert, who had 
served in St. Domingo, and said De Pestre was one of his 
officers, i. e., under his command. Spoke of De Pestre 
handsomely, but not in the warm terms which his virtues, 

his courage, and his talents merit. Also Dr. , an Irish 

gentleman who was in the medical department of Trinidad, 
with Picton, and his particular friend. A frank, intelligent 
man. General Picton was governor of Trinidad, and had 
here a very unpleasant lawsuit, on a charge for applying tor- 
ture to a mulatto girl to extort a confession of a theft to 
which there was reason to believe she was a party. The 
ministry did not support him. 

I come back to Friday to say that Baron Norton, agreea- 
bly to my appointment, called promptly at twelve. His er- 
rand was to inquire about the estate of the late Lady Buth, 
the daughter of Sir W. Poultney, and particularly as to the 
laws of descent in New-York. He is Judicial Baron of 
Scotland, whither he is going in a few days. Gave me his 
address, and offered me all sort of civilities. Mrs. Norton, 
his wife, is a niece of the late Sir W. P. Perhaps a sister. 
No, it is niece, and sister of the late Lady Buth. 

Our dinner was a very good one, of three changes, and 
four kinds of wine. Being in very bad order for society, I 
left them before coffee. Just spoke to B. and come to my 
room. After ruminating and doing nothing for two hours — 


to bed. In the course of the day called at Mrs. W.'s and 
found her in tears, with a gentleman by her side, consoling 
her in his manner, and from which I supposed something 
very melancholy had happened. He went off, and on in- 
quiring the cause, which was too long to be written, I found 
it so ridiculous that I scolded and laughed at her till she also 

27. Sent Tom to Walbrooke to Madame W., which is his 
daily tour. At twelve called on Reeves. He showed me a 
letter from Col. Jenkinson about my pretensions as a British 
subject. Dampier has given opinion that I may resume at 
pleasure. The lord-chancellor, Eldon, that 1 cannot, and 
am for ever an alien. The attorney-general is doubting. 
Lord Hawkesbury thinks the claim monstrous. I begin to 
think the policy of this movement very doubtful. I am out 
of all patience at being detained in town, and am in danger 
of wearying out my great and good friend Bentham. 

From Reeves's walked on to visit the donna ; but, recol- 
lecting my nose, walked home. Tom had brought a letter 
from Graves, who is a most indefatigable and good creature. 
At two went over Westminster Bridge, and through South- 
wark to the London Bridge. Then round by the Tower, 
which I had never before seen. It is surrounded by a ditch, 
throueh which the Thames water flows: but it would not re- 
sist an enemy provided with heavy cannon for twenty-four 
hours. It may do very well to keep the lions and state prison- 
ers. Came back by Blackfriars' and Westminster Bridges, 
and got home safe at four, having walked, as your map will 
show you, at least eight miles. Dinner below. B. and K. 
went up, and, against my advice, began the reading of the 
Preface and Eloge of Thierrie. B. got asleep, and I, ap- 
proaching to it, came down to bring up my journal for the last 
three days. 

28. Nose a little improved. Sent Tom to Graves for 
the Laws of the State of New-York, and to Miller, boot- 
maker. It is now five weeks since I put into Miller's hands 


some of Bellamy's leather for a pair of boots. One pair, 
which I could not get on, were sent and were returned. 
Since that I have had daily promises, but no boots. The 
shoes, which cost 17 shillings sterling, I could not wear, 
and have given them away. Thus it is with every mechanic 
I have employed in London, except my tailor, Beck, who 
lies a little, but far less than any other. Waited till one for 
Tom's return, and then went to T. Sat one hour. Worse 
and worse. This was meant to please you ; but, if I had 
suspected that I had become so ugly, I would sooner have — 

Roved about for two hours, ruminating on this sort of non- 
existence and on you. E. A. too often accompanies me. 
Got home safe at four. Mr. Elkton Hammond, merchant, 
to dine with us. A very intelligent young man ; admiring 
the works of B. Has two sisters ; one studies legislation, 
the other chymistry. The chymist said to be pretty. I am 
to dine there with B. on Thursday, when you shall hear 
more of them. This is the first time of Bentham's dining 
out. Mr. Slade sent me this morning a dozen Boston news- 
papers. What a nation of scoundrels you are, if one is to 
believe the Gazettes. 

29. I don't recollect to have told you that, on my return 
from Weybridge, I had determined to set off immediately 
for Scotland. Six weeks have elapsed, and I am apparently 
(what scrawls ; I must try to do better, or this precious mem- 
orandum will be lost to you and to the world) no nearer 
departure than on the day of my return. 

Castella called with his friend P. at eleven. Pra. is a 
pleasant, amiable young man. Each a niece ! P. has of- 
fered me some interesting maps and papers. Had deter- 
mined to go to-day to Weybridge; but, having neglected to 
secure a passage, the stage was full, &c. Went out at one 
to hunt a chess-table; bought one, which, after buying, I 
found was not the thing. Gave it up on paying two shillings. 
Home at two. A letter from Graves by Tom. American 
news to November 8, by a schooner which run out of New- 


York, the embargo notwithstanding. You go on exactly as 
I expected, and as I declared four months ago. At three to 
donna. A very interesting woman ; a tall, graceful figure, 
and the eyes and hair of Italian beauty. No rouge, but in- 
teresting physiognomy. If I were to stay in town, should 
pass many hours with donna. To Falieri's at five. Thence 
to Madame O.'s, having taken, by way of dinner, a jelly and 
biscuit on the way. Played two games of chess, and won 
both. Got home at eight. Read with Bentham an hour in 
Semple's Travels in Spain. 

30. It is in the evening only that I write to you in this 
manner. After writing what you see of yesterday, Koe came 
into my room about twelve, and challenged me at chess. 
We played till four this morning. I had ordered Anna to 
wake me at seven. She called at the hour. I answered, 
and slept on till ten. To Vickcey, the celebrated peruquier, 
Covent Garden, to get a peruke for my country tour. Dress- 
ing my head in any fashion takes some time, and cannot be 
done on a journey ; so I have taken again to the wig. Call- 
ed at Mrs. W.'s on my return. She says several have called 
without leaving their names, perhaps some one with letters 
from vou ! The sight of your handwriting would make a 
jubilee in my heart. Found there a letter from Mrs. Prevost, 
and a very pretty one from Madame Godwin. Came home, 
answered Mrs. G.'s. Wrote also to Guillemard, from whom 
a second note came to-day. Found waiting for me in my 
room Captain Smith, whose civilities are unremitted, and of 
the most friendly kind. Went to Falieri's. He has tried 
again, and I think has now succeeded. He has adopted an 
improvement on my suggestion, which he now values very 
much ; but I had gre»t trouble to make him do so. To Ma- 
dame O.'s at five. Took tea, and played chess with O. Got 
home at nine. Found that D. M. Randolph had called. What 
can have brought him ? I am, however, most heartily glad 
he has come. I was just going to write him to come. He 
has been for some time at Bath. Read with B. and K. an 


hour in Semple. Wrote Mrs. Prevost. The nose improves 
apace ; hope it will be exhibitable to-morrow, and be fit for 
inspection of the legislatrix and the chymistress. Bon soir! 


London, November 19, 1808. 

It is impossible, my dear friend, to apologize for this long 
silence. You may consider it as some palliation that I have 
daily had my own reproaches ; and, indeed, I could have 
written you nothing of myself but a history of unimportant 
vexations. When we parted, it was my intention to have 
passed only four days in this city; and lo ! a month has 
passed, and I am no nearer departure than on the day of 
my arrival. It is something about passports, which shall be 
communicated personally. Nothing has been refused to 
me ; nay, everything has been promised, but nothing has 
been granted, and it is presumed that I am kept in good- 
humour by fair words and good dinners. 

It gave me great pleasure to learn that Sir George had 
been ordered to the West Indies. He has been so much 
habituated to tropical climates, that he has nothing to ap- 
prehend on the score of health ; and, whenever he shall be 
called into active service, he cannot fail to acquire honour 
and preferment. You must think as I do on this subject, 
though you may feel differently. I have lately mingled 
much with military men, and I find the confidence in his 
military talents to be universal ; a sentiment so general and 
so strong cannot fail to produce some effect. I have very 
often the satisfaction of adding the sanction of my unimpor- 
tant opinion. If the war should continue for another year, 
I hope to see him called to higher destinies. 

I am quite in despair about your amiable friend, Miss 
Mallet; rather, it should be said, about myself, as regards 
all hope of her friendship, or even a further acquaintance. 
By my own folly and indolence, I lost the charming occa- 
sion which was offered at your house. On my return to 


town I called on her and found her in a large circle of 
company. At two other visits she was abroad, and I am 
told by her friends that it is always so. That the charms 
of her conversation attract a levee whenever she is visible 
at home, and that the goodness of her heart involves her so 
much in the services of her distant friends, that she has 
more business on hand than any minister of state. Now, 
under such a regime, what chance has such a pilgrim as I ? 
living, too, at the distance of near three miles from her. 

Yes, I now recollect that I have one idle story to make 
you laugh ; but, as the drama is scarcely yet begun, we can- 
not exactly foresee what character of folly it may assume. 
You must remember that I teazed you, and all your ac- 
quaintance whom I met at Weybridge, with inquiries about 
the honourable Mrs. Bruce ; a lady who travels with six 
horses and as many servants, who had condescended to 
seek my acquaintance under that name. Having heard 
nothing from you or from any one of your circle respecting 
such a personage, though said to live within three miles of 
Weybridge, I had totally forgotten as well the subject of 
the inquiry as the circumstances which led to it. No 
wonder that you could give no information. There is no 
such person ! The lady who assumed that name has now 
made known her real one. Though the disclosure was 
made three days ago, I have not yet availed myself of the 
information. Yet, be assured, you shall hear more of it. I 
have reason to suspect, however, that there is nothing in the 
incident which ought to flatter my vanity. 

The health of my poor daughter — the loss of her health, 
I mean — is a constant source of distress to me. Nothing 
has been heard from her since I saw you. The packet is 
hourly expected, and with what solicitude no one knows 
better than yourself. In the mean time, having taken the 
advice of physicians here, I have written, advising her to 
come forthwith to England. If she should not be much 
worse or much better at the receipt of my letter, she will 

Vol. I.— E 


come. You perceive how much anxiety I have prepared 
for myself by advising a winter passage. 

Though I began this letter imagining I had nothing to 
say, yet I now find a deal more which I wish to say ; but 
this is already of such unusual and unconscionable length, 
that it must, for the present, be deferred. You shall not 
have to reproach me with another month's silence. I have 
been living all this while with my great and good friend 
Bentham. He is an inexhaustible mine of science and wis- 
dom. He must be dead a hundred years before he will be 
known ; and then he will be adored. 

We have had no opportunity to talk over the Gunn party. 
I was very much amused. I am certainly much indebted 
to Mr. Gunn for the civilities shown me, and still more for 
those which he offered. But will this letter never be fin- 
ished? Yes, my dear madam, it is done. 

A. Burr 


London, November 21, 1808. 

The Hopewell actually sailed on Wednesday the 16th; 
and, I am concerned to add, that the little parcels were all 

That as little as possible may be left to hazard, 1 enclose 
a copy (fac-simile) of that letter, and also of the one therein 
enclosed for Mr. Alston. If both should be received, you 
may forward to him both or one only, as you please ; but 
the letter to him of this date, on another subject, must be 

I dined on Friday with Mrs. Duval, en famille. Ourselves 
and her two sons composed the party. One is a lawyer, 
Lewis Duval, No. 16 Oldbuildings, Lincoln's Inn. The 
other a custom-house officer; both amiable. The former 
very intelligent. They have been extremely kind to me. 
I mention the residence of Lewis, that, in case of your arri- 
val in this port, you may, if you should find it necessary, an- 


nounce yourself to him instead of Mallet. He would see 
you without delay, and take pleasure in being useful to you. 
Mrs. Duval had requested a sight of your picture, and I had 
sent it there. It was put up in a good light, and had more 
of my attention than the dinner or the company. I am happy 
to tell you that it is in perfect preservation. 

In advising you to come here, I have endeavoured to take 
a view of everything connected with the subject. You will, 
nevertheless, act your discretion, but it is my belief that there 
is no other chance of your recovery, and I have a strong 
persuasion that before you were here two months you would 
be well. It will be a dull day to me on which I shall hear 
that you are not coming. Yet I repeat that it is you who 
must finally decide. If you should have a tutor perfectly to 
your mind, bring him with you. Notwithstanding the ob- 
jections made to the pere Bab, I should not be sorry that it 
were him. But he must give up vin Bourdeaux and come 
to beer, or at least some vin Portuguis. 

The memorandum of books to be brought with you was 
omitted in my last, but shall be subjoined hereto. It would 
delight an English author to see an American edition. Some 
of the writings of Godwin, of Miss Edgeworth, and of Miss 
Owenson, I know have been republished in the United 
States. You will see afl. these personages. Mr. G. ex- 
pressed to me a strong desire to have such an edition. This 
reminds me to say that I have seen the two daughters of 
Mary Wolstoncraft. They are very fine children (the eldest 
no longer a child, being now fifteen), but scarcely a discern- 
ible trace of the mother. Mr. Godwin has been seven or 
eight years married to a second wife ; a sensible, amiable 
woman, by whom he has a son, a remarkably fine boy. 
Your picture of Mary is finer than the original, and he says 
a better likeness. 

I hope you will sometimes communicate to E. A. what- 
ever you think will amuse and interest. The letters which 
I receive from 61 are shown to at least one person. Tell 

E 2 


him so. I am now ten weeks and more without news from 
you. How many changes may have taken place ! You 
may be well ; you may be worse. 

This goes by packet, the mail for which is made up to- 
day. What shall I do about writing to you again, believing, 
as I shall, that you will be on the ocean ? As there is a 
possibility that you may not come, it would, in such a case, 
be afflicting to have you four months without news from 
me. Let us do thus: I will write 71, and will direct the 
person to whom they may be enclosed to deliver them to you 
in case, &c, and I now order you to open them, and, after 
perusing, send them on. 

My amiable friend Bentham is a botanist. Bring a hand- 
ful of the Pecan or Illinois nut ; of the butternut, the black 
walnut, the hickory nut, or shellbark. A handful of each. 
A handful, indeed ! why, your little paw could not possibly 
hold more than two black walnuts or butternuts. Bring, 
then, forty or fifty of each. A few English walnuts of Amer- 
ican growth might be a curiosity. One very large and hand- 
some ear of Indian corn. You may think of other things. 
Perhaps nothing would divert him more than a Malta cat. 
He is fond of cats, and has never seen one of that breed. 
Neither have you, to my knowledge. If you should have 
on board some of your favourite tea, or other contraband 
article for your own use, the best way is to mention the 
thing to Mr. Fox if you should arrive at Falmouth, or to 
Mr. Lees if at Liverpool, and you will have no difficulty. 
I have not been able to find here that kind of tea. Your 
clothes will be in fashion. White dresses (muslins, cali- 
coes) are universal. When in the street, hideous crimson 
pelisses and shawls. Those precious handkerchiefs are all 
safe, and are kept for you. The bundle was never opened 
till a few weeks ago. 

I am always full of trouble at the moment of despatching 
letters, being always a little too late, of which you have had 
too many examples. It is only to you, however. My let- 


ters to others are always ready ; but towards you, a desire to 
say something at the last moment — a reluctance resembling 
that of parting ; but all this you know and feel. 

Lest some evil demon should detain you, it is necessary 
to say something more of money. If you should find it im- 
possible to come, remit to me all the money which may 
arise from the fund in your hands except one thousand dol- 
lars, which you will retain for your own use. That is five 
hundred dollars out of the first, and five hundred out of the 
second payment. If you shall, in your wisdom, see cause 
to remit to me any part of this 1000 dollars, you must, at 
the same time, direct me how to lay it out here for you ; 
not in general terms, but in specified articles. You will 
want books, and you will want bagatelles for cadets ; but be 
as particular as possible. Not one of the commissions 
which you gave me has been forgotten, though not one has 
been executed. 

At Halifax, the whole town was in a bustle to get me a 
good Newfoundland dog. More than thirty were brought 
me for instructions, but not one suited. There is no new 
treatise of any value on electricity or on sound, except what 
is found in books on the various branches of philosophy. 
To come back to the money. Though I have proposed to 
you to remit J. B., yet, as he is not a man of business in 
the mercantile sense, the bills had, I think, better be in the 
name of John L. Mallet, Esq., Somerset House, London. 
I am now writing in Mr. B.'s room and by his side. He 
wills it so, insisting that there is a sort of social intercourse 
in sitting near, and looking now and then at each other, 
though we are separately and ever so intensely employed. 
It is certainly so. 

I shall immediately, that is to-morrow, send a letter for 
you to Liverpool, to be forwarded by the first ship, and then 
I am off for a few weeks — first to Weybridge, then to Ox- 
ford and Cambridge, perhaps even to Edinburgh, for eight 
days. But letters by the packet, which has been for ten 


days hourly expected, may overturn the whole of this pro- 
ject. If we are not to meet here, you must indemnify me 
in some degree by copious letters. Write me of the politics 
of the country, and of anything which concerns my friends. 
Above all, some details of yourself. Here are six months 
gone, and I have scarcely ten lines from you. 

Another day of grace allows me to add a few more last 
words. The packet mail is detained till to-morrow evening, 
by the arrival of the mail from New- York. That packet 
which has been so long and so anxiously expected has at 
length arrived. I have been hours running about, hunting 
for letters ; but, alas ! not one from you. You may imagine 
my state of desolation at such a disappointment. Yet I hope 
that your letters and others from New-York may have been 
intrusted to some passenger who has not yet got to town, or 
may not yet have found me out. The only good news which 
this packet brings me respecting any American friend is, 
that the business of E. A. has been successfully terminated. 
On this and its consequences I beg you to write a pretty 
congratulatory letter. A. Burr. 


Weybridge, November 25, 1808. 

I should not answer so soon your tardy letter, my dear 
sir, were I not anxious to know if the last packet has brought 
you any from your daughter, with a favourable account of 
her health, which I sincerely wish may be the case. I had 
a letter from Lady Prevost of 6th of October by the sloop- 
of-war. My son was out at that time, fully occupied with 
the promotion of the expedition, which the public papers 
say is not to take place ; and I am bad enough to rejoice at 
it. Such are the feelings of a mother. Not a Macedonian 

If you have nothing better to do, come here, to procure 
me the pleasure of introducing my youngest son and his 
wife to you. They arrived here last night from Bath. 


You'll have an opportunity of thanking the Gunns, great 
and small, for their civility ; and I promise you harmony 
and liberty. Your own hand is preferable to the fictitious 
one. In haste, and very sincerely, A. Prevost. 


London, November 30, 1808. 

It is very kind of you, my dear madam, to write me so 
soon, or, indeed, to write at all, seeing my many defaults. 
I thank you particularly for the notice of your son's arrival, 
and shall, with very great pleasure, avail myself of the occa- 
sion to be made known to him. Expect me by the morning 
coach of Saturday ; to be at your disposal for that day, and 
a part, at least, of the following. 

Not a line from my daughter by the last packet, though 
she is the most punctual of all correspondents. This cir- 
cumstance would fill me with gloomy apprehensions were 
it not for the incidental mention of her name in the letter 
of a friend. I yet hope that her letters may have been con- 
fided to some passenger who has not found me out. 

A. Burr. 


London, December 1, 1808. Up at seven — breakfast at 
eight. Some hopes of reform. To Turnevelli's — abroad. 
I am glad of it ; for I would give five guineas that the thing 
were demolished. 

2. To D. M. R. at eleven ; not quite so mad as yesterday, 
yet a little out. Preparing a poem, which he consents to let 
lie by for some months. A very civil note from Guille- 
mard, to which replied. Wrote several other notes. Sent 
trunks to get better locks. So much trouble as I had to get 
trunks, and the locks worth nothing. To T.'s, who had been 
to hunt me. Sat only twenty minutes. He is determined 
to go through with it. Tries to encourage me. Finds it 
wonderfully like Voltaire ; but all won't do. It is a horrid 


piece of deformity. To Fal. ; not ready. To Miss Mallet. 
The most rational being I have seen. Stayed a whole hour, 
and greatly pleased with her. Good breeding and social 
talents in a degree very rare. (Why don't I go there 
oftener ? Because I do nothing that I wish or intend.) At 
five, to Col. Charles Smith's ; seven, Col. Kearney, a re- 
spectable, quiet subject, living thirty miles from London. 
Dr. Flanagan, who was in Trinidad with Picton, whom he 
represents to be a man of rigid integrity and great disinter- 
estedness. Took no fees or perquisites while governor. 
Such a man will not suit, and hence out of favour. Dr. F. 
is a sprightly, sensible, frank, well-informed man. Ten- 
dered many civilities. An abominable tale was told of the 
Prince of Wales, of the annuity of £200 to -, the fa- 
mous groom and jockey, General , who has gone to 

command at Lisbon. His eulogy — Shaving the Seapoys — 
was secretary in Ireland. General Picton has two brothers 
in Wales. One a private gentleman, the other a clergy- 
man. Three brothers, Pictons. 

3. Had very carefully put M. Achaud's letter, my hand- 
kerchiefs, and other small articles in the pockets of the coat 
I intended to wear. Anna had put my room in order before 
I got down. After being two hours on the road, missed my 
handkerchiefs, and, upon examination, discovered that I had 
taken the wrong coat. What a curse to have two coats at 
a time. But the letter ; the letter of Madam A. to P. ! 
Met at Brentford the coach going to town. Engaged the 
driver for half a crown to go to Bentham's for the letter. 
Wrote K. to give him it. Breakfasted at Brentford. A 
sensible elderly lady in the coach, going to Mrs. Merry's, 
Chelsea. This cannot be our Madame Merry. Arrived at 
Weybridge at one, having been five hours on the road. Dis- 
tance twenty-one miles. This is the usual rate of stage- 
coaching in this country, except the mail. 

At Mrs. Prevost's, her son Lieut. Col. William Prevost 
and wife ; an Irish lady, Miss Hamilton. Her father now 


at ■ in Somerset, one British merchant in Liverpool, 

one very young merchant at Quebec, making a fortune out 
of the embargo. She offered a letter for you to her brother 
in Liverpool, in case you should land there. Dinner at five 
en famille. Cards ; au soir. 

In the forenoon walked with Mrs. Prevost. Met several 
Gunns, but not Eliza. After returning, went to Gunn's. 
He abroad. Madame and the five daughters chez elle. 
All very accomplished. All talents. The mother and 
Eliza superior. Came home to the tavern at eleven. I 
refused a bed at Mrs. Prevost's, being more at my ease to 
smoke my segar and tell little Theodosia what I have been 
about. But I don't tell half nor a quarter. These are only 
notes to write from. Afraid to write out. 

Sunday, 4. Breakfasted at Mrs. P.'s. Walked through 
Oatland's Park to Walton, to see Mr. O'Callahan. Stopped 
at the outer Park gate, and got a passage after much difficulty. 
Mr. and Madame O'C. abroad. M'lle. chez elle et comme me 
paroitunpeu S. Urged to dine. Mr. Gunn came in ; going 
out, met Mr. O'C, who, with Gunn, walked with me over the 
commons, not choosing to try the Park on my return. Point- 
ed out to me on an eminence, about one mile distant, a place 
formerly the residence of Edward III., and afterward of 
Cardinal Wolsey, now the property of a broker, who has 
taken down the ancient structures, and put up a modern 
house in very bad taste. 

Near Weybridge met Madame Gunn and five daughters, 
with whom walked in the Park, and went to see the kanga- 
roos and other beasts. Called on Mr. Bissett, once a very 
respectable clergyman at New- York, now corrector of the 
press to a printing-office in Weybridge. He went home 
with me and stayed till five. Dinner chez Madame Prevost- 

y-Col. R. et ux, Captain et ux. Came home at nine. 

Mr. Gunn sent me a letter for his steward in Ireland. M'lle. 

gave letter to her brother at Liverpool, to whom she also 

wrote about Theodosia. The last letter from M. Achaud 
• E3 


to M. P. came by this clay's mail, but charged with post- 
age ! 

5. Got in stage at half past seven. Breakfasted at Brent- 
ford. Arrived at half past eleven. Thus you may see the 
rate of travelling. Stage-fare going and coming, fourteen 
shillings sterling. To the coachman two shillings ; bill at 
Weybridge eleven shillings and sixpence ; maid two shil- 
lings and sixpence ; two breakfasts, three shillings ; and 
extra two shillings and sixpence to the driver, who took my 
letter to Bentham. Total, thirty-five shillings and sixpence, 
though I lived at Mrs. P.'s. 

Took coach at Charing Cross, and went to Madame W.'s. 
My little villain, Tom, had been without orders and taken 
up my letters. Home at one. Found a letter from Guille- 
mard, transmitting the laws of New-York, and an invitation 
to dine to-morrow, which I was obliged to refuse. Sor. at 
two — to the Tower Coffee-house, Bond-street, to see Dr. 
Flanagan. Denied that he lived there, though he gave it to 
me as his address. To Miss Mallet, with Mrs. Prevost's 
letter — abroad ; to Major General Picton's — abroad ; to Fa- 
lieri's, where stayed an hour. Still not done. Returning, 
called at M. Achaud's ; nobody at home. Quod mirum ! 
By way of dinner, three oysters, jelly, and cake. Called at 
Godwin's at five, knowing that he dines at four. Found 
them at tea, and joined — the three daughters and little son. 
Agreed with madame for rendezvous to-morrow at eleven 
at Mr. Lamb's rooms* He is a writer, and lives with a 
maiden sister, also literaire, in a fourth story. Forgot ; on 
my way from Achaud's, called on D. M. R., and walked half 
an hour with him. Mad again on poetry and politics. Chez 
nous eight. Read an hour in the Edinburgh Review of the 
life of Washington. Spent two hours in hunting for some 
bank bills, my whole stock, and finally gave them up as lost. 
Found them when and where least expected. 

6. At eleven to meet Madame G. Met at the door of the 

* Since the celebrated Charles Lamb. 


place. Walked about the Temple, which comprises a large 
irregular square. Several small courts and alleys. Many- 
handsome buildings. Two gardens on the banks of the 
Thames, very pretty. Madame had found a more convenient 
place at the house of Mr. Norris, treasurer of something. 
A handsome parlour. Passed an hour talking over the af- 
fairs of Mr. G. Walked with her to Holborn, and then went 
to Turnevelli's, where sat an hour. Home at four. Caught 
in the rain, having yesterday left my umbrella at Brentford 
— no doubt lost. 

Dinner B. and K. Read out the review of the life of 
Washington by Marshall and Ramsay. The review is full 
as stupid, and as illy written, as either of the books. Came 
down to bring up your journal, lest such important incidents 
should not be recorded. I know you will rave like a little 
Juno if you are not told what I do, and where I go every 
day. I could write six or eight very amusing pages of the 
incidents of the last three days, but they must be said and 
not written. Sir M. G. called on me just as I got home to- 
day, and gave me his address at his new lodgings. Yesterday 
called at O.'s ; she was engaged. Have not seen donna, but 
hear that she is very ill. 

[My journal is four days in arrear. Half will be forgotten. 
This is Saturday evening. I will try to recollect.] 

7. Rose at ten. Such is the mode in London. Out at 
one. Going up Haymarket, met 0., and walked with her 
half an hour. Went to the stagehouse to inquire for my 
umbrella, but with little hope. It was there, brought by the 
coachman. How very honest people are here, and yet I am 
cheated most impudently every hour. Met Sir Mark, and 
walked an hour with him. To Turnevelli's — not at home. 
Shall never be done with that fellow, and yet he tries his 
best ; but the strange irregularities and deformities of the 
face defies all art. To O.'s for ten minutes, to say I would 
come to-morrow. To Sir M. Gerard's to dine ; plagued to 
find the house. Like a true Irishman, he had mistaken his 


address. The same happened with Dr. Flanagan on Mon- 
day. Monsieur , the host of Sir Mark, has seen better 

days. He is now one of the pensioners of this government. 
Sa femme, a pretty, amiable Angloise, who speaks French 

Left Sir G. at eight, and went by way of Gray's Inn to 
Godwin's, where stayed till ten, and then at a very rapid rate 
home — twenty-six minutes by the watch, being near three 
miles. Two shillings to beggar girls. Just said bon soir 
to B., and came to my room. Chess with K. till one. Sat 
up two hours after, packing up. Shall I ever get out of 
town to make this long-projected tour ? Yes, on Saturday 
evening, pos. 

8. Wrote to Reeves, and left his letter at his house, he 
not being at home. Before going out, Graves came in to 
tell me that the mail for the packet would close at five P. M. 
this day ; yet, instead of sitting down to write to you, you 
see what I did. To Madame Duval's. Called at Beetham's, 
and got my picture of Catharine L. To Reeves's ; he was 
reading my letter, and begged me to dine, being then past 
four. I told him my distress about the packet. He sent a 
messenger to inquire. The mail would close at five, but 
sailing orders would not go till to-morrow's mail, and he is 
to get your letter along with those of government. So stayed 
to dine. Left them at seven, under pretence of my great 
importance to write, and went off three miles to O.'s, where 
I stayed till ten. Two games of chess, and was beat in both 
games, though I tried my best. Home at eleven. 

9. Castella came and took breakfast with me. Sent him 
off, being busy ; engaged to walk with him at eight to-mor- 
row morning. Had omitted to send yesterday to Mrs. W. 
Tom brought me the note of General Hope. Enclosed your 
letter and E. A.'s to Mr. Reeves. To Horse Guards to meet 
General Hope by appointment. An explanation was given. 
To testify his intimacy with Col. Williamson, he showed 
me the very chiffre which I had given Williamson. Many 


courtesies and two letters for Scotland. Chez nous half 
past four. Dinner Bentham and Koe. Post meridian, went 
to see Godwin. Stayed till nine. Took tea. The children 
all very glad to see Gamp. Home at ten. 

10. Just as I had done breakfast Castella came in. At 
ten began our march. Walked to Pultney. Saw Th. 
only. He sick and the child at school. Came off in a 
wherry at twelve, and got to Weybridge in fifty minutes. 
Distance by water six miles. Gamp, has walked a great 
deal and is tired — now two o'clock. He will finish in the 
morning. When shall I begin my journey ? Alas ! alas ! 

Saturday, 10, continued. On the way to Pultney we pass 
through the small towns of Chelsea, Battersea, and Fulham. 
At the last, cross a bridge over the Thames. The return 
"by water is very beautiful. To Turnevelli's at two. I wish 
I never had began with him. To Falieri's. He has suc- 
ceeded very well, except the colour. Home at five. The 
whole evening with K., scul. At eleven came down to my 
room. Read newspapers one hour. The poor Dons came 
out, as I told you. Whether the British will get safe off is 
now the question. 

11. Slept like a log till ten, and then was called. This 
atmosphere is certainly narcotic. You see all along how 
enormously I have slept. Captain Percival called and stayed 
an hour. Went to see the donna ; she had gone to mass. 
Called at Bridgwater's and Grimstone's. Neither of them 
in town, but Grimstone expected. Nevertheless, I will go to 
St. Alban's to-morrow to see him. His daughters are very 
sensible, amiable women. Went by Oxford to Holborn, 
and took coach to Smithfield to see for a passage to St. Al- 
ban's. Engaged a seat, and also a bed at the Angel Inn, to 
go at four to-morrow morning. To Godwin's, and spent 
half an hour with Mr. J. G. ; then walked home by way of 
Covent Garden to avoid the Strand, which is for ever so 
crowded and so dirty that there's no getting on with com- 
fort. Dinner B. and K. 


Immediately after dinner to work packing up. Wrote a 
long letter to M. L. D. about Mr. Godwin's business. At 
ten all ready. Took leave of B., and, sent for a hack to 
transport me and my trunk, being, as you will see by your 
map, three good miles. No coach was to be had. Went 
myself — no coach ; so here is Gamp., at two in the morn- 
ing, at Queen's Square Place, writing nonsense to T. B. A., 
having let all his fire go out and the last candle just gone. 
I have ordered Ann to wake me at seven. For what ? When 
shall I get off ? 

12. Ann did call me at seven; but I slept, nevertheless, 
a PAnglois, till past nine. Sent off Tom with notes written 
last night, but dated this morning, to M. J. G. and Mr. Graves, 
enclosing to him my letter to Davis. Tom is to bring word, 
of the hour of the stage going to Gaddesden, being deter- 
mined to go somewhere to-day. Tom did not return till one, 
and brought word that the stage would go at half past one ; 
so got coach and went off at a great rate. The stage had. 
been gone ten minutes before I got there. Quoi faire ? Re- 
solved not to go back to Q. S. P. I thought I would go and 
hunt for some coach, going any hour to-day or night ; but, 
having no place to put my trunk, was obliged to keep the 
coach. After running about for two hours and spending 
nine shillings in coach hire, I discovered, what at any stage- 
house they might have told us, that no coach would go to 
Gaddesden till one P. M. to-morrow. Persisting in not go- 
ing to Q. S. P., I e'en sat down with my trunk at the stage 
tavern in Oxford-street. After depositing my trunk and or- 
dering a fire in my room, sallied forth once more to F.'s, then 
to see Graves. Took coffee with Graves, a very respect- 
able and intelligent young man, and extremely obliging. He 
makes inquiries, and does me many kind offices, which save 
me a deal of trouble. He is, I believe, a broker. The 
mother was there ; a very comely, decent Quakeress. The 
mother of eight or ten grown children. It is wonderful how 
the women bear in this country. In all my stage rambling 


lo-day, I could not discover how to get to York. Graves has 
undertaken for me. 

Thursday is the day fixed for my grand tour to Scotland, 
Ireland, Wales, &c. On my way home took musk of a very 
indifferent quality, ten shillings. Got home to the tavern at 
eight, and ordered coffee again, having only dined on a jelly, 
cake, and tart. Great debate whether I would have it in my 
room or must descend to the coffee-room. Note — I am in 
the third story, what is here called second floor. Finally, 
the lady relaxed, and I had my coffee chez moi. Tobacco 
interdicted ; but I ventured to smoke my pipe up the chim- 
ney, with a window open. No segar to be had. Tobacco 
very bad, something more than a dollar a pound. The Vir- 
ginians would, at this time, be glad to get ten cents per 
pound for tobacco of much better quality. A bed, with very 
dirty sheets, to which I objected ; but the maid assured me, 
upon her honour, that they were very clean, and that she 
put them on herself. So I am bound to think them clean ; 
but shall, nevertheless, not undress. It is quite impractica- 
ble to get a good fire in any tavern. 

At ten, took bread, and cheese, and cider, by way of sup- 
per. Wrote all this, and, after writing two letters to my 
Gaddesden friends, having a presentiment that I shall not 
get there, shall coucher. Since beginning the preceding 
page, the servants have been three different times in my room 
to inquire whether they should put out my candles. To 
the first message I replied, very distinctly, that I always put 
out my own candles, and desired that I might not be again 
interrupted. This did not defend me against the two subse- 
quent intrusions. The object of this affected civility is to 
save one inch of tallow. This very rigid calculation is 

13. Rose at nine. No soap. Asked for a piece to wash 
hands. The maid said soap was so dear that she could not 
give it without leave, but she would go and ask her mistress, 
which I forbid, but gave her two shillings to go and buy me 


a piece. She " would tell the footman." Every one in their 
department. A cake of soap was brought for fifteen pence, 
which will probably last me three months. Had my break- 
fast in my room, and at eleven went out. To Vickey's to 
get the wig made more scratchlike and less dressy. To 
cabinet-maker's about that same chessboard. Returned to 
the tavern at one, and found the stage at the door. One shil- 
ling to the waiter, and bid him bring down my trunk and put 
it in the stage. He brought it down, but at the door hand- 
ed it to the porter, who handed it to the coachman, this be- 
ing the porter's department. Twopence to the porter. At 
Hamel Hempstead (look at your map) found a beer club of 
about a dozen, smoking and drinking ale. Joined them. 
Took my pipe and called for my pint of beer. They bring 
a pipe, with a small bowl filled with tobacco. The tobacco 
is never put on the table. The maid fills it and hands it to 
you; for each pipeful a halfpenny (about one cent), pint of 
beer threepence. 

Arrived at Little Gaddesden at eight. A note to Bartlett, 
inquiring, &c, and that I should call in half an hour. He 
being abroad, it was opened by Madame Bartlett, who im- 
mediately sent a servant to conduct me. But, to be in pre- 
cise order with my friend G., I went first to his house ; there 
found a party of ten gentlemen over their wine, of which it 
appeared they had then drank quan. suf. Bartlett and 
M'Carthy were there ; also Halsey, M.P., lately married 
(two years ago) to a wealthy and pretty heiress, whose name 

he assumed ; Dr. and his son (a lieutenant of navy). 

After twenty minutes went to Bartlett's, where found Mad. 
B. and Madame Span. Took tea and passed the evening. 
At ten, Bartlett, M'Carthy, &c, came in. Urged to take bed 
both here and at Major G.'s ; but, intending to set off at six 
in the morning, preferred the tavern, where, after great efforts, 
I got a very small fire. Asked for more coal. The mistress 
of the house brought up in her hand two pieces, each about 
the size of a biscuit. Got a bottle of very good cider, and 


sat down to write to Bartlett, desiring him to apologize for 
me to Lord Bridgwater. To bed at two. 

14. Rose at six; set off at seven. I sleep very soundly 
in these stagecoaches. By sleeping, however, forgot to ask 
for my umbrella, which I had left at Stanmore. Took 
breakfast at Edgeware. Coffee, bread and butter, one shil- 
ling and threepence. If you have an egg or any other ar- 
ticle, it is charged in addition. Arrived at twelve at the 
Bell and Crown, Holborn, where left my trunk till I should 
see about getting off to-morrow. Went on to the Berwick 
wharf in Burr-street. The packet coarse ; passage twenty- 
nine shillings for half a birth, thirty-nine for a whole one. 
You are found in provisions. Stagecoaches go every morn- 
ing at seven for York, &c. Doubting which mode to adopt, 
walked back to the Bell and Crown. Paid twopence for 
leaving my trunk. Took hack and drove to Queen's Square 
Place at four. Received in the most affectionate manner. 
How inexhaustible is the goodness of Bentham. Hur- 
ried to dress, being engaged to dine with Judge Thorpe at 
Putney. Walked there and arrived just before six, being 
five miles. They had despaired of me, and just sat down 
to dinner. At eight returned by the Richmond coach, which 
goes every hour from eight A. M. to eight P. M. Thorpe 
and Castella along. Got home before ten. An hour with 
Bentham to give an account of myself. 

[From the 14th to 21st December the journal is missing.] 


Pelham, December 5, 1808. 
No packet has arrived since I last wrote to you, therefore 
I can only repeat my grateful and heartfelt acknowledgments 
for your presents. I have not yet, indeed, recovered from 
my amazement at the lightness of the steel tongs, &c. It 
still appears to me incredible that iron can be rendered so 
light. I think them, without exception, the greatest curiosity 
I ever beheld ; nor is it speaking in hyperbole at all : for 


truly my astonishment is as great as the expressions of it 
are unfeigned, and, perhaps, infantine. Thank you, too, for 
the map of England and Wales, which will be highly use- 
ful to me. I expect to derive great pleasure in following 
you on it, should you travel at all. Little B. is still in the 
clouds about his books, and the poor little Pelhamites will 
do anything he chooses to obtain one look of the " beautiful 
pictures." Indeed, you never before despatched such a cargo 
of delight to any set of beings. 

Panopticon has been forwarded to Mari ; like a graceless 
creature, I took the whole merit of the attention to myself. 
How happened it that you did not forward a plan of the 
building ? Not that the omission is very important. I have 
not the least expectation that the plan will be adopted. Iu 
South Carolina there is less enterprise, less public spirit, 
than in any other state ; and that, Heaven knows, reduces 
it low enough. I have read a small part of the " Traites 
de Legislation." The work is really original. It is truly 
calculated to make readers think profoundly, and gives a 
new direction to their reflections. Jeremy Bentham has 
opened a new and deeper vein of political and moral science, 
to bring from it the most brilliant diamonds. Such a mind 
as his is not produced once in many centuries. Who will be 
found to improve upon his ideas ? I imagine he has reached 
the ne plus ultra, the border of the Styx ; and no one can go 
farther, without becoming an inhabitant of the other world. 

As to you, I am angry with you. You will neither write 
nor do anything else. Your researches, probably, have gone 
quite over the Styx, for they never will be seen in this 
world. Does J. B. mean to publish the " Traites de Legis- 
lation" in English, written by himself? If he does not, and 
there is no good translation of them, I should like to have 
the honour of becoming his translator. If he is with you, 
inquire, and tell him that I should take as much pride in 
being his translator as the ancients did in declaring them- 
selves oracles of their gods. What a transformation his 


vehement, comprehensive style would undergo ; first, by- 
being beat out into a French style, and then, by a kind of 
synthesis, being recomposed by me, and presented in a re- 
semblance of itself, deprived of all its fire, like the statue of 
Pandora without the heavenly spark. Should he have no 
intention of giving this work an English dress, pray be very 
sure that it has not received one from some other person 
before I commence my labours ; for it would mortify me 
to publish an old thing with the conviction and " qui pis est" 
with the assertion of its novelty. 

The embargo is not yet raised, nor is there any probability 
that it will : on the contrary, a non-intercourse act and some 
other corroborants are expected. Vessels in Boston are said 
to be ready laden, and armed to brave all opposition, if their 
departure should meet with any. It is generally believed 
that we shall have trouble very soon. Thank God, I am not 
near my subjects ;* all my care and real tenderness might be 
forgotten in the strife, for no doubt the flames of civil war 
would soon spread in that direction. By the last packet I 
told you of my determination to pass the winter here. My 
plans are not formed for the spring and summer. All de- 
pends on the state of my health. The obstinacy of my 
disorder destroys all hope of being invigorated by this winter, 
for I shall pass it in taking medicine. The prescription you 
thought of so highly has failed to produce any effect, though 
it has been persevered in for nearly two months. I intend 
now to shut myself up, and take mercury, as Dr. Hosack 
directs, in all form ; not, however, to the extent of salivation. 
I must have health, and this appears to be the only mode of 
obtaining it. Do not be alarmed about me. The fear lest 
this new project should excite your apprehensions had de- 
termined me to conceal it ; but the lecture you once gave 
me for deceiving you about myself arose in my mind too 
formidably not to overturn my intention. 

According to the Washita papers you gave me, my plans 

* Mexicans. 


in that respect were built in air. You perceive what subject 
still engages my mind. Notwithstanding all you could or 
may say, I shall ever have the same feelings on that point. 
I have heard nothing of Doyle yet. Babade, you already 
know, is out of the question now. Should you have it in 
your power to purchase me any books, pray get me the last 
and most fashionable standard of pronunciation. Mitford 
will improve me more, but it will not stand in lieu of a dic- 
tionary. I have not yet read Mitford. I have looked into 
him. Indeed, my head is in wretched order. I am scarcely 
a reflecting animal. 

My station for the winter will be in this place. The so- 
ciety of New- York is new to me, and less interesting than 
I formerly found it ; perhaps mine's the fault, but I suffer 
for it. B., who has entered the room, sends his love to 
you, with a thousand thanks for " the pretty books and the 
big picture." Adieu. My last letter was under cover to J. 
L. Mallet. It went by the November packet. 


to john reeves. 

London, December 8, 1808. 

On Saturday I propose to leave town, having chosen this 
charming season for a tour to the North. It is intended to 
visit Oxford, York, and Edinburgh ; and, of course, many 
other places on and near that route. Having no other views 
than amusement and the gratification of curiosity, if you 
should feel disposed to contribute to either of these objects, 
it would add another item to the large account of civilities 
for which I am already your debtor. It is possible that I 
may wish to pass over to Dublin. The principal motive 
would be to see that renowned orator, Curran. 

Do me the favour to communicate whatever further you 
may have understood regarding my recent claims and pre 
tensions. A. Burr. 



London, December 8, 1808. 

Col. Burr, on his return from Weybridge, called at the 
Tower Hotel, agreeably to his engagement to Mr. Flana- 
gan, but was told that Mr. Flanagan did not lodge there, and 
that his lodgings were not there known. He therefore 
takes this method of saying that he proposes to leave town 
on Saturday on a visit to Scotland, and that he would be 
happy in being the bearer of any commands for Mr. F. He 
apologizes for the liberty of asking that Mr. F. would have 
the goodness to communicate Col. Burr's intention, and to 
offer his services to General Picton, whom he had not the 
good fortune to find at home when he called for the purpose. 


London, December 8, 1808. 

My journey is postponed till Saturday. It will not be in 
my power to see you to-day, but I will have that pleasure 
to-morrow, at some hour of which you shall be previ- 
ously advised. I beg, my dear sir, that you will, in the 
mean time, get possession of the laws of the United States, 
or of that volume, at least, which contains the statutes (there 
may be more than one) respecting literary property. A line 
from you to General Lyman will procure them. 

I have written to M. L. Davis, and have seen Meeker, 
who recommends a Mr. Conrad, a principal bookseller in 
Philadelphia (and known to me by reputation), as agent in 
that city. Your parcel was received this morning. If any- 
thing should occur to you, or to the prolific head of Madame 
G., proper for my consideration before our interview, be 
pleased to communicate it by a line addressed to Craven- 
street. A. Burr. 



London, December 9, 1808. 

By the Hopewell and by the last packet I wrote you very 
long letters, enclosing letters to Dr. Hosack and to Mr. 
Alston ; all on the subject of your voyage to England, which 
Dr. Lettsome recommends, and which I have urged to be 
undertaken without delay. It is not, therefore, thought prob- 
able that this will find you in New-York. As it is possible, 
however, that this packet may arrive before the January 
packet shall leave New-York, it may be proper to repeat, 
that every sort of arrangement has been made for your re- 
ception. You are recommended to Mr. Fox, collector at 
Falmouth, and to Mr. Lees and Mr. Hamilton at Liverpool. 
If you should take passage in a vessel bound for London, 
land at the first place you can at the mouth of the river, and 
come to town in a postchaise, with your black maid and the 
boy. No matter whether you bring any other clothes than 
those you wear, and a very principal change for comfort only. 
Leave Sam on board to take eare of your baggage ; or, if he 
can get a place with the coachman, let him come also. Drive 
to Story's Gate Coffee-house, George-street, Westminster, 
and send word to me at Q. S. P. A. Burr. 


London, December 9, 1808. 

If Mrs. Alston should be in or near New-York, be pleased 
to put the enclosed under cover to her, and send it to Mr. 
Laight to be forwarded. If she should have sailed for any 
distant point, the letter for Mrs. Anderson may be sent to 
the postoffice, to be forwarded by mail to its address. 

By the last packet I wrote to Mrs. B— »-t, under cover to 
you, but there was an error in the address, being to Edward 
W. instead of Thomas W., which I hope may not have im- 
peded its safe delivery. The circumstance is now mention- 
ed, as well to apologize for the inattention as to give an op- 


portunity of inquiring for the letter in case it should not 
have been received. I wish that Mrs. B — t may be informed 
that I can get a warrant as midshipman for her son so soon 
as I can find a captain with whom I should recommend that 
he be placed ; indeed, the warrant could be had immediately, 
but I do not know where to find the youth. A. Burr. 


Little Gaddesden, December 13, 1808. 

I had some trifles to communicate to you and to yours ; 
but the moment was not propitious. The stock will be in- 
creased during my tour, and on my return I shall hasten to 
offer you the proceeds. 

When you shall see Lord Bridgwater, make such apolo- 
gies on my behalf as shall exonerate me from any suspicion 
of inattention or neglect. Many thanks for all your kind- 
ness, and best wishes for your health and happiness. 

A. Burr. 


London, December 12, 1808. 

Having finished my letters and packed my trunk last even- 
ing, I sent out for a coach, intending to have passed an hour 
with you on my way. No coach was to be had ! I went 
myself, and, after walking half an hour, found the fact to be 
truly reported — that no coach was to be had. The journey 
has been postponed till two this day. It would console me 
for the disappointment if I could see you this morning ; but 
that is impossible, as my passage is taken at this end of the 

The books for Davis had better be in two or three parcels, 
as it will afford a better chance for getting them into the 
trunk of some passenger. My note to Graves is left open 
for your perusal. The boy, bearer of this, will take charge 
of your shipment, if ready. If not ready by eleven, let him 
go on with my letter for M. L. Davis. Put receipt to the 


account, and charge it to me. The books sent some days 
ago are herewith returned. A. Burr. 


Oxford-street, December 13, 1808. 
I am going to try to go. Whether the attempt succeed 
or fail, you will not see me till Wednesday. Within twenty- 
four hours thereafter, London shall be rid of me. 

A. Burr. 


London, December 15, 1808. 
This letter will introduce to your acquaintance Col. Burr 
(late Vice-president of the United States). A few months 
since he came to England for the purpose of laying before 
the ministry a plan for opening Spanish America to our 
trade, to which scheme he had the sanction of the late Mr. 
Pitt; but our present connexion with Old Spain has at 
least deferred its execution, and he employs the interval in 
a tour through Scotland and Ireland. I think he could be 
useful ; but, politics out of the question, you will find him a 
gentleman in manner and conduct. With great erudition 
and talent, he thinks much, says little, and is a good obser- 
ver. Your attention will oblige me. 

I hope, my dear friend, we may yet meet in the world 
with our wives and children. Please God, I shall soon be 
settled in England ; and, if ever you come, let me know it be- 
fore you arrive. I have been sadly tossed about and vilely 
treated, but there will yet be a "death unto sin and a new 
birth unto righteousness." Mrs. Thorpe joins in best com- 
pliments to Mrs. Bush and yourself. Robert Thorpe. 

to J. REEVES. 

London, December 21, 1808. 
If it would not transgress your ideas of official propriety, 
I would ask of you, in reply to this, to state the opinions 


which have been given on my recent claims. The addition 
of your own, or that even without any other would be most 
satisfactory. The offer which you had the goodness to 
make, of writing me some such letter, must apologize for 
this freedom. 

I have taken passage in the mail of this evening for Ox- 
ford. If not convenient to reply to this before my depar- 
ture, please to enclose for me to "William Arbuthnot, Esq., 
Trustees' Office, Edinburgh. A. Burr. 


London, December 21, 1808. 
Permit me to introduce to your lordship the bearer of 
this, the celebrated Col. Burr, with whom our worthy friend, 
Charles Williamson, was very intimate. His talents, abil- 
ities, and amiable manners will, I am confident, ensure him 
a place in your esteem. He proposes making a stay of only 
a few days in Scotland, during which time I have to request 
that you will render him any attention in your power. He 
is anxious to have an opportunity of making the acquaint- 
ance of the most learned of our profession, and to whom 
can I apply so well as to you to bring this about ? As 
Hopeton House is generally visited by strangers, have the 
goodness to arrange this for him. 

A. Cochrane Johnstone. 


London (Alien Office), December 23, 1808. 

Your letter, desiring to have an answer at Mr. Bentham's 
by seven o'clock, did not come to my hand till past eight 
o'clock. I am now proceeding to perform the other alter- 
native you proposed. This, I hope, will find you at Edin- 

I will let you know as soon as anything is decided upon 
your claim of being considered as a British subject. The 
question is still before the law officers ; and I have no ex- 

Vol. I.— F 


pectation of their giving an answer till they have the recess 
from court business, during the Christmas holydays, when 
they have leisure to consider such questions. 

In the mean time, you may make yourself quite easy. 

Only favour me now and then with a line, that I may know 

where you are. Be so good as to put your letter to me, with 

private upon it, under cover to The Secretary of State, 

Alien Office, Westminster. John Reeves. 


Edinburgh, December 29, 1808. 

Mr. Williamson* has the honour to present his most re- 
spectful compliments to Col. Burr, and he is extremely 
sorry, indeed, that he should have been from home when 
Col. Burr called. Knowing the very great respect and high 
esteem which his brother, Col. Williamson, had for Col. 
Burr, he most assuredly would have considered it as his 
duty to have waited on Col. Burr this evening ; but, unfortu- 
nately, Mr. W. has long been extremely unwell, and does 
not venture out under night at this season ; but he will do 
himself the honour of waiting on Col. Burr to-morrow fore- 
noon about eleven o'clock. 


Edinburgh, December 30, 1808. 

Col. Burr is greatly obliged to Mr. Williamson for his 
very friendly note. He literally stole off from the library, 
lest Mr. Williamson's politeness should induce him to in- 
fringe on his occupations of business. He will, with great 
pleasure, attend him to Col. Smith's at the hour most agree- 
able to Mr. W. 

Col. Burr will avail himself of Lord J. Clerk's invitation 
for Monday, and will communicate his answer to his lord- 
ship without troubling Mr. W. with the transmission. 
* Lord Balgray, brother of the late Col. Charles Williamson. 



The Adventures of Gil Bias Moheagungk de Manhattan. 

London, December 21, 1808. In a garret at the Black 
Lion, Water Lane, London. Having made half a dinner 
at Queen's Square Place, drove off furiously to the White 
Horse, Piccadilly, to be in time for the Oxford stage. Hav- 
ing waited half an hour and the coach not come, the weather 
cool, went in to warm. Having warmed half an hour, and 
wondering at the delay, went out to see. The coach had 
been gone twenty minutes. My honest coachman, as well 
to be sheltered from the storm as for repose, had got inside 
and was sound asleep. Drove to Gloucester Coffee-house 
to take the mail. Was advised to go to the Golden some- 
thing, Charing Cross. Thither went. The mail was full 
inside and out. Thence to the Saracen's Head. Thence 
back to the ship. To Fister Lane. Coach full. To the 
Black Lion, Water Lane, Fleet — full, inside and out. To 
the Old Crown, Holborn — no coach hence till Friday. To 
the Bolt Inn, where found a seat in a coach to go at seven 
to-morrow, but no bed to be had. Went to the nearest inn, 
being the same Black Lion, where I am occupant of a garret 
room, up four flights of stairs, and a very dirty bed. In the 
public room, however, I have been amused for an hour with 
a very handsome young Dane. Don't smile. It is a male. 
A merchant. I would have slept on the porch or walked 
the street all night sooner than have returned to Q. S. P. 
Coach hire nine shillings. 

Oxford, December 22. Was called at six, to be ready for 
the coach at seven. Gave my baggage to a porter, but, be- 
ing stopped a minute to make change, he got out of my 
sight. I missed the way, and when I got to the Bolt Inn 
the coach had gone. My passage having been paid in the 
evening, there was no inducement to wait for me. Pursued 
and had the good fortune to overtake the coach. Found in 
it one man. Having preserved perfect silence for a few 




minutes by way of experiment, I remarked that the day was 
very mild, which he flatly denied, and in a tone and manner as 
if he would have bit me. I laughed out heartily, and very 
kindly inquired into his morning's adventures. He was old, 
gouty, and very fat. No hack being to be had at that early 
hour, or, what is more probable, choosing to save the shil- 
ling, he had walked from his house to the inn. Had fallen 
twice ; got wet and bruised, and was very sure that he should 
be laid up with the gout for six months. I sympathized 
with his misfortunes. Wondered at the complacency with 
which he bore them, and joined him in cursing the weather, 
the streets, and the hackney coachmen. He became com- 
placent and talkative. Such is John Bull. We took in an- 
other fat man, a woman still fatter, and a boy. Afterward, 
a very pretty, graceful, arch-looking girl, about eighteen, 
going on a visit to her aunt, Lady W. But mad'lle. was 
reserved and distant. At the first change of horses she 
agreed to take breakfast, which we did, tete-a-tete. I was 
charmed to find her all animation, gayety, ease, badinage. 
By the aid of drink to the coachman, our companions were 
kept three quarters of an hour cooling in the coach. They 
had breakfasted. When we joined them the reserve of 
my little siren returned. After various fruitless essays, 
and at first without suspecting the cause, finding it impossi- 
ble to provoke anything beyond a cold monosyllable, I com- 
posed myself to sleep, and slept soundly about eight hours, 
between London and this place, where we arrived at eight 
this evening. (There must be something narcotic in the air 
of this island. I have slept more during my six months' 
residence in Great Britain than in any preceding three years 
of my life since the age of fourteen.) Took leave of my 
little Spartan. Mem. — To write an essay, historical and 
critical, on the education and treatment of women in Eng- 
land. Its influence on morals and happiness. 

Thinking it too late to call on Mr. Prevost (your instruc- 
tions are not lost on me), I wrote him a "polite" note, 


enclosing the letter, and proposing to see him in the morn- 
ing, to which a polite answer was received. 

23. I was received with the distinction due to such a let- 
ter. His manner is mild, cheerful, and courteous. He en- 
gaged me to dine, and sent for a young " fellow," who went 
with me through all the great buildings, and showed me 
all the strange things. Many of those for which I inquired 
he had never before heard of. Everything here is for osten- 
tation, and nothing for use. A manuscript of Home's Mir- 
ror was shown me, but evidently modern. A handwriting 
much like our Mr. Koe's. The librarian acknowledged that 
it was but a copy, and professed no knowledge of the original. 
The bust of Aristotle has a forehead very like yours. We 
were more than three hours traversing the various buildings. 
I was much gratified. My poor conductor nearly frozen. 

Two plump, hale " fellows" joined us at dinner. Study 
and abstinence had not yet impaired their rosy complexions. 
All in canonicals. The dinner was excellent and well served. 
The details of the conversation shall amuse you at another 
time ; but they cannot be written. A few hints may serve 
as memoranda. " I would rather our friend Bentham should 
write on legislation than on morals !" Holy Father, if ever 
one of thy creatures was endued with benevolence without 
alloy, *********, All this was admitted, and the expression 
was qualified and qualified, till finally it settled on the single 
point of divorce, and Hume was quoted. By mutual consent, 
divine authority was laid aside, and I made a speech, which 
was very silly, for I ought to have turned it off with levity. 

The innate sense of religion. " The most barbarous na- 
tions have some religion. Has it not a great influence on the 
morals of your Indians ?" 

We then got on American politics, statistics, geography, 
laws, &c, &c, on all which a most profound and learned 
ignorance was displayed. The evening wound up pleasantly, 
and we parted with many expressions of courtesy. He ap- 
pears to be of cheerful temper and amiable disposition. Yet, 


though he speaks of Bentham with reverence, and, probably, 
prays for him, I presume that he thinks he will be eternally 
damned, and I have no doubt he expects to be lolling in 
Abraham's bosom with great complacency, hearing Ben- 
tham sing out for a drop of water. Such is the mild genius 
of our holy religion. 

Brummigem, December 24 (though, indeed, I have heard 
it several times called Birmingham). Left Oxford at seven 
this morning. We were four inside. The only article of 
any interest was a pretty little comely brunette, who had 
been through Blenheim Castle, and all the other places of 
note within twenty miles. Could describe all the pictures 
and statues ; had read all the fashionable novels and poetry, 
and seemed to know everybody and everything. I was 
never more at a loss in what rank of beings to class her ; but 
was very much amused. At twenty miles we put her down 
at a very respectable farmhouse. I handed her in ; was 
introduced to her aunt : " My dear aunt, this gentleman has 
been extremely polite to me on the road." I received from 
aunt and niece a very warm invitation to call on my return, 
which I very faithfully promised to do, " whensoever," &c. 
" If," &c, &c. 

At Stratford, where lie the bones of Shakspeare, the bar- 
maid gave me a very detailed account of the jubilee in honour 
of his memory. At about twenty miles farther was pointed 

out a very handsome establishment of Sir Smith, dit 

frere de Madame Fritzherbert. For the last forty or fifty 
miles we had on board a strange, vulgar-looking fellow, who 
had been all over the world ; spoke Latin, French, and Span- 
ish ; and, in the course of three hours, told me more lhan a 
hundred lies : probably some itinerant Irish schoolmaster. 

The market-place and the principal street, adjacent to 
which I am set down, is full of people. Tents, booths, 
lamps, candles, fiddlers, pipers, horns. Seeing nothing to 
amuse me within, I shall sally forth to see what's going for- 
ward without. But, first, I have taken passage for Liver- 


pool, to set off at half past eleven, being advised that there 
is no other way to get on. Against my will, therefore, I 
go to Liverpool. We shall, from appearances, make a live- 
ly party. At this hour to-morrow I may have something 
more amusing to say. Now I go. 

Twelve o'clock. Still at Birmingham. Full of contrition 
and remorse. Lost my passage. Lost or spent twenty- 
eight shillings and a pair of gloves. Every bed in the house 
engaged. No hope of getting on but by the mail at seven 
to-morrow morning. The office shut, and no passage to be 
taken to-night. What business had I to go sauntering about 
the streets of a strange place, alone and unarmed, on a 
Christmas eve ? Truly, I want a guardian more than at 
fifteen. It was K.'s fault that I- left my dirk, and I could 
choke him for it. I have often heard that great sinners have 
relieved their consciences by full confession. Let us try. 

I sallied forth. There were hundreds of pretty dressed 
folks of all sexes and ages, in little groups and very gay. I 
joined one party, and then another, and another. At length 
I got so well suited with a couple that we agreed to walk 
and see the town. I have always had a passion for certain 
branches of natural history. These, I thought, afforded me 
an opportunity of acquiring information ; and even now, amid 
all my regrets, I must acknowledge that it was a most in- 
structive and, abating one rencounter, which had very nearly 
ended in a riot, a most amusing lesson. Hence it would 
seem that all this penitence is for the money and not for the 
folly, on which a very good theological discourse might be 
written. The subject shall be recommended to our friend 
the provost. Indeed, I was very much amused. I heard 
many amusing anecdotes of the grandees of the town, and 
some strange and pretty things. At this moment it comes 
into my head how to redeem this twenty-eight shillings. It 
shall be done, and then peace of conscience will be restored. 
I will take passage outside. Half price only. I am re- 
solved, and you shall see how I execute. 


[The journal of his residence in Edinburgh is very brief, 
though it records a scene of great gayety and industrious 
visiting. He seems to have been overwhelmed with invita- 
tions during the whole of his residence in the Scottish cap- 


Edinburgh, January 2, 1809. 

Colonel Burr is honoured with the invitation of Lord Jus- 
tice Clerk and Lady Charlotte Hope, and will avail himself 
of it on Monday, the 2d inst. He is greatly mortified to 
learn that the Lord Justice Clerk, having done him the hon- 
our of calling at his lodgings this morning, was, through the 
stupidity of a servant, denied. Colonel Burr was then at 
home, and expecting the honour of his lordship's visit, having 
been apprized by Mr. Williamson of his lordship's intention. 
He encloses a letter from Col. Johnstone, and offers respect- 
ful compliments. 


Edinburgh, January 2, 1809. 

To-day at four o'clock, or a little after it, I will take you 
up on our way to Granton, the Lord Justice Clerk's. The 
nearest road is by your lodgings. 

I saw the lord provost of Edinburgh. His lordship is to 
wait upon you this forenoon. He will be accompanied by 
Mr. Manners, our principal librarian, whom you saw in the 
advocate's library on Friday, and who is also one of the pres- 
ent magistrates of Edinburgh. I spoke to Mr. Manners to 
give you whatever books you want. 

David Williamson. 

to david williamson. 

Edinburgh, January 2, 1809. 

Your obliging note, my dear sir, found me in the very act 
of writing to you to inquire about the hour and mode of trans 


portation to Granton. You will find me ready to attend you 
at four. 

I shall certainly be at home to have the honour of receiv- 
ing the lord provost and Mr. M. this morning. 

Allow me to recall your attention to the subject of the let- 
ters, having a strong persuasion that the longer one, if no 
other, is for your faithful and obliged A. Burr. 


New- York, January 3, 1809. 

I long for spring that I may return to W. Apathy, in- 
sensibility, and unkindness are not confined to W. They 
are the spontaneous productions of every soil, and thrive in 
all climates. I am seeking for French lodgings to benefit 
the boy. 

Nothing can exceed the anxiety your pecuniary concern 
has given me ; but, as yet, the money has not been paid. I 
hope and believe it will be received at length ; but it dis- 
tresses me beyond measure that nothing can be remitted to 
you immediately. Your situation in a foreign country, with- 
out any pursuit, renders me doubly solicitous on the subject. 
The instant anything satisfactory is done, you shall profit by 
it without any loss of time, be assured ; for my heart feels 
what you suffer more severely than its own afflictions. 

Since I last wrote to you I have been taking Hosack's 
preparation of mercury ; not all the time, however. It was 
abandoned from an experiment of a fortnight, during which 
nothing but injury was produced. Eustis has written to me 
again, giving me new instructions and increasing the strength 
of his prescription. I shall, or rather have, resumed the 
course advised by him ; but not a symptom, not the slight- 
est sign of relief appears. Hosack visits me daily. M. has 
written that he will be here very soon. 

The boy received the little packet, and was, of course, de- 
lighted. How good you are to think of us so often. The 
most interesting passage of your letter of the 16th of Octo- 



ber is yet unintelligible to me. Over care induced me to 
leave my cipher at F.'s till I should be settled in lodgings ; 
but I have written to request that, he would find a safe con- 
veyance for the box which contains it, and I shall soon have 
the happiness of reading all you have written. Dr. P. Irving, 
who takes this, will give you more satisfactory intelligence 
than it is in my power to do. We are anxiously and impa- 
tiently awaiting the event of the Spanish war. The govern- 
or of the Island of Cuba has declared that, if the French 
should gain possession of Madrid, he should declare Cuba 
independent, and invite the patriots thither. It is supposed 
that the British cabinet will furnish the Spanish Americans 
with a sovereign from the Bourbon family ; but I doubt 
whether he would be acknowledged or received by them. 

Do not be unhappy about me. Irving will tell you that 
I am quite plump — ill as this seems to accord with my hys- 
terics and the obstinacy of my complaint. Present my re- 
spects to Mr. Bentham. His friendship for you excites in 
rne almost as much affection for him as his talents do ven- 
eration. Adieu, dear Gamp. God in Heaven bless and 
prosper you. Theodosia* 


Edinburgh, January 4, 1809. 

This is dreadful weather, however much you may brave 
it. Yesterday my brother's trustees opened all his letters, 
some of which I wish to show to you. The packet which 
you supposed to contain letters for you is from some gen- 
tleman in Geneva, whose name we cannot make out. It 
relates to some matters of succession, and it contains papers 
to be given to the American consul, I think of the name of 

I wish much that you went down some morning to break- 
fast with the Justice Clerk, so that you might have a little 
of the forenoon to yourselves. You know as well as I do, 
and much better, that in all governments, particularly such 


as ours, that there are small wheels which in due time set 
the great wheel agoing. You will understand perfectly 
what I mean. The acquaintance of the Justice Clerk is 
one that you will never regret to have made, and in whose 
honour you may have the utmost reliance. 

David Williamson. 

from mr. gordon. 

Edinburgh, January 5, 1809. 

Mr. Gordon (advocate) presents compliments to Col. Burr. 
Mr. Gordon is authorized by Mr. and Mrs. Johnstone, of 
Alva, to request the favour of Col. Burr's passing a day with 
them, if it suits his convenience, as he passes through Stir- 
lingshire. Alva House is eight miles from the town of Stir- 
ling, and all the innkeepers can inform the colonel as to the 
road. Mr. and Mrs. Gordon will probably be at Alva until 
the 12th or 13th current, and shall be happy to introduce 
Col. Burr to Mr. Johnstone's family, or show any other civilty 
to the colonel. 


Edinburgh, January 5, 1809. 

Mrs. Gordon, of Craig, presents respectful compliments 
to Col. Burr. Mrs. Gordon begs leave to send the pamphlet 
Col. Burr was in search of, in answer to Lord Selkirk's book. 
As it was written by a friend of Mrs. Gordon, she has some 
copies by her; and if she has the honour again to meet Col. 
Burr, Mrs. Gordon will be happy to hear his opinion of the 
Letters of Amicus. Mrs. Gordon begs leave to express her 
sense of Col. Burr's politeness to Mr. Gordon and herself, 


Edinburgh, January 9, 1809. 

My plan would be this : I shall take you up at half past 
nine to-morrow morning, by which time you will have break- 
fasted. We shall get to Hopetoun House about twelve 


o'clock. I shall order dinner there at half past three. We 
may set out at six, and shall be in town at half past eight or 
about nine. 

What say you to this mode ? I shall ask Mr. James 
Hope to accompany us. You need not write to me any 
card, but simply put on a slip of paper, which you can give 
to my servant who carries this, J approve or disapprove, by 
which last, if so, I will understand that we are to arrange 
the matter at Dundas's, at dinner. 

David Williamson. 

from david williamson. 

Edinburgh, January 10, 1809. 

To go on such a day as this is losing, truly, half the pleas- 
ure which you would enjoy. To-morrow, also, would hurry 
you quite too much. Take my word for it : we can go 
either Thursday or Saturday, as meets your convenience, 
when I shall take care to have everything comfortable for 
you. To go to a large house, without fires being on, is quite 
miserable, which you would find if you were to go this day, 
or even to-morrow. D. Williamson. 


Edinburgh, January 9, 1809. 

Will you, my dear sir, do me the honour of accepting 
the enclosed as a mark of my esteem, not only as the daugh- 
ter of a once esteemed friend, but an acknowledgment for 
the lively interest you take in everything that concerns me ? 

I hope to infer, by the length of your stay in Edinburgh, 
that your partiality for its inhabitants has increased, and that 
some day you may be persuaded to make one of its number. 

I was extremely sorry to find, on my arrival home, that I 
had just missed you ; but hope to be more fortunate the 
next time you do me that honour. 

Ann Williamson. 



Edinburgh, January 11, 1809. 

The pamphlet of Amicus was found so interesting, that 
it was read through on the evening it was received. I am 
charmed with his patriotism, and instructed by his reason- 
ing and his facts. A few remarks which have occurred will, 
in obedience to your wishes, be communicated personally, 
for which it is hoped an occasion will be found in this city 
within a few days. It would be very cold to say " I thank 
you:" very formal, however true, to be "grateful for the 
honour and the attention." In all such dilemmas, the safest 
course is silence. 

I have delayed to answer Mr. Gordon's note, in the hope 
of being able to say that I would have the pleasure of pass- 
ing Thursday with you at Alva; but I have got so involved 
in the hospitalities and dissipations of this city, that it is found 
impossible to break out for a single day, until it shall be done 
absolutely and finally by departure. This is now postponed 
until Friday the 20th. 

Mrs. Johnstone has anticipated my wishes by her obliging 
invitation ; and if I should not have forfeited my claim by 
your absence or by this procrastination, I shall certainly 
avail myself of her politeness on my way to Glasgow, pre- 
suming that she will be then at Alva. 

You perceive, madam, that, without apology, I have taken 
the liberty to charge you with my reply to Mr. Gordon. It 
would have been rather fastidious to have answered you 
separately by mail, and I have always found that messages 
are more faithfully delivered by wives to husbands than by 
husbands to wives. Besides, you were my first corre- 
spondent. Your note was the pure emanation of courtesy, 
his at the command of Mrs. Johnstone. I could give twenty 
other reasons for the preference ; but these good ones are 
enough, in all conscience ; and yet I acknowledge that nei- 
ther is the true one. 


Allow me, madam, to offer assurances of the respectful 
consideration with which I have the honour to be 

A. Burr. 


Edinburgh, January 13, 1809. 

Perceiving by the London papers received this morning 
that another packet has arrived from America, I beg that my 
letters, if any should have come to your hands, may be en- 
closed to William Arbuthnot, Trustees' Office, Edinburgh. 

Your brother, Col. Smiih, received me with the utmost 
hospitality and politeness, and has contributed much to my 
amusement. Indeed, all that I have seen and met here has 
confirmed those prepossessions which I had imbibed in early 
youth respecting the learning, the courtesy, and the hospi- 
tality of the people. My stay here has been prolonged be- 
yond what was intended, and will be protracted at the least 
ten days longer. If my letters should have been sent to 
Mr. Bentham, take no further trouble about them. He has 
instructions. A. Burr. 

TO J. H. KOE. 

Edinburgh, January 13, 1809. 

As you w r ould not suspect that I could be till this hour in 
Edinburgh (if, indeed, the subject has been thought of at 
all, which, with humility, I acknowledge that, from ap- 
pearances, it did not merit), this formal notice is given that 
I am here, and like to be here eight days longer. If there 
should be letters for me by the last packet, send them on, 
enclosed to William Arbuthnot, Trustees' Office, Edinburgh. 
I suspect that by this same packet has arrived a man in 
quest of me, and whom I wish to see. If so, it must have 
come to your knowledge. Send Tom to Craven-street to 
demand letters, and to Bed ford- street for the umbrella, if 
not heretofore found. A. Burr. 



Edinburgh, January 13, 1809. 

Have patience, and I will pay thee all. Not all, but all 
that I can. The defects of the head will be redeemed by the 
warmth of the heart. 

I have a good deal of stuff for your amusement, but most 
of it in a form not transmissible by mail, for want of frank. 
My friend Arbuthnot receives letters free, but cannot frank, 
which disappoints me, and has saved you sometime and ex- 
pense of eyesight. I lead a life of the utmost dissipation. 
Driving out every day, and at some party almost every night. 
Wasting time, and doing many silly things, as you will see. 
But, in the midst of folly and dissipation, some little, little 
thing has been effected in the way of business. The friend 
and correspondent of your tenant enters into my views, and 
takes an interest in my progress. Has actually written on 
the subject to a great man now near you. 

I am seeking (courting ; it is a lady) the influence of an- 
other personage. Shall wait here K.'s reply to the above, 
and then wherever the gods may direct. You will, in the 
mean time, receive some " sketches," &c. 

Theodosia has written you a note, which I hold, as not 
being worth postage. That, with her letter to me, will be 
transmitted in some way. Her health is the same. My 
American letters contain little more than is found in the 
newspapers. A chiffre has not yet been translated. Do not 
despair of me. A. Burr. 


London, Q. S. P., January 17, 1809. 

Your letter, this moment received, has just saved us from 
becoming bankrupts in conjecture. To account for not 
having heard from you, you have been deposited in all con- 
ceivable places where it is possible that you might exist; 
and at length it was finally settled you had met with some 


favourable and sudden opportunity, and had left the country, 
time not allowing of your writing; or that you had written, 
and that your letter had miscarried. The accompanying 
letters have been lying here some time. They were not 
forwarded to Edinburgh under the persuasion that, had you 
found your way thither, you would have written. 

Mr. Bentham has been under great anxiety about them, 
lest their speedily reaching you should have been of impor- 
tance. You will see from this that the subject has not 
been forgotten. I met Castella some very long time ago in 
the Park, on his way hither ; his object to know whether you 
were returned to town. He said he had written to you some 
few days before, and that such was the nature of his letter, 
that, immediately on the receipt of it, you would return to 
town. He has been here once since ; I believe in the be- 
ginning of the last week. 

So desirous were we of forwarding the last letters to you, 
that, not knowing where better to apply for the requisite 
information, J wrote to Graves to ask him whether he had 
heard from you. In answer, he said he had not; and at 
the same time mentions that he was desirous of informing 
you that the American ship Hopewell, on board of which 
he had shipped for you a packet of letters and a box, had 
been captured. It is conjectured here that the box in ques- 
tion contained the bust. This is melancholy ; but might it 
not be practicable, by a letter to Talleyrand, to procure, if 
not the restoration of the box, at least the safe keeping of 
the contents ? This might afford, in every respect, an infi- 
nitely more creditable vehicle for saying anything, by-the- 
by, than Charles Fox's assassin. 

There have been various interviews with the new tenant. 
He says that your case has made a very considerable sen- 
sation in the Cabinet. In addition to the persons that you 
had mentioned as having been consulted upon the subject 
of it, he says that questions had been sent to the attorney 
and solicitor generals for their consideration. One of them 


was at the time indisposed, and had given no answer. The 
other had given a decided opinion in favour of the claim, 
On this subject nothing further has been heard. One morn- 
ing the new tenant came in and said that he had just parted 
with Cobbett, and that you had been the subject of conversa- 
tion between them. Cobbett very deeply impregnated with 
the magnitude of your talents as a statesman and a soldier. 
They had been consulting together how it was possible that 
you should be brought into Parliament, supposing the above 
question to form no obstacle. The new tenant appeared to 
look upon it as very feasible. He was very anxious that 
you should be in town, in hopes that you would take a run 
down with him for a few days to Cobbett's residence in 
Hampshire. Mr. Bentham looks upon the oath of allegiance 
having been taken (supposing it to have been taken) as quite 
decisive against the claim. There was a case of a man of 
the name of Cruger, in which this same point came under 
consideration. You may, perhaps, know the details of it. 
What is understood of it here is, that he was decided to be 
considered as a British subject, merely from the circum- 
stance of his not having taken the oath of allegiance to the 
American government. 

We have not heard of anybody having, by the last or any 
other packet, come in quest of you. Mr. Randolph called 
here yesterday and left his card ; no message. Nothing 
farther has been heard from Lord Holland. The newspa- 
pers said, some time since, that his arrival in this country 
was daily expected. 

The packet is divided, lest Mr. Arbuthnot should be lim- 
ited as to weight. If there should be occasion for it, pray 
tell me whether it is necessary or not. Boy just returned 
from Craven-street ; no letters there. You have received, 
I suppose, the two packets of letters that have already been 
sent to you under cover to Mr. Arbuthnot. Under all the 
above circumstances, Mr. Bentham begs to suggest whether 
the gods do not most manifestly point hither. 

s J. H. Koe. 



London, Q. S. P., January 17, 1809. 

Not knowing where they will be more certain of reaching 
you, these letters are forwarded to Edinburgh. Mr. Ben- 
tham does not write now. He wrote to you under cover to 
Dr. Collinson at Oxford. This letter went from hence on 
Friday ; and on the same day was sent from hence, directed 
to you, under cover to Mr. Arbuthnot, a letter of introduction 
to Mr. Jeffrey, the conductor of the Edinburgh Review, and 
the Reviewer of Mr. Dumont. These two American letters, 
and the two contained in the accompanying packet, were left 
here on Friday by Mr. Mallet, of the Auditor's Office, with 
a request that Mr. Bentham would forward them to you. 
Mr. Bentham's letter, addressed to you at Oxford, was of 
some length, but he says of very little importance. 

Jno. H. Koe. 


Edinburgh, January 18, 1809. 

This moment I only received the pacquet, which came to 
my hands from Mr. Drake, at the Havannah, with the ac- 
counts from Mexico, and which I thought it proper to com- 
municate to the Lord Justice Clerk before transmitting it 
to London. 

I beg that you will see him this evening ; and I really must 
entreat you, for particular reasons, not to allow any engage- 
ment to come in the way of that meeting ; and if you hap- 
pen to be engaged, which I presume is very likely, you must 
use the freedom of mentioning what I have requested. Re- 
member that I do trust to your compliance, as it is a thing 
of some consequence. D. Williamson. 



Edinburgh, January 21, 1809. 

Mrs. Gordon, of Craig, presents respectful compliments 
to Col. Burr. Mrs. Gordon is requested, by her friend Mrs. 
Irvine, to say that it will give her much pleasure to have 
the honour of being introduced to Col. Burr this evening at 
the theatre. 


Edinburgh, January 24, 1809. 

Mr. Alexander Young presents his best compliments to 
Col. Burr, and sends him the Etymological Dictionary of the 
Scottish Language which he mentioned to the colonel yes- 

Mr. Young regrets very much, that as the colonel leaves 
Edinburgh so soon, he will not have the pleasure of seeing 
him in his house with a proper party ; but if the colonel will 
do him the honour of taking a family dinner with him, either 
on Thursday or Friday first, as may be most convenient, at 
five o'clock, it will give Mr. Young a great deal of pleasure. 

from c. HOPE. 

Edinburgh, January 26, 1809. 

Mr. Hope, with his best compliments, sends to Col. Burr 
a kind of History of the University, lately printed from an 
old manuscript. The colonel will not find much informa- 
tion in it, but enough to satisfy him that the university has 
no history, no foundation, no funds, and depends entirely on 
the character of its professors. 


Edinburgh, January 27, 1809. 

My brother's trustees met this morning at nine, and, from 
what I see, will be occupied till about eleven. I have an 
engagement at that hour. But at twelve I shall be quite 


disengaged, and I shall take care to be so the whole day 
thereafter, and also for some days. 

We have dreadful news from Spain. By our letters yes- 
terday, General Hope was well. What particular news, if 
any, may come this day, I will tell you at our meeting. 

From all these disasters, and from the state of matters in 
North America, there appears to me to be an absolute ne- 
cessity for your return to London. The way is now well 
paved for you. Letters will be got for you both to Lord 
Moira and to Lord Melville. David Williamson. 


Edinburgh, January 28, 1809. 

Colonel Burr proposes to leave town on Sunday morning 
for London, and he asks the favour of the Lord Justice 
Clerk's commands. He takes the liberty of asking an inter- 
view with his lordship previous to Thursday morning. Col. 
Burr has no engagement, except for dinner this day and to- 
morrow, and will wait on his lordship, either in town or coun- 
try, at any hour he may be pleased to name. Col. Burr had 
a great desire of going through Glasgow and Bath, and of 
passing one day in each ; but, for reasons which he will have 
the honour of stating, he now thinks of going direct to Lon- 
don. He will, however, on this point also, claim his lord- 
ship's advice. 

from c. HOPE. 

Edinburgh, January 29, 1809. 

I enclose you a letter for General Alexander Hope, and 
you may depend on his taking the proper means to bring 
Lord Melville and you together immediately. You will find 
him a man of very different energies from those you have 
hitherto conversed with on public affairs. 

In wishing you a prosperous journey, and every success 
in your endeavours for the common interest of our two coun- 
tries, I have only to regret that my necessary avocations 


made it quite impossible for me to pay you all the attention 
I could have wished. 

It would gratify me much if you would take the trouble 
to inform me of the result of your communication with Lord 
Melville. I have also written by post to Lord Melville, to 
say that you will be in London in a few days, and that I had 
charged Alexander Hope to bring you together speedily. 

C. Hope.* 


Edinburgh, January 30, 1809. 

I wrote to Lord Justice Clerk, as you advised, and had 
yesterday the desired interview, which was perfectly satis- 
factory. This morning he has transmitted me a letter to 
General Alexander Hope, accompanied by a most friendly 
note from himself. Nothing was said of Moira either by 
him or by me. You must give me a little aid, and you can 
give much. Your opinion may be of decisive effect. No 
matter to whom expressed, it will find its way. The ac- 
cess to Lord Melville is very properly prepared. 

Can you contrive for me an introduction to Lord Moira ? 
A mere introduction might be of little avail. I do not wish 
to encumber his levee or his table. It might facilitate an 
understanding if he could in any way be informed of the 
language which I have used respecting his American cam- 

The enclosed was handed to me by a well-disposed Amer- 
ican just as I was leaving London. The paper was then 
hostile to me. Please return it at our next meeting, which, 
if you do not object, shall be this evening. Can you pro- 
cure me a frank ? If the request be indiscreet, ascribe it to 
my ignorance. A. Burr. 

* Lord Justice Clerk. 



Edinburgh, January 30, 1809. 

I shall take care of your introduction to Lord Moira. I 
intended to have seen you yesterday, but I was far from be- 
ing well, and the day quite unfavourable. 

As to your franks, I send you a card to the lord advo- 
cate, which you may transmit with your covers. Or, send 
all your letters under cover to General A. Hope ; under 
cover again — to the Quarter-master General, Horse Guards, 
London. For this purpose I send you a letter to the gen- 
eral open, which, after perusal, you will seal and put up 
along with your letters under the general cover to him. The 
first, therefore, will be requisite only in case you are writing 
to any other place than London. If it is to London, then 
you may put the lord advocate's card into the fire. 

David Williamson. 

to mrs. gordon. 

Edinburgh, January 30, 1809. 

Every day, my dear madam, you are loading me with 
some new obligation, which I am unable either to requite 
or to acknowledge. But the tenour of your note repels this 
freedom, and reproaches me for the familiarity. In your 
own style, then. 

Col. Burr presents respectful compliments. He has re- 
ceived the note which Mrs. Gordon did him the honour to 
write on Wednesday, and has read, with very great satisfac- 
tion, the several publications which accompanied it. He 
will, on Sunday, seek a conversation with her on the several 
subjects ,to which she has done him the honour to lead his 



Edinburgh, January 31, 1809. 

Two sets of enclosures have been received, and with the 
last your letter. The bust was in the Hopewell with many 
letters ; some in cipher. It is the only occasion by which 
I have written fully and freely ; tant pis. 

Our opinion on the Pultney case turns out to be all non- 
sense. This it is to give opinions on a law which one has 
not seen in eight years. It seems that this is a case not pro- 
vided for by the state, and that, unless there be some more 
recent law, Sir J. L. Johnstone will take the whole. 

I have received no letter from Castella. Pray contrive to 
tell him so, and also that I hope to be in London within 
eight days (perhaps not quite so soon). But you shall not 
be again dispossessed of your room and bed. 

Things are good and cheap here, and the peculiarities of 
the Scots and Scotesses amuse me greatly. My stay would 
be prolonged were it not for the hope that something better 
may be found than mere amusement. A. Burr. 


Edinburgh, January 1, 1809. Got my best parlour in or- 
der, expecting Lord Clerk. At twelve Arbuthnot came in, 
and afterward Col. Smith. At two went out. Met in the 
street and was introduced to Alexander M'Kenzie, author of 
Man of Feeling, being on the way to his house. Called on 
Jeffrey and handed him a letter. Called on Walter Scott ; 
on the lord provost (mayor). While Arbuthnot and Smith 
were sitting with me this morning, Lord Clerk called, and 
was refused by the stupidity of a servant. Wrote Lord 
Justice Clerk, apologizing, accepting his invitation, and en- 
closing Col. J.'s letter. At five went to dine with Mr. Jar- 
dine, an advocate. Delayed a whole hour, not being able 
to find the house. The coachman more ignorant than my- 
self. Met there Erskine, brother of the lord-chancellor and 


of the Earl of Buchan, and heir apparent to the title ; Col- 
onel Alexander Munro ; Madame Munro. The colonel 
has been fifteen years in India, and very lately returned ; 

the Rev. Mr. Morehead ; Mr. Forbes, son of Sir 

Forbes; Madame Bruce, femme de Bruce, son of 

the traveller. He was confined with the rheumatism and 
did not appear ; Henry M'Kenzie, advocate, son of the au- 
thor of the Man of Feeling. 

2. Note from Lord Justice Clerk. Message that the 
lord provost would call. Waited at home till two, he not 
coming sorti. Called on Bishop Cameron ; thence to Ar- 
buthnot's. Snowstorm ; returned home. Robert Dundas, 
during my absence, left a card. While dressing, Mr. and 
Mrs. Erskine called — denied. Madame left an invitation 
for the evening of the 6th. While dressing, also, Mr. Jef- 
frey and brother, nephew of Jeffrey of Boston. The brother 
had known A. B. in Philadelphia ; also, Sir H. Campbell, 
for twenty-five years lord president of the court of ses- 
sions ; also, Lord Frederic Campbell, uncle of Duke of Ar- 
gyle, lord register. 

4. Mr. Gordon, by appointment, called; sat half an hour; 
tendered all sort of civilities. Sor. at twelve, to Mrs. Lock- 
hart. She was a Crawford, born in Holland of Scotch 

parents; to Mrs. Jardine's, where saw Mr. and Mrs. ; 

urge me to pass a day at , the residence of the great 

traveller Bruce, and now of his son and him. To Arbuth- 
not's. Mr. Hume came in and claimed acquaintance, having 
dined at my house with madame and his two nieces about 
1803; is passing some months in town at Mr. Walker's, 
who has made a fortune in the East Indies. To Walker's. 
Invited to dine, which accepted, hoping to hear fine music. 
The daughters amiable; the two elder, Jolie, belle — la 
jeune, Genie. To D. Williamson's, from whom had just 
received a very friendly note. He showed me many letters 
addressed to Charles Williamson. Saw the little Charles 
Alexander. Took coach to come home for despatch. Dress 


and out at five ; while I was out the Mr. M'Kenzies, father 
and son, called and left cards. Found, also, an invitation 
from George Dundas and wife, for Wednesday, to which 
wrote yes. At dinner at Walker's were the family, Mr. 
and Mrs. Hume, Mr. Ogilvie, who had made a fortune in 
the East Indies, and wife, very sprightly ; Sir William Fel- 

tus, Mrs. Wauchope, Sir of Sir Baird, her daughter, 

a most lovely and fascinating girl. In face and person 
something like Miss M'Evers (Mrs. Wm. P. Van Ness) ; 
all animation, sensibility, and intelligence ; a son of Mrs. 
Wauchope, a very handsome and intelligent lad, eighteen, 
in the navy ; a son of Mr. Ogilvie, twenty-two, also sup- 
posed in the navy; les trois M'lle. Walker played and sang 
Scotch songs for me. Off at ten. 

7. To D. Williamson's, who had received a letter from 
Lord Hopetoun, inviting me to visit Hopetoun House, with 
my friends, to dine. To dinner at Jeffrey's ; met Scott 
(minstrel), Johnstone, two Jeffreys, &c. Went to J. Hope's 
at nine. The two Misses Hope play delightfully on the piano. 
Jane Walker sang, in a style quite new to me, and very fas- 
cinating, several Scotch songs. 

9. To Jeffrey's. Left with him Bayard's speech, and 
Agrestis. To D. Williamson's — not at home. Left a note 
for him about dining at Lord Justice Clerk's, and the medi- 
tated visit to Hopetoun House. Met him as I went out. At 
four to Lord J. Clerk's-y-Mrs. Hope, wife of General Hope, 
now in Spain. Belle interessente. Wedderburne ; Lord 
Ch. Baron Dundas, nephew and son-in-law of Lord Melville. 
Lord J. Clerk, toujour polite. 

10. To Williamson chez Major Robertson; to Duchess 
of Gordon, at Dornbeck's hotel ; elle seule. To the Bride- 
well, Panopticon. Before going out this evening wrote to 
Williamson, proposing Thursday for the Hopetoun House 
party. Chez Duchess Gordon, Lady Jane Montague, eigh- 
teen, and her little sister. 

17. Captain M'Dowall called before I had breakfasted. 
Vol. I.— G 


Walked with him to Leith ; the docks. Engaged to dine 
with him on Friday. On return, wrote a note to Dr. Home 
to inform M'lle. Brown of the address of Miss M'Pherson, 
and asking for Aske's travels. Read two hours in Aske. 
Full of lies. Believe he has never been over the country 
he describes. His letter of introduction from Burr to Col- 
onel Bruin ! At half past nine went to the Duchess of 
Gordon's-y-Lord Montfort, C. Hope, D. Manchester, M'lle. 
M'Kenzie. Mr. Walsh causes himself to be introduced to 
me by Jeffrey. Supper handsome. After supper, Scotch 
reel. Catches, glees. All very gay and social. Left them 
dancing at five. 

While walking this morning with Lord J. Clerk, he said 
that he had just received a letter from Lord Melville about 
Gamp., which will require him at London. Arbuthnot called 
this morning to introduce Governor Houston, a sprightly, 
well-bred man, governor of Grenada. M'lle. Erskine, daugh- 
ter of the late chancellor — the form, the eyes, the hair, and 
manner of Theodosia. 

20. Answered M'lle. Williamson's note. Arbuthnot call- 
ed and brought me letters from Koe, Theodosia, Bollman, 
and Madame D'Auvergne. The Hopewell taken, with all 
my letters, the bust, &c. My presence in London demanded. 
Message from Castella. Sort. To Duchess of Gordon, who 
said many civil things. Lord Justice Clerk urges my going 
to London. Lord Melville's letter to him. 

22. Read an hour in Aske's travels, and did nothing till 
twelve, when Captain M'Dowall came in, and we walked 
to Holyrood Palace ; a grand structure, far above St. James's. 
To the Horse Guards' barracks, a very handsome establish- 
ment. To Porto Bello, a place for sea-bathing, hot or cold, 
in doors or out. A very pretty village, greatly resorted to 
by the Edinburghers and Leithites in summer, two and a 
half miles from Edinburgh and on the sea. Walked along 
the shore, a fine beach, to Leith ; the glassworks ; about the 
docks, which cannot be too much admired. Leith supposed 


to contain twenty thousand inhabitants. Home at three. 
Ferguson had called and left his pamphlets. This is the 
coldest day, many say, within memory. Sent out porter to 

notify M'lle. I should take tea there. 

23. Mr. Hume (Judge Hume) called. The lord advocate 
left card and invitation to dine on Friday. Went to consult 
Williamson whether I ought to stay. That the lord advo- 
cate is the intimate friend of Lord Melville, &c, so sent ac- 
ceptance. On the way home, met Judge Hume, and walked 
with him. 

25. Writing Bentham till three. Went to bed, but my 
head got so awake and so full of Bentham that I could not 
sleep. At eight I got asleep and slept till eleven. While 
at breakfast Judge Hume came in ; he always comes to dis- 
cover how he can serve me, and he always succeeds. At 
two came in Mr. Walker, to ask me to breakfast to-morrow, 
seeing that all my dinner hours were preoccupied. As- 
sented. Sor. at three. Home at four. Found a note and 
large package from Mrs. Gordon, of Craig, containing pub- 
lications and plans about lunatic asylum. To Baron Nor- 
ton's, Abbey Hill, to dine. Had, by appointment, half hour 
with him before dinner. The company were Mrs. Dundas, 
the mother of the chief baron, the chief baron, Mr. Boyle, the 
solicitor general, Mr. and Mrs. Jardine, Miss Skeene, Mr. 
Stewart, Mr. William Dundas, Baron Hepburne, Lady Jane. 
Miss Hastie, reported to be sick abed, did not appear. Din- 
ner and wines excellent. Madeira, Champagne, Hermitage, 
Frontignac, malmsey, claret, port, sherry. 

Baron Hepburne gave very warm invitation to come and 
pass days or weeks with him in E. Lothian, twenty-two 
miles from Edinburgh. Came home with him at ten. Con- 
versation at table general, and of current trifles, and wit- 
nessed a general wish that England would go to war with 
the United States. Read two hours Mrs. Gordon's pam- 
phlets, &c. 

26. At nine to Walker's to breakfast. Home to give or- 



ders (a most furious snowstorm). Sort, immediately in 
hack. Took up Judge Hume and went to Jackson's, who, 
with Mr. Gray, escorted me to Harriet's Hospital. One 
hundred and forty boys at dinner. Keeperesses and ten 
femmes — Scots. Three sick, of whom one lame, feeble 
constitution. Boys under ten and above seven are admitted. 
Sent out to trades, &c, at fourteen. — pounds to each on 
going out. More to those exhibiting literary talents. In- 
come £5000 sterling, and will in six years be £10,000. 
Food and clothing. Good faith to prevent detection of one 
who had plundered potatoes. All cut piece from their coats. 
During Jackson's administration, five and a half years, not 
a death. Went to dine at Alexander Young's-y-Mr. Stew- 
art, a very handsome, intelligent young man. Also , 

who had been some years in the East Indies. A prisoner at 
Mauritius. Knew Madame Hulol — tres gallant. Conver- 
sation — of the education and talent of women. Great de- 
bate — of Jeremy Bentham and of Dugald Stewart. Home 
at eleven. At the instance of M'lle. Crofton, took home and 
read Review of Cavallos, and of Hon. Parnell on penal 
laws against Irish Papists. On our return from Harriet's 
Hospital to-day we heard the news of the battle of Corun- 
na, and of the death of Sir John Moore. 

27. Dinner with lord advocate, sa femme (mere de 
seven enf.), tres jol., and of most fascinating sweetness and 
loveliness. At half past nine, being about to go, the lord 
advocate and madame urged so much that I would stay to 
supper, and Sir A. M'Kenzie joining, that I assented, and 
stayed till twelve. The lord advocate spoke of J. B. 
Said that he had endeavoured, but in vain, to get access to 
him. Mrs. C. took a lively interest in all that was said of 
him. Took list of his works. Sir A. M'Kenzie loaded 
me with all sort of civilities. Urged to visit, &c. Home 
at twelve. Sir A. M'Kenzie walked with me. 

30. Yesterday, as I was going out to dine, a servant of 
the Duchess of Gordon gave me a verbal message, with 


compliments, asking me to sup with her that evening ! Did 
not go nor send any answer. Called this morning and saw 
her. Some civil reproaches. Invited to the like this even- 
ing. Just before I went to Williamson's, her servant called 
to say that, being suddenly much indisposed, she could not 
see company this evening. Doubtless, the decease of her 
nephew, Col. Maxwell, who died of a wound received at. 

30. Went to bed at twelve, being excessively tired and 
sleepy. Nevertheless, could not sleep. Took ten dr. of 
laud. Still no sleep ; took sixteen more, and about four got 
dozing and lay till ten. Arbuthnot called and sat half an 
hour. At twelve to Manners and Miller's bookstore, to meet 
James Gordon of K., as per appointment, to go to court. 
Gordon had waited half an hour and had gone. Mr. Mil- 
ler's politeness. Went with me to court. Lord Justice 
Clerk sends a clerk to provide me a proper seat, &c. F. 
Jeffrey speaking. Stayed one hour. " My lud and my 
luds" — my head in very bad order. Home at two, intend- 
ing to go and discharge all my visits ; but too stupid with 
the laudanum. At three to the Duchess of Gordon's. Con- 
versation — Duke of York and the attack on him. Of the 
Duke of York's mistresses. Of men of straw, the father 
and son. Returning, M'Kenzie overtook me ; invited me to 
his house to-morrow evening. 

Edinburgh, February 1. Wrote to Jeremy Bentham an 
hour. Received answer from the lord advocate, with franks, 
and notice that he was ready for M'lle. H. Note from Wil- 
liamson with two great letters. Wrote to remind him of 
Sir J. Sinclair and Lord Moira. Sent my letters to post- 
office, having enclosed to Jeremy Bentham Theodosia's let- 
ter and Clara's.* 

At three sorti to Duchess of Gordon's. Sat one hour. 
Conversation of politics ; Duke of York ; revolution ; asked 

* Madame D'Auvergne, but better known as Leonora Sansay, author of the 
Horrors of St. Domingo, &c. 


to see her in London. To lord advocate's ; met, and went 
together, Mademoiselle Hamilton-y-Mr. Edgeworth, brother 
of Miss Edgeworth, author, &c., and two ladies. Many 
civilities from the lord advocate. To A. Young's. To 
Walker's ; regret of Emily that Gamp, failed at the con- 
cert. Most affectionate adieu. To R. Dunbar's ; after wait- 
ing ten minutes at the door for answer, left card of conge. 
To Mrs. Erskine's. To Hope's, who chased and over- 
took me, to bring me back to dine with him, which declined. 
To Governor Houston's. To M'lle. Williamson's. Home. 
Ordered beefsteak. To Arbuthnot's. Saw Mr. and Ma- 
dame, and her mere and four children — " I ken'd ye." He 
offers to take my bill for £50. Home and dressed for the 
evening at M'Kenzie's. At M'K.'s Lord Webb Seymour 
came in. 

2. Sleepless night. Rose at ten. Judge Hume called. 
At twelve to Holyrood Palace. To Arbuthnot, who took 
my bill on Graves for £50. At one went to take passage 
in the mail. It is full. Lo ! kept till to-morrow. Very 
lucky, for it was impossible to clear out reputably. Took 
passage in union coach for to-morrow, five A. M. Seven 
guineas. Tavern bill <£20. Sor. at three. To Miss 
Brown. To Jeffrey's. Home at four. Wrote a long letter 
to Madame Gordon ; one to Bentham. Sorting papers three 
hours. At two began to pack up. Three guineas to ser- 
vants. In the evening, a note to Arbuthnot, and his reply. 
Mrs. M'DowalPs note, enclosing a letter for Mrs. Span, 
which I did not answer ! 

# * # *.****« 

London, February 7. Arrived at eleven this evening at 
the Saracen's Head, Snowhill. The usual time of arrival is 
one P. M., but the coachman and the guard got both a little 
boozy, and each had a girl. Stopped every few miles to 
drink. The coachman extremely insolent. With great 
difficulty got a very dirty bed, in a room with another, and, 
after an hour's perseverance, got a little fire and a glass of 


hot lemonade. Went below in the public room to smoke a 
pipe. No segars. Two very intelligent young men there. 
One a foreigner, looking very like Gallatin. They both 
made approaches for acquaintance, which, pour des raisons, 
I received distantly. 

8. Breakfasted in coffee-room. To hotel, Covent Garden, 
to see Randolph and Meeker. Both gone. Took their ad- 
dress from the barkeeper. To the Horse Guards, where 
saw Gen. A. Hope, bien recju. To Queen's Square Place- 
y-J. B. and J. H. K., and a young deputy secretary. Bien 
recu. Stayed to dinner. Out at ten ; raining, took K.'s 
umbrella, having lost my own. Koe overtook me at Charles 
X., having run all that way in the rain; sent by Bentham to 
bring me back to sleep, he not suspecting that I was going 
off. Apologized. At Bentham's found Theodosia's letter 
of the third of January, and one of September. 

9. Breakfasted at eleven at Saracen's Head. Domestic 
demanded my name. To Graves's ; he had been a fortnight 
out of town. Returned home ; paid my bill, ten shillings 
and sixpence. Domestics, four shillings and sixpence. 
Took my baggage and went to call on W. P. M. ; out. Left 
for his perusal the letter I had written to Graves. To Horse 
Guards to deliver Gen. Hope another letter, which I had 
overlooked. He being engaged, left the letter. To Q. S. 
P. at three. Note from Gen. Hope, proposing an interview 
to-morrow. W. P. Meeker came in at seven. The bill 
from Edinburgh paid. 

10. Castella came in, and we walked out together. It was 
with regre,t that I left Bentham, having intended to join in 
his morning's walk ; K. not having returned from Hampstead, 
where he went yesterday to dine at General Bentham's with 
Miranda, who had known the general in Russia. To D. 
M. R.'s ; he has abandoned poetry and taken to the manufac- 
ture of shoes, which I think will turn out something. To 
Mrs. Duval's, who gave me the new address of Lewis. 
Madame Duval knew Miss Emily Devisme, daughter of 


Gerard ; says she is twenty-five, and has £200 per annum. 
To Lewis Duval's, to whom told the story of White, book- 
seller. He advised me to employ an attorney, and sent for 
Humphreys, to whom I gave the papers. 

Resolved to change my residence. Bentham's house is 
too full with this new secretary ; but for a more cogent rea- 
son, arising out of the difficulty with White respecting the 
books sent to Alston. The benevolent heart of J. B. shall 
never be saddened by the spectacle of Gamp's arrest ! So 
I have said that I should dine abroad to-day. 

At two to Horse Guards. Interview and free conversa- 
tion with General Hope. He says Lord M. will write to 
me, inviting an interview at his first moment of leisure. To 
Q. S. P. at three. Remain an hour. Out to look for ob- 
scure lodgings. Got suited at a huckster's (Dunn), 35 
James-street. Roved about for two hours without any ob- 
ject. At seven to D. M. R.'s ; he gave me a letter which 
he got from General Lyman, United States' consul general. 
It is from E. Bollman, dated August, and brought by Prime, 
an Englishman. Mr. Skipwith, late United States' consul 
at Paris, came in — cold and formal. 

11. Castella came in at ten. To Duval's at eleven, 
whence wrote a note to Humphreys, asking what he had to 
communicate. Received reply, requesting an interview. 
To his house. He had written to T., the attorney of White, 
who agreed to suspend prosecution till T. had seen the pa- 
pers ; but T. says it is probable he shall do something on 
Monday, being the last return day this term. To Vickey's 
about peruke. To Galberti's about shoes. Mem. — On the 
way to Duval's bought a settee. Pourquoi ? For the chess- 
player, to whom I am in debt. Called on to apologize 

and atone for the failure on Wednesday evening — out. To 
Q. S. P. at four. Told Bentham what I had been doing, 
and of my resolution to go. Said nothing to him of White. 
After a free, candid, and friendly explanation, he consented 
to my departure. My address is to be still at Q. S. P. 


18. To Arlington-street. Lord Melville not up. De- 
sired to call at twelve. Walked home in the rain. At 
twelve, took coach. Found him. Received in the most 
kind and frank manner. After sitting half an hour, he was 
called down. A gentleman waiting to say one word to him. 
It was to inquire if Col. Burr were not there ! which, being 
answered in the affirmative, he apologized and went off. 
Not known to Lord Melville. This interview had been 
invited by a note from Lord M. yesterday. 

19. Koe called at one; says the orders in council are to 
be repealed. Took a note from me to Milne, inquiring about 
vessels for New-York. 

March 4. Madame P. had been out and met some one 
who talked of Gamp. ! That she should have met any one 
who spoke of Gamp, was a little surprising and not pleasant. 
Many conjectures, under what name. Of R. was impossi- 
ble. Of B. not probable, yet possible ! The first sugges- 
tion was that he must instantly remove. Went to bed think- 
ing much and concluding nothing. M. would not explain. 
Madame made the fire and got breakfast as usual. Regard 
triste, sombre, pas maligne. A sort of explanation ensued. 
Madame said that one of her acquaintance had met us 
walking the evening of the second, and knowing lui, on Fri- 
day had made the remarks by description and not by any 
name. Packed up some, and transported to Q. S. P. other 
of my things. 

Arrived at Little Gaddesden at seven. Bartlett's servant 
waiting to receive me. Engaged bed at the tavern and went 
up to B.'s. The family and M'lle. Bailie. After tea called 
on Major Gamble, who offered me a room ; but Madame 
Bartlett had provided a room, fire, &c. ; would take no refu- 
sal. So sent for my trunk and took my quarters at B.'s. 

19. Arrived in Madame A.'s chariot with M'lle. C. Very 
ill of a headache. I could not sit up in the carriage. Kind 
solicitude des dames. Got to my dinner at five. Madame 
F. and Mr. Hosack abroad. No fire ; lay on the sofa till 



eight. From anxiety about some letters expected, made 
great effort and went to Q. S. P. A letter from D. M : K., 
barely civil and a flat refusal. Note from Mr. Forbes. 
Ditto from Guillemard, containing a most curious sort of 
apology. Returned chez moi, and again took to sofa. Drank 
crem. tart, punch. No effect. Mr. H. came in at ten, and 
amused me with the news of the day and his little inci- 
dents. Says Capt. S., of the Herkimer, is a great friend of 
Gamp., and offers his service. Also Capt. , of the Ju- 
piter, who lately sailed. Madame P. came in at half past 
ten. Did not see her. At twelve went to her chamber: 
in violent hysterics. Would not see me. 


Edinburgh, February 2, 1809. 

You will herewith receive Bentham's Sketches on the 
Poor Laws. Before I had spoken to you on this subject, 
they had been promised to Mr. Ferguson, advocate, George- 
street. To him, after perusal, be pleased to send them. I 
wish, however, that Mrs. Hamilton (or Miss Hamilton) 
could read them. They apply more directly to her object 
than to yours. You shall have another set, and some other 
works of the same exalted genius on similar topics. 

You have not now to " enlist" me. I was enlisted in your 
service from the day we first met. You have only to point 
out my duty. You had almost persuaded me that I was of 
some importance, and could be of some use ; but, in spite of 
all your pretty flattery, it is manifest that I am a mere 
cipher ; a detached atom, without influence or connexion, 
whose interference would be deemed officious. Do not, 
however, imagine that I abandon your cause. No, never, 
never, any cause in which you are engaged. 

The only mode now occurring to me in which there is the 
slightest probability of my being of the least possible service 
is this : I shall have occasion to see both Sir John Sinclair 
and the lord advocate (members of parliament) ; if you will 


so manage as to interest them in the business, I will lose no 
occasion of prompting and stimulating them. Can you in- 
dicate any other mode in which I can be an agent ? 

A. Burr. 


Edinburgh, February 2, 1809. 

Within an hour after forwarding my despatches of the 1st 
instant, I had the good fortune to finish, to my satisfaction, 
that little negotiation mentioned as the pretence for delay. 
And now, having no other plausible excuse to offer to my- 
self; and as well my right honourable friend, as the brother 
of my deceased friend, urging my departure as a thing of 
moment — I obey. Yet of that importance I believe not one 
word. Nevertheless, I go ; to-morrow, adieu to Edinburgh. 
One day is allowed to see the minstrel at York ; and, if 
Cambridge should not entice me out of the road, I shall take 
tea with you on Wednesday evening. But, before writing, 
I must set to work to pack up, assort and burn papers, &c. 
During the which operation, that little billet doux will un- 
doubtedly be found. No, no, I can never see your face 
till that is found. From gallantry, you know, you must rave, 
and storm, and scold. This must be forestalled, and I go 
forthwith to work. 

It is found ; but after such labour ! You, who have seen 
the beautiful order observed in a certain room in Q. S. P., 
may form some judgment. I have gone over, and burned or 
filed, and marked every paper in my possession ; and this 
little billet was the last that came to my hands or view. 
Again I have heaped some maledictions on that " one of" 
I have cut out of her letter to me one sentence. The whole 
is too long to be sent. I know you would read it, and it 
would only fatigue your eyes and waste your time. It will 
be always at your command. During the search, however, 
I made a very important discovery. K.'s letter of the 17th 
January was enclosed in a little piece of dirty printed paper. 


Not suspecting that anything could be written on such a 
scrap, it was thrown aside, and it is surprising that it was 
not thrown into the fire. It was fortunately preserved, and 
it informs me that you have written me a long letter under 
cover to Dr. C. How the receipt of that letter would have 
elevated and cheered me. The mere knowledge that such 
a letter had been written would have been consoling. I 
have a good mind to go round by Oxford to get it ; but there 
will be time on the road to resolve. The same scrap men- 
tions a letter enclosed to me by your friend, an M. P. That 
letter was received, and, after some hesitation, delivered. I 
never formed an acquaintance with so much reluctance. I 
had resolved to hate him. After seeing the sort of man, I 
formed other views. We have become familiar acquaint- 
ances. If he should again have occasion to speak of one 
Jeremy Bentham, I am greatly deceived if it shall not be 
with more reverence. 

You will not hear from me again before my arrival in 
London. I was about to write you some idle incidents, but 
this paper-hunting has consumed so much time that it is 
now one o'clock. I have half a dozen little notes of courtesy 
to answer., and all my baggage to pack up. In some of our 
walks, you will hear all that is worth hearing. You perceive 
that I intend reforming. A Burr. 


Edinburgh, February 2, 1809. 

I will send all, and answer all before leaving town, which 
is further delayed till to-morrow morning. At this moment 
I am extremely occupied with all those vexatious trifles with 
which one is always overwhelmed at the moment of de- 
parture. Excuse me till evening. A. Burr. 



Edinburgh, February 1, 1809. 

I enclose for you a letter to Sir John Sinclair. I have 
mentioned pretty strongly the necessity of our now cordially 
endeavouring to draw a close and friendly communication 
with North America, of which there was, at present, but 
little prospect but through your means. 

Sir John employed my brother to get him seeds from 
North America, which Morris* of New-York writes would 
be sent this fall. I have reason to think that they would be 
addressed to the care of Capt. Smith. Not recollecting ex- 
actly where Captain Smith resides, I have referred Sir John 
Sinclair to you for information. And if you can otherwise 
assist Sir John in that way, you will find it, in your political 
matters, of very considerable use and importance. Every. 
man must be taken in his own way. 

Lord Moira's letters will be sent to you under cover to 
Gen. Alexander Hope. Let us hear from you how all things 
bear, &c. 

David Williamson. 

P.S. As soon as you are fixed in town, send me down a 
note of your address. Whenever you are at a loss about 
persons, write. You have no occasion to enter at large into 
anything. Remember to draw as close as possible to Lord 
Melville. You will find him an open, bold, manly character ; 
totally incapable of the least disguise. Of course, you must 
be the same with him. In all that quarter, the more you 
rest on the intimacy with my brother, you will find it the 
better. D. W. 

* Thomas Morris, late United States Marshal for the district of New-York, 
son of the celebrated revolutionary financier, Robt. Morris, and an intimate friend 
of Col. Williamson. 



Edinburgh, February 2, 1809. 

The stockings to be knit by the great-grandmother of 
John M'Donald shall be transmitted to you along with those 
manufactured by the Right Honourable Lord Provost. I 
wish you much good wearing out of both. Mrs. Arbuthnot, 
who was just going to her room when your note arrived, 
begs you will accept her best wishes for a pleasant journey, 
as well as for a continuance of health and happiness. Adieu. 

William Arbuthnot. 


Edinburgh, February 2, 1809. 

Mrs. M'Donald begs Col. Burr will accept of her thanks 
for his attention in offering to be the bearer of her remem- 
brances to her friends in Hertfordshire. She has availed 
herself of his politeness by enclosing a letter, which she re- 
quests he will have the goodness to take in charge for Mrs. 

Mr. and Mrs. M'Donald unite in the offer of best respects 
to Col. Burr, and in the hope, if he again visits Scotland, 
they shall frequently have the pleasure of seeing him. 


New-York, February 1, 1809. 

Your letters to the 24th November reached me two days 
ago. A voyage to join you at any season, and through any 
danger, would be a most delightful party of pleasure to me ; 
but it is now impracticable. The funds on which you cal- 
culated are not yet procured. But console yourself with the 
most unanswerable objection to this voyage — my health is 
better. Relief has not yet been obtained, but my strength, 
spirits, and appearance I have very much regained, and I 
trust that nature will soon effect the rest. E.'s " divine" 
medicine has received a trial of more than three months' du- 


ration without having produced any sensible effect. My 
health, I believe, has returned thus much by the help of a 
naturally good constitution ; a mind more at ease, and a 
bracing climate ; rather in spite of the mercury than by its 

You may recollect that I gave Hosack's preparation a 
trial. He is ignorant of my application to Eustis (so let him 
remain, I entreat), and advises me to continue taking his 
medicine. A short time since he advised me to resume the 
use of the Ballston waters ; now, before I touched them, he 
strenuously prohibited them, lest they should excite inflam- 
mation. He wants to bleed, but " nolo." I have tried the 
Ballston waters to-day, notwithstanding the interdiction, and 
you will have some idea of the alteration in my habit when 
I tell you that one small tumbler and a half gave me a slow 
fever, pain in the back, burning, and every sensation of ap- 
proaching relief. They were drank, too, at the interval of 
some hours. I will not take any more mercury. It renders 
abortive the advantages of climate, ruins my teeth, and will 
destroy my constitution. There is little doubt in my mind 
that perfect health will soon return. 

Mari will not come. He is detained by business bona 
fide. My plan is, if I recover, to return home in the spring. 
The seashore house is sold, and, therefore, we shall inevita- 
bly go to the mountains. The air there is good. The sea 
voyage and land journey will both benefit me. I promise 
you not to remain longer than a very few days in the Low 
Country. This vagrant life fatigues me. For many rea- 
sons, which you may imagine, a return to my proper res- 
idence will now be best, as my health will not be injured 
by it. Do not fear for me. I will take care of myself bet- 
ter than heretofore, I promise you most solemnly. You 
should not have tantalized me with this proposed voyage. 
It is quite out of my reach. My great consolation is the 
hope of having more time to improve myself by remaining 
quiet at home. 


It is said that inducements and incitements to raise the 
non-importation act cannot be offered to advantage before 
May. It is inconceivable to me why you did not receive 
letters by the late packet. I have written most regularly. 
It has been my greatest pleasure. None of the books or 
papers you wish are sent. This is very dutiful ! I feared 
to trust them to any one without more positive orders. 
This over-care and reposing on orders is not much to my 
liking ; but my detention makes so material an alteration, that 
I think this one of the very few instances in which it may 
be allowed. 

I am sorry Jeremy Bentham likes cats. I hate them ; but 
henceforth I shall treat them with infinite deference, and, 
whenever a cat crosses my way, make her my obeisance 
as one of the family of his chosen favourites. You must 
not talk to Mr. Bentham when writing in cipher. It causes 
you to make errors. You know I love to convict you of 
an error, as some philosophers seek for spots in the sun. 
The bust of Mr. Bentham and the map of London have not 
been received. The loss of the former would really afflict 
me, and I still hope that it is not lost. With what pride 
would I receive the image of your kind friend ! 

You need not enjoin me to love E. A. I do so already. 
Our meeting was not mentioned by me, because it happened 
at a time when the most dreadful apathy rendered me insen- 
sible to everything, save painful feelings. I have lately re- 
ceived a warm and friendly answer to a letter I wrote to 

W n* before you left this. There is but one newspaper 

such as I wished in being; a manuscript copy is sent me. 
Do you recollect a Commodore Lewis, who resides at Am- 
boy ? He has pressed me repeatedly, and in the most urgent 
manner, to spend some months with Mrs. Lewis. I shall 
pay them a visit before my departure. Our old friend, John 

* This refers to a letter from General John P. Van Ness, enclosing a manu- 
script copy of Col. Burr's Farewell Address to the Senate. — See Burr's Memoirs, 
vol. ii., page 360. 


Svvartwout, is on a visit here. He looks well ; he now and 
then spends an hour with me. Mr. and Mrs. Wickham 
were at the springs last summer after I had left it. They 
are well, and he continues to be your friend and advocate 
upon all occasions. 

Apropos of the springs. When there, I spent three weeks 
at H. Walton's, and nowhere have I received such unfeign- 
ed marks of friendship : nowhere met with more sincere 
hospitality. She is amiable, and possesses that sort of 
soothing, cheerful tenderness so bewitching in a woman, 
so cordial to the sick. Love them for my sake. Could you 
write her a few lines ? It will gratify me and flatter her. 
To the last day, inclusive, their kindness was unremitting. 
If you should ever have a dollar to spare, purchase a few 
sheets of the newest and most admired church music, as a 
present from me to Mrs. Walton. This is her favourite style 
of musical composition. 

You inquire what you shall send Frederic. Would not 
some treatise upon agriculture and the dairy, or some seeds 
of the finest grapes and best wheat, be at once pleasing and 
serviceable ? He sometimes thinks seriously of becoming 
cotton planter, and residing with me at the mountains. I do 
not know what will be his determination. 

I have been doing a strange thing lately. It was supposed 
that the embargo would continue a long time. Government 
announced an intention to fit out thirty cruisers, to sail about 

our coast and stop runaway vessels. Poor wanted the 

command of one. He had no friends. He besought me to 
write a petition in his name. I yielded to his entreaties. 
In writing, I thought of nothing but the petition, and said 
civil things to Mr. Jefferson, though, upon cool reflection, it 
would have been much less irksome to do him a serious 
service than to flatter him. The author of the petition re- 
mains unknown. Several gentlemen signed it. Many saw 
it, and all asked by whom it was written, assuring success 
to any one who should present it. Now that there is a pros- 


pect of a free trade once more, I regret that it was written. 
The clouds at the eastward are vanishing. All will remain 
quiet, I believe, without doubt. More of this at the last mo- 
ment. Did I tell you Sam left me last summer, and left me 
in the most ungrateful, insolent manner ? The friends of 
physiognomy may exult; for he furnished, during good be- 
haviour, as strong an argument against it as Socrates. I 
have procured an excellent housekeeper to go home with me, 
and a tolerable tutor for B. 

February 19. 

Eighteen days have elapsed since the above was written, 
and there is no news to add. Nothing has occurred, nothing 
altered. Shall it always be so with us ? All nature changes. 
Day has followed night. There have been revolutions in the 
seasons ; but our fates, which appear ever like black impend- 
ing clouds ready to burst, still threaten, and still remain the 
same. I had hoped long before this to have done something 
efficient in your pecuniary concerns; but the important per- 
son is still from home. A letter received yesterday informs 
me of this again, and adds that he is expected daily. This 
has been the case for months. As soon as he reaches his 
place of destination, he will receive a visit from me. This 
is the only hope of success. Great Heaven ! how truly 
miserable your situation renders me. What is to be done ? 
Yet do not despair. Wait a little longer ; perhaps the next 
packet may bring you all you wish. 

Of political affairs, the papers will tell you all I know. 
Many think that the late proceedings will produce a war 
with Great Britain ; and I have been seriously told that it 
would not be in my power to return home by water, because 
our coasts would soon be lined with English cruisers. I 
hope not so, in my heart. Your acquaintance, Mr. Smith,* 
arrived a few days since, out of spirits and disappointed. 
He has left us again with new courage. He has not con- 

* Samuel Swartwout. 


tributed to enliven me. Already anxious and distressed 
about you, he has rendered me doubly so by the addition 
of unavailing regrets, and the dreadful conviction that I have 
been the cause of real injury to you by the delay my illness 
occasioned. This I had felt before, but it never appeared 
to me in its full extent till after my conversation with him. 
The poignant sufferings this idea has occasioned me are in- 
describable ; and though my life has been saved by it, I can- 
not rejoice at it, from a belief that your happiness will greatly 
depend on my existence. And can I then remunerate you 
for such sacrifices merely by living ? Under every sort of 
misery, this reflection would make me careful of life, as of 
a treasure which I have in keeping for you, to be spent in 
your service. 

My boy improves charmingly, particularly in writing, and 
we are impatiently looking forward to the period when he 
will be able to write you a letter. I have not once thanked 
you for your magnificent present. Though you have been 
unexpectedly prevented from making it, the intention goes 
to my heart. The bust of Mr. Bentham does not come, and 
I begin to fear that it is lost. My veneration for him is en- 
thusiastic. As he is fond of plants, perhaps a few seeds of 
benne and okro may be acceptable to him. I have sent to 
Frederic's for some, and shall send them by Mr. S. Mr. 
Bentham's fondness for botany has determined me to study 
it. I have hitherto had an aversion to the pursuit, from a 
belief that it was a mere science of words. But the idea of 
pursuing a track which has been illuminated by his presence 
would throw a charm over the driest labours. Perhaps, in 
that new country, unexplored by the eye of science, it may 
be my good fortune to make some little discovery which will 
please him. If his bust should be lost, will it be in your 
power to get me another ? 

You must not show my letters to any one. I am yet 
heavy and spiritless. Not out of spirits. " Mais depourvue 
d'esprit." My mind feels awakening at times, and I am 


amusing myself in Spanish. I have taken but few lessons, 
and it will not be in my power to make much progress, as 
the master comes only thrice a week, and my departure from 
hence is not very distant. I hope and trust it will be in my 
power to make some arrangement of your pecuniary con- 
cerns before I leave this part of the world. Unless success- 
ful in this, I shall go with a very, very heavy heart. 

March 8. 

This day has arrived and passed over. Yet of all the events 
which, at the commencement of my letter, I imagined must 
happen before this, not one has occurred. I find that I am 
still a child, and look forward to a few weeks as an age big 
with important changes in my situation, and destined to be 
marked by innumerable improvements in myself. Perhaps, 
like the great herd of mankind, I too am doomed to look 
back with continual disappointment in both these expecta- 
tions. Yet I do not believe that they proceed from an in- 
nate or instinctive disposition, ordained as the means of ren- 
dering life more dear, so much as from long habit. In the 
happy days of childhood, occurrences new, and even great in 
our estimation, are daily taking place. Thus, too, without 
thinking of our characters or caring for knowledge, we every 
day find our minds enlarged. It is a long time before we 
can bring ourselves to calculate on the uniformity of middle 
life ; and when, at length, experience has taught us this, we 
are again altering ; but how differently ! There is now no 
hope of amelioration in your pecuniary concerns. 

The inaugural speech of Mr. Madison has just come out. 
It is not enclosed, because you will, no doubt, see it in the 
newspapers. It is said that, so far from being influenced, 
as was generally supposed, he will act a most independent 
part. Even Mr. Jefferson professes not to know by whom 
any office is to be filled. When questioned, he declares his 
ignorance and the reserve of Mr. Madison. Giles, too, cor- 
roborates this. On this you will form your own conclu- 


sions. I have thought it a piece of policy to conceal a de- 
termination of being guided. But it may be otherwise. 

The embargo, too, you already know, is to be raised at 
least on the 14th instant, and on the 20th of May the non- 
intercourse bill will take effect. The consequence of the 
last measure, it is supposed, will be a war with England. 
She only can take our merchantmen ; she must do it. The 
eastern people will be provoked at the loss of their vessels, 
and even they will thus ultimately join in what they now 

The alteration of Mr. S.'s plan prevents me from sending 
the seeds, and a pound or two of the Padre souchong which 
remains of Anne's second present. I have thought of burn- 
ing this letter and commencing another ; yet another would 
not be more interesting ; it might be shorter, and you will 
have to wade through a great deal of useless nonsense ; but 
you will perceive my wishes and hopes as they have arisen 
and been extinguished. 

61 looks like 16. There is a cipherical quibble for you. 
I forgot to tell you that Mrs. B. Moore has showed me more 
attentions, and given me more frequent marks of affection, 
bv much, than any other person. Scarcely a day passes 
unmarked by some new proof of kindness. 


from sir william strickland. 

Edinburgh, February 2, 1809. 

Sir William Strickland has only just now (three o'clock) 
received Col. Burr's note, and shall be happy to renew his 
acquaintance with him, if Col. Burr will do him the honour 
of dining with him at half past four o'clock, or of calling 
upon him at any time afterward in the evening. 



Edinburgh, January 23, 1809. 

This sheet of paper is large enough in truth, but how and 
with what it will be filled, I am as unconscious as the 
whiskey-bottle on my table. I set out, as you know, re- 
solved to write you daily, and to write you everything, and 
the resolution has been pretty well kept ; but, in the first 
place, I had commenced on too large a scale (a sheet is 
enclosed by way of sample) ; and then, on my arrival, the 
disappointment in the franking matter was fatal to the 
execution of my plan. Yet on every evening I have writ- 
ten you something. Every hour of every day I have con- 
versed with you. In solitude, in company, at dinners, routes, 
balls — during the discussion of things the most remote from 
all association with you, you appear and look me in the face, 
but eminently in the midst of my follies. Why is it so ? 
You are present ; yet always with a look so benign and 
complacent that cheers ; sometimes, perhaps, admonishes. 
Once, indeed, though still a smile, there was a look of in- 
quiry and surprise. " What the d — 1 do you do here ?" 

Since leaving London I have not written a letter to any 
human being, save that to Koe, and three lines of business 
to Graves, except trifling matters of courtesy in this vicin- 
age. Not a line to any American friend by the last packet ; 
not even to Theodosia. In my state of nullity I wish to be 
forgotten till 1 can rise to view in a shape worthy of the 
hopes of my friends. This, however, is not applicable to 
you nor to Theodosia, and yet I am silent to you both, as 
far as either of you know ! And now, just returned from 
passing two hours, intensely occupied in researches into 
Natural History (zoology), sublimed and tranquillized by the 
acquisition of much useful and curious knowledge, on this 
Tuesday night, being the 23d of January, anno dom. 1809, 
at the silent and hallowed hour of one — nay, then, it must be 
Wednesday the 24th, at one A. M. What a fatal interrup- 


tion to a fine poetic sentence, which was to tell you, what 
could never have been otherwise known, that I was writing 
to you. So the great Virgil begins, " I am going to sing 
you a song;" which all the world admires. But at this 
rate, this vast surface may be filled without telling you 
anything. As you seem a little impatient to know some- 
thing of where I am and what about, you may skip over all 
till the next line. Very practicable in Ireland. 

I was provoked to this undertaking by a conversation 
lately had, of which you were the subject. It has been my 
daily practice, not avowing my own opinions, still less my 
feelings, to throw out, incidentally, something to sound. 
When I find a man who knows nothing of you, which (with 
blushes be it said) has sometimes happened, I pity him ; 
but when one, pretending a knowledge of your works, uses 
" very able, very ingenious," or any such trite epithets, I 
hate him, and am disposed to quarrel. This has often hap- 
pened. We were fifteen at table. Two physicians, a judge, 
four advocates, seven ladies (women are here a part of 
society), and one anomaly, the Moheigungk. [N. B. Man- 
hattan was the Indian name of the Island of New-York. 
Moheigungk one of the nations inhabiting it.] I had talked 
a good deal, and apparently to the satisfaction of the hearers. 
Not to satiate, and with other views, I changed the subject 
to Scotch reform. (Point de physique.) How amiable was 
that trait ; how it has sunk into my heart ! Where was the 
friend who would have had the candour, the sensibility, the 
boldness? Mr. Ferguson, an advocate of respectable stand- 
ing (author of a book on national defence), without prompt- 
ing, spoke of you and your work on that subject (Scotch 
reform) in terms which pleased me. The occasion being 
suitable, and the company in good-humour with me, " I made 
a speech." Ferguson supported me. Most of those pres- 
ent took a list of your works, &c, and I came home in good- 
humour with myself. F. called on me the next morning. 
While we were sitting together, Sir Hay Campbell, formerly 


president of the court of sessions, and now one of the com- 
mittee on the reform, came in. Ferguson, being full of you, 
began to talk. Told Sir Hay that your pamphlet had given 
him quite a new view of the subject, and said many hand- 
some things, and expressed a very strong wish that your 
attention could again be called to it. 

Tuesday, January 31. You will not be able to conceive 
any good reason for this intermission of eight days. To ac- 
count for it satisfactorily might consume eight more. Leav- 
ing, therefore, for the present, my reputation to its fate, we 
proceed. The lord advocate, M. P. for Edinburgh, has 
sought me out. If there were time, I think we should be- 
come friends. He professes to be one of your admirers. 
Says that, as often as he has been in London, he has in vain 
endeavoured to get access to you. I rather indiscreetly ten- 
dered my services to procure him that honour when he should 
be next in London (a fortnight hence). The vanity of pre- 
tending influence with the great is quite an English foible, 
and I hope venial. In justice to myself, it must be added, 
that the overture was qualified with reservations regarding 
your health, your habits, and the importance of your time. 
Before you decide against the interview, I naust be heard. 

You have several new female friends here. Among them 
one a little prone to writing, who may possibly assail you in 
that way. If so, and you should design to reply, which I have 
rendered extremely doubtful, say nothing of A. B., unless, 
if necessary, in those commonplace terms, of which you may 
borrow for the occasion from your tenant, who has a fine 
collection. Many of the ladies of this place are enthusias- 
tically engaged in promoting benevolent institutions, and it 
is on these topics that I have gained importance with them, 
by strutting about adorned with shreds stolen from you ; but 
without giving you any sort of credit — though I am greatly 
afraid they will find me out when they come to read. Now 
for something of self. In truth, this has been the principal 
subject all along ; but now more exclusively. 


I have got on pretty well here, and with rather more dis- 
cretion than usually falls to my lot, not having said or done, 
publicly, more than twenty outrageously silly things. Avoid- 
ing all ugly, naughty topics. From any man, save one, if I 
cannot vanquish, I can escape. In the hands of that one, I 
am just what Theodosia is in mine. This was perceived 
after the first two hours ; and seeing no retreat, nor anything 
better to be done, I surrendered, tame and unresisting, to be 
disarmed, stripped, hacked, hewed, dissected, skinned, turned 
inside out, at the will and mercy of the operator. Much 
good may it do him. 

My late friend Charles Williamson was greatly esteemed 
by persons of the first distinction in this region, and had 
their confidence. He had talked much of me, and had done 
full justice. Full justice, allowing the utmost claims of van- 
ity. The gentleman to whom your new tenant wrote in my 
behalf has entered into my concerns with intelligence and 
with zeal. He has written to Lord Moira, and has received 
answers of an auspicious tenour. You may thank the new 
tenant for me, if you think proper, though, in fact, his friend 
made advances, and asked me to his house before I had an- 
nounced myself. Yet I have no very confident hopes. This 
friend of the tenant says I must be off; that I shall be in 
demand yonder. I have a further little purpose in view, 
auxiliary to the same object. When that shall fail or be ac- 
complished, I go. You will hear from me again from this 
place, but you cannot write to me. The residue of my pro- 
jected tour is for the present given up. Within four or five 
days I shall be on my way to London, by sea or land. 

Theodosia's note is enclosed, for I have found a frank. I 
could choke her for her " one of." I never did class you with 
anv man or description of men ; but poor, dear little soul, it is 
a new evidence of debility. Indeed, I almost despair of her 
recovery. The capture of the Hopewell is, on many ac- 
counts, vexatious ; but distressing, as it will prevent her 
from receiving, perhaps until this day, my advice as to a 

Vol. I.— H 


voyage to England. Her letters shall be sent too, if I can 
find them. Only see with what enthusiasm she has caught 
the idea of translating, &c. I said nothing of it ; have not 
given the remotest hint or allusion. It has originated wholly 
with herself. If she were well, she would do more justice 
to the original than any one who is likely to engage in the 

February 1. After half an hour's search, Theodosia's note 
to you cannot be found. It will appear in the general scru- 
tiny which is to take place a day or two hence. Her let- 
ter of December is sent, and, by way of indemnity, a note 
from Madame d'Auvergne. My frank has come in, and this 
must now go. A. Burr. 


New-York, February 10, 1809. 

Your letters, as late as the 24th November, have reached 
me many days ago, and I have a long letter in readiness to 
send by one of the vessels to be despatched by government. 
As it will be delivered to you by a gentleman, Mr. Nathaniel 
W. Strong, partner of M. L. Davis, I have written freely ; 
more so than I should otherwise venture to do. This, then, 
is merely to preclude the possibility of your suffering any 
anxiety about me. My health has improved so rapidly 
since the cold weather commenced, that it could not afford 
even a pretext for the proposed voyage ; and for this let us 
thank God the more fervently, as pecuniary difficulties would 
have arrested me. Yet I cannot, cannot rejoice sincerely at 
anything which parts us. 

The money you so securely calculated on receiving is 
not yet forthcoming, and every day renders me more suspi- 
cious and more apprehensive on that subject. For reasons 
which cannot be now detailed, I have been induced to write 
to the principal person. A copy of this letter shall be sent 
by Strong, that you may know w r hat has been done. I did 
not sign my. name. No answer has been received. I have 


Written to E. A. to ascertain where he is with certainty. 
This had been done before, and he was expected. Perhaps, 
therefore, my letter did not reach him. It was enclosed in 
a blank cover to his friend and agent in Philadelphia. Some- 
times I think of writing again ; sometimes very seriously of 
going there, and from this I am deterred merely by the fear 
that my presence there might give rise to injurious surmises. 
I shall soon determine and let you know. Oh that I could 
see you for one minute. Adieu. I have already said every- 
thing in my letter by Mr. Strong. Tiieodosia. 


London, February 13, 1809. 

Major General Hope sends the enclosed, with his compli- 
ments, to Col. Burr, as containing the best information re- 
specting the sailing of vessels for America. ' 

The privilege of members of parliament in franking does 
not extend beyond Great Britain and Ireland. 


London, February 15, 1809. 

It is now two months since I have written to you, except 
journalizing — of which a volume. Having talked to you 
daily in that way, it seemed to satisfy my conscience. By 
the Hopewell, however, I wrote you fully. Sent the bust 
of Bentham ; a beautiful map of London. Books and 
pamphlets for yourself and boy. By the same occasion I 
wrote to E. A. & Co. all I had then or have now to say. 
A duplicate of my letter to you was sent by the November 
packet, but of Dr. Lettsome's letter there was no duplicate. 
It was enclosed in one which I wrote Hosack also by the 
Hopewell. All this was about your health, recommending 
a sea voyage, pointing out to whom to address yourself on 
vour arrival in Liverpool, or Falmouth, or London ports. 

On the 21st of December I set out on my long-projected 
tour to Scotland. Passed through Oxford, Birmingham, 

H 2 


Manchester, Carlisle. Here passed a day, in obedience to 
your orders. Saw the old man, bedridden, growing reli- 
gious, or, in Swift's words, "Giving God the devil's leav- 

I am going to pass some days with my friends in Hert- 
fordshire, particularly Dr. Bartlett ; a very amiable and in- 
teresting family, of which more hereafter. I forgot to say 
that by the Hopewell I wrote to T. Green, to M. L. Davis, 
with a parcel of books and pamphlets to E. W. L., to our 
dear boy, to R. B., which tell them. 

The time passed at Edinburgh was a continued round of 
dissipation, dinners, suppers, balls, routs. Edinburgh is the 
most hospitable and social place I have been. They meet 
to amuse and be amused, and they succeed. The Scotch 
women dance much better than the English, if I may be 
allowed to judge from the samples which I have seen of the 
latter. It is in the reel (the Scotch reel) that the laussies 
are seen to best advantage; their animation and activity 
exceeding anything that you can imagine — a reel after sup- 
per. They bound, spring, twirl, raise their hands, snap the 
fingers — yet with grace. I speak not of Bourgeoises, but of 
the first rank. Yet I have seen no one in either kingdom 
dance as well as S. H. 

Of the distinguished characters with which this place (Ed- 
inburgh) abounds, you will be most solicitous to hear of the 
literary men ; and of these, perhaps, particularly M'Kenzie, 
author of the Man of Feeling, &c, and Scott, author of the 
Minstrel, &c. I met both frequently, and from both re- 
ceived civilities and hospitalities. M'Kenzie has twelve 
children ; six daughters, all very interesting and two very 
handsome. He is remarkably sprightly in company ; ami- 
able, witty ; might pass for forty-eight, though certainly 
much older. Scott, with less softness than M'Kenzie, has 
still more animation ; talks much and very agreeably. May 
be about forty. Burns, the poet, was made a custom-house 
officer ! and died a sot at an early age. But I must forbear 


from details. They are written and are yours ; but when 1 or 
where ? Yourself and your concerns engross my thoughts ; 
and, together with an extraordinary expression in a letter 
from 61, must occupy the residue of this. 

I remained in Edinburgh and its vicinity till the 3d inst., 
and left it with regret and full of pleasing recollections. 
On the 18th of January was received from London your two 
letters of 8th December, nearly copies of each other, en- 
closing the note to Jeremy Bentham, which was approved 
and forwarded. The same mail informed me that the 
Hopewell was taken three days after sailing, and carried 
into France, with all my letters to you, to Hosack, to Mr. 
Alston, to M. L. Davis, Green, E. A., &c, some of which 
you may probably have the advantage of seeing in the Ga- 
zette, improved by a French translation. By the same mail 
I learned that the December packet had been delayed by 
government till January, and on my arrival here it is found 
that in January she sailed, met a gale, got disabled, returned 
into port, and did not sail again until the 10th inst.; so that 
the most interesting letter I ever wrote you will not be re- 
ceived until four months after its date, if at all. I calculate, 
however, that you will sail for England by the first packet 
after it shall be received. There is no doubt but the sea 
voyage, the medical aid, and the climate of this country 
would restore you. So says Lettsome. My own observa- 
tions confirm it. Provision is made for your reception at 
Falmouth and at Liverpool. 

The boy is wasting his time. Get him at Latin, Greek, 
and arithmetic. Perhaps no better tutor than Charles Wille 
could be had for the moment. He is capable of teaching 
Latin as far as Virgil, and many other things. By all means 
bring him with you. Don't plague the boy with Latin gram- 

59 is not immediately wanted, but would be acceptable. 
The want of him has prevented an experiment which I 
wished to make in X.'s affairs. You little numscull, the 


fire-irons are hollow. How we have laughed at thy simpli- 
city. Take care of them, for another set cannot be had in 

Mrs. Ogden,* whose daughter! has so much charmed you, 
was one of the most interesting friendships of my life. 
Nearly every word that ever passed between us is fresh in 
my memory, and, above all, some lessons which her greater 
knowledge of the world enabled her to give, and for which 
I shall be ever grateful. Untoward circumstances prevented 
the continuance of our social intercourse, but the impression 
is dear and indelible. Cherish that friendship. 

From a sentence in a letter from 61 it would seem that 
a visit to is meditated. It would be folly even to mad- 
ness. It would be perfidious. No circumstances can justify 
or palliate it. 

On my arrival in London the 7th inst., I received your 
letters of 30th September and 3d January. Jeremy Ben- 
tham is pleased with the note and with the appendix of the 
Latin scrap contained in your letter to me. Your picture 
is deposited with him. 

It would seem that we are always thinking of the same 
thing at the same time. He and I have had twenty conver- 
sations last autumn and December about the translation of 
" Les Principes." He appeared solicitous that you should 
undertake it. Would have aided and would have put into 
your hands the original. It has been undertaken by a gen- 
tleman whom he thinks incompetent, and he (Bentham) says 
the work of that person will abound with errors. He would 
wish to supersede it ut supra. Of this nothing was said to 
you on account of your illness. He is quite pleased to see 
that you have spontaneously got the idea. If you should 
again have occasion to speak of him, instead of saying " one 
of the," &c, omit the words " one of? 

You do not say whether the boy can write. Here too, 

* The mother of Mrs. Joshua Waddington. 
+ Mrs. Joshua Waddington. 


and in arithmetic, and even the rudiments of mathematics, 
there can be no better tutor than Wille. Many other things 
concur to give him a preference, and I want him here. 

I condemn utterly the use of mercury. If in any shape 
it could be useful, it is in that sent by Eustis. Bring with 
you that medicine. If you should not come, which God 
avert, send a vial, about four ounces. Keep in your mem- 
orandum book a list of the letters you write me, and by what 
hand or conveyance sent. 

I send the boy two books to make him laugh, and three 
pictures to show you how the public are amused here. The 
different mottoes and speeches in the caricatures are all 
taken from the testimony delivered in the House of Com- 
mons, which, therefore, you must read before you will under- 
stand them. There are probably more than one hundred 
different caricatures on this subject, and the sale of them is 
incredible. The newspaper and the pamphlets will give 
you the whole. As you will read and hear much of the 
Duke of York, and wonder how it will end, I am inclined 
to think that he will be found (voted) pure and innocent by 
a great majority of parliament. 

Mitford on Language is of very little value. The best 
standard of pronunciation is still Walker. 

For the benefit of your commercial and political friends, 
I would state, as my opinion, that this government will 
rescind or so modify their orders in council as to revive 
commercial intercourse between the two countries. There 
is an apprehension here, among many a belief, that Bona- 
parte has already repealed so much of the Berlin decree as 
will meet the wishes of the government of the United States, 
Perhaps the British overture may come too late. 

A. Burr. 



London, March 1, 1809. 

Since writing you the unfortunate letters of December 
(Theodosia will tell you their fate), White, the bookseller, 
has made a peremptory demand against me of the amount 
of his account against us both. It is impossible that I should 
enter into a lawsuit on this trifling affair, and, trifling as it is, 
by no means convenient to pay it out of my slender resources. 
Pray write to M'Kinnon on the subject. The sum is 117/., 
and he demands four years' interest; but would probably 
take up with the principal. I wrote to E. W. Laight in Sep- 
tember, requesting him to send the papers, showing how 
the seizure of the books was made by the government. I 
have no doubt it was the fault of White. 

My only consolation for the unfortunate delay of my let- 
ters about Theodosia's health is, that she will now have the 
best season of the year to make the passage. I hope it will 
not be delayed an hour. The climate is as different from 
ours as that of another planet. If the climate and medicine 
should fail, the physicians say that the Bath waters have 
performed similar cures in similar cases, after all other 
means had been tried in vain. After the month of March, 
Bath is one of the most retired and cheapest places in Eng- 
land until December, when the fashionable season com- 
mences. The London winter begins in April. But I can 
only repeat and confirm what was before written, one copy 
of which will, by this time, have been received. Every pro- 
vision is made for her reception and for the education of 
the boy. The experiment may be made in six months. 
Honour and humanity require that it should be promptly 
begun. A. Burr. 



London, March 1, 1809. 

My Lord, 

Two interviews with Lord Melville have confirmed the 
opinion, long entertained, of his talents and his candour. 
They have also increased my regret that government cannot 
profit of the resources of his capacious mind. It has afforded 
me very great satisfaction to know, personally, a man of 
such high and merited renown ; but the acquaintance will 
have no further result. As to any useful purposes, I might 
as well, better indeed, have prolonged my amusements in 
Scotland. The same equivocal and temporizing conduct to- 
wards the United States ; the same tardiness and indecision 
regarding the Spanish colonies, will continue. It is whis- 
pered that Bonaparte has so far modified his Berlin decree 
as will entitle him to a free commerce with the United 
States, and that thereupon this government has resolved to 
revoke the order in council. It is possible that this conces- 
sion may come too late. 

Perceiving that I have nothing to do here, I propose, after 
the arrival of the March packet from North America, to re- 
turn thither. My visit has increased my confidence in the 
resources and capacities of this country, but has impaired 
my respect for the organs of its administration. Among the 
most pleasing of my recollections will be that of the kind- 
ness and courtesy which I have experienced from your lord- 
ship. Haec alim merninisse juvabit. I may, nay, I think I 
shall, meet you under different circumstances. Under any 
and all, be assured of the lasting respect and esteem of 

A. Burr. c 


London, March 1, 1809. 

It is quite obvious, my dear friend, that I am but an ob- 
ject of suspicion and alarm ; and that, by remaining here, I 

II 3 


can do no good to either country. Ere long, therefore, I 
shall be off; perhaps the last of next month. Before I had 
been ten days in town I began to regret that I had not em- 
ployed my time in visiting the north and west of Scotland, 
as was originally planned. True, that by returning here I 
have seen Lord Melville, which is a great gratification. I 
passed a day and night with him at Wimbleton. He re- 
ceived me as the friend of Charles, than which nothing could 
be more flattering, and we had much free conversation. His 
boldness, precision, and sagacity please me much. He is a 
man whom I can understand, and by whom, I think, I could 
be understood. But he is hors du combat (tant pis), and 
like to remain so, until things shall become much worse, and 
then he would be impressed into service. 

Your letters to Sir J. Sinclair and Mr. Bird were deliv- 
ered only last week. I am afraid it was very ill done to 
keep them so long. It did not at first occur to me that 
they might contain matters no way relating to me and re- 
quiring despatch. I have not yet seen either of those gentle- 
men. Indeed, I have seen nobody, having secluded myself 
except to my venerable and enlightened friend Bentham, 
and three or four Scotchmen, whom I can meet familiarly. 
The wish to remain a little while abstracted from society 
has prevented me from announcing myself, even to my for- 
mer acquaintances. 

The sailing of the Brest fleet is the only public event of 
much interest since we parted. It has excited much sensa- 
tion among official men. All others (the whole public) are 
engrossed by the more interesting concerns of Mrs. Clark. 
The destination of that fleet is generally supposed to be 
Ferrol ; but I am apprehensive that it may be America. If 
so, that whole continent may be lost to Great Britain during 
the course of the current year. A. Burr- 



London, March 4, 1809. 

By the stagecoach (not the mail) which sets off for Ed- 
inburgh to-morrow, or perhaps not till Monday, you will re- 
ceive a parcel containing Bentham's four sketches on the 
management of the poor, and his view of the hard-labour 
bill. Also, a copy of the statute passed last year respect- 
ing lunatics. It was intended to send some other of Ben- 
tham's works, particularly his Panopticon ; but as they do 
not relate directly to the subject which now engages your 
attention, I was apprehensive they would not be read with 
satisfaction. The parcel now sent will, however, suffice 
for the present. 

On reading the lunatic bill, you will perceive that the idea 
of extending it to Scotland by a single clause is utterly im- 
practicable, and, if practicable, by no means desirable. You 
must have a law of your own, adapted to your municipal 
regulations and local usages. The great difficulty is how 
to raise the money for the first expense of ground and build- 
ings. It ought, I think, to be from some general fund, and 
not a county or parish tax. I have conversed with the lord 
advocate on the subject, and was gratified to find that he 
took an interest in it. But his various occupations will not 
allow him the leisure to project a system and to draw up the 
bill. If a proper one — one which might accord with his 
ideas, were prepared and sent to him, I see no reason to 
doubt but that it would pass into a law. 

I have not yet been able to procure the laws of Virginia, 
which is much regretted. They will, however, be put into 
my hands within a few days. I am now going to pass a 
week in the country. On my return you shall hear farther 
of this matter. A. Burr. 



London, Q. S. P., March 6, 1809. 

Dumont has been applied to, and has brought himself, 
though not without some reluctance, to part with Tactique 
out of his hands. The burden which the shoulders of Eti- 
enne Dumont sunk under, and those of Jeremy Bentham 
shrunk from, is now waiting for those of Hercules Burr, on 
which it will sit as lightly as little Jesus on those of great 
St. Christopher in the Cathedral of Notre Dame. 

Meanwhile, and without any need of either prophecy or 
telescope, I behold Hercules, with distaff in hand, spinning 
out — he would kill me were I to say hilling time — now lying, 
now kneeling at the feet of his Omphale. 

Logic and philosophy he is learning from a speck and 
span : spick and span new horn-book. Life, no longer a. jest, 
as Pope and Gay would persuade us, is now a span, as some- 
body else, without much need, has taken the trouble to in- 
form us. Ergo (says logic), they are, life and span, convert- 
ible terms. The things themselves (quoth philosophy) are 
things of equal value ; and so well matched (adds algebra) 
that, of each without the other, the value is=0. 

Such is the lesson learning and conning over, for the one 
thousand and oneth time, by our youthful Hercules. Mean- 
time the midnight lamp is burning in vain, with the Tactique 
papers spread out before it. Say, tell us, what shall be done 
with them ? Will the eyes of Hercules vouchsafe to visit 
them ? or shall they be consigned to the hands of the house- 
maid to light fires ? Jer. Bentham. 


Little Gaddesden, March 8, 1809. 
Your billet made us laugh. Since -life is but a span, can 
anything better be done than to fill up that span with pleas- 
ure ? I lead here a strict idle life, so congenial to savages. 
Lounge, smoke, read a little nonsense, sometimes walk or 


talk with the squaws. On my return to town, if I can sum- 
mon the force to attempt anything useful, I will start myself 
off for eight days, and devote them to Tactique, but without 
the hope of adding one useful idea. A. Burr. 


London, March 20, 1809. 

Having heard in the street to-day rumours of events in 
the West Indies particularly interesting to you, I hastened 
to the War Office to learn the truth. Official accounts had 
there been received of most satisfactory tenour. The in- 
tended attack on Martinique had been abandoned, but was 
resumed in consequence of further information of the dispo- 
sition of the inhabitants. The attack was made ; all the 
outposts were carried ; the whole island subdued, with the 
single exception of Fort Bourbon, which, it is believed, could 
not resist many days. General Prevost is safe and well. 
There has been some fighting, and, of course, some, though 
inconsiderable, loss. Fearing to lose the mail, I did not wait 
to learn dates nor details. The particulars above related I 
had from General A. Hope. This, I think, will lead to a 
peerage, with suitable accompaniments. I sympathize in 
your happiness. A. Burr. 


Edinburgh, March 8, 1809. 

I received yours yesterday. I regret extremely that our 
people should be so blind. One would think that Provi- 
dence is going to lay hands on us also. You must know 
the situation of matters better than I do, but it always did 
appear to me that the salvation of the world was to be looked 
for in Great Britain forming an intimate union and connex- 
ion with both Americas, and that much of the safety of our 
East India possessions depended on it. 

I was certain that you would be pleased with Lord Mel- 
ville, and, if there is anything more than another which I 


would recommend to you, it would be to draw that connex- 
ion as close as possible. You are not to know what may 
happen. People are becoming very discontented, and seem 
to feel that there is a necessity for taking our ablest men. 

I sent to Mr. Kerr, the secretary of our postoffice, a great 
friend of Charles's. The only letter for you was the en- 
closed. If any others come, you may rest assured that they 
will be taken care of by the officers here, and delivered to 

I shall be glad to know when you positively fix for re- 
turning to America, as I would like very much to send by 
you answers to all my late brother's American letters. I 
shall avoid saying anything in them politically about you, 
further than how much you were respected here. I enclose 
this under cover to Gen. Alexander Hope, who, I am sure, 
thinks as you do, and as Lord Melville does. 

The business of our commander-in-chief* is disgraceful 
to our country in these times. The house will acquit him, 
but it will not satisfy the country. He has shown himself 
to be a man of such private conduct as is unsuitable for the 
situation. The greatest evil of the whole is the exposing 
to the common people the dissolute manners of the great, 
and diminishing that respect for the royal family which in 
these times ought to be kept as pure as possible. 

David Williamson. 

to colonel burr. 

Edinburgh, March 15, 1809. 

Our law term, or sessions, as we call it, ended on the 
11th, and the hurry of business attending the last days of it 
prevented me from acknowledging the honour of your letter 
of the 1st at the time I received it. 

I was certain that you would be pleased with Lord Mel- 
ville. He is no common man, and it is indeed melancholy 
to find such a man unemployed in such times as these. 

* The Duke of York. 


The plot seems to be thickening on the Continent. If Aus- 
tria really declares war, and I think it looks very like it, a 
blow well timed on our part might do much. His army 
must be much weakened, and his magazines exhausted by 
the campaign in Spain. Austria times it well, and may get 
greatly the start of him. But I fear we have little to expect 
from our miserably disjointed administration. 

I regret most sincerely that they have not listened more 
favourably to the salutary counsels which you are qualified 
to give them. We must therefore take our chance. But I 
own I am now anxious to hear that you are afloat again ; for 
I think matters in America are fast approaching that crisis 
which you prophesied would happen if the sitting of Con- 
gress drew to a close without any alteration of the present 
system, and that a storm is gathering there in which a man 
like you must guide, the helm. Do not, therefore, waste 
more time in London upon us, but hurry to a scene where 
you may be useful to both nations, and, I trust, carve out a 
splendid fortune for yourself. 

As for our domestic situation, I do not like it at all. This 
is a most unlucky affair of the Duke of York, and has re- 
vived the almost extinguished spark of Jacobinism ; and, if 
matters are carried with a steady and decisive hand, I shall 
not be surprised if tumults and insurrections break out in 
London. But I need not trouble you, who are on the spot, 
with my idle speculations. I will be answerable for the 
public tranquillity here ; or, at least, if it be broken, it shall 
be very speedily restored. 

Whether I may ever have the pleasure of meeting you 
again, God only knows. I see little prospect of it. I hope 
you will never again find it necessary to revisit Britain, ex- 
cept for amusement. But I hope you will have a good deal 
of important business to settle before you have leisure to 
think of resuming your Northern tour. However, I will live 
in the hope of seeing you again, sub melioribus auspicius. 
In the mean time, my dear sir, be assured of my ardent 


wishes for the success of all your plans. Lady Charlotte 
adds her best respects. C. Hope.* 


Edinburgh, March 15, 1809. 

I cannot think of sending you the stockings which have 
been left here for you, both by the lord provost, or, rather, 
his foreman, as well as by your friend John M 'Donald, with- 
out writing to ask you how you do. I had hopes of either 
hearing from yourself after your arrival in London, or of 
knowing something of your motions from our friend Bart- 
lett, but I have not yet had that pleasure. I trust, however, 
I shall soon hear that you are well and happy. 

I am not apt to give credit to newspaper stories ; but I 
cannot help thinking that the American government is not 
now on a very steady footing; at least they appear totally 
unable to enforce their own decrees ; for, since the late new 
and severe regulations, embargo breakers are every day com- 
ing into the ports of Liverpool and Port Glasgow. If this 
continues, they may as well remove the embargo. I should 
like to know your opinion on this subject. 

William Arbuthnot. 

to miss c mallet. 

London, Q. S. P., March 21, 1809. 

Herewith will be handed to you " Bentham's Sketches on 
Poor Management," which the author permits me to offer for 
your acceptance. The book is not to be purchased, and can 
be had of him only. The philanthropy which it displays 
throughout is so congenial with the benevolence of your own 
breast, that I am persuaded you will read it with interest. 
Permit me to inquire whether Mrs. Mallet is now with her 
friend Mrs. Barrow. Presuming on the hint you gave, I 
think of making a visit to Mrs. Brown, and should prefer a 
time when Mrs. Mallet was there. Salut. A. Burr. 

* Lord Justice Clerk. 



London, March 27, 1809. 

Having made several unsuccessful attempts to see you, I 
take this method to inquire into the slate of my controversy, 
if controversy it can be called, with the government. It is 
material to me to be informed of the terms on which I live 
here. Whether I may change my residence and leave the 
country when I please, or whether any department of the 
government arrogates a right to control my movements. 

The obvious inconveniences to which this uncertainty 
exposes me will, it is presumed, render it unnecessary to 
apologize for troubling you on the occasion. 

A. Burr. 


London, March 28, 1809. 

John M'Donald's grandmother and the right honourable 
the lord provost came very lovingly together, and arrived in 
good condition. This ludicrous association, contained in 
the note which I received on the eve of my departure from 
Edinburgh, made me laugh at least a dozen times that night, 
which was devoted to the infernal occupation of packing up, 
&c. During such an afflicting labour, to be able to laugh 
was no small relief. 

The parcel and your letter of the 15th were not received 
till yesterday, owing to my absence on excursions into 
Surrey and Kent. It is very true, my dear friend, that I 
ought to have written to you, and I take very kind your 
reproaches on that head. Had any great good fortune be- 
fallen me, you would promptly have been informed of it; 
but to tell you that I was doing nothing, and like to do 
nothing here ; that I was hurried back hither, and much 
against my wishes, for nothing, would have been a tale not 
very pleasing to relate nor very pleasing to hear. Yet this 
was all, and is all I could say of myself. On another 


subject, indeed, the pleasures of Edinburgh, and all your 
goodness and friendship, I could have been eloquent. 

Since my return I have passed a week with the amiable 
family of Bartlett. They asked me a hundred questions 
about you, your wife, and boys ; of which, I am ashamed 
to say, I could not answer above fifty. Mrs. Bartlett looks 
younger every time I see her. She might pass very well 
for forty. La bellle veuve is as usual ; still single, and re- 
solved against any duplication or multiplication ; a resolu- 
tion which the country ought to regret, but very prudent, 
it must be acknowledged, for any woman, as things are, 
provided she can bring soul and body to concur and perse- 
vere ; but it sometimes happens that there is an enemy 
within that excites a mutiny or betrays the citadel. Our 
amiable friend has nothing of this kind to apprehend. The 
whole family propose to pass a month in town during the 
winter. (The fashionable winter is now commencing.) 

Offer my respectful compliments to Mrs. Arbuthnot; to 
both the Mrs. A's. Kiss all your boys for me, and pray 
make them recollect Cullnell Borr-r-r. A. Burr. 


London, March 29, 1809. 

My projected journey has been but half performed. In 
short, I have been nowhere that was intended, except to 
Edinburgh. Lord S. and Lord L. had gone South before 
my arrival. The son of Dugald Stewart lay on his death- 
bed, and died while I was there. The father had not gone 
out nor been visible to strangers at the time of my de- 
parture. To complete the series of cross incidents on the 
subject nearest my heart, on my arrival here it is found that 
the Hopewell, in which was my letter to M. L. Davis, with 
the parcel of books, was taken and carried into France. 

I am very solicitous to know how you have got along, but 
did not dare to call till I had announced myself and these 
untoward circumstances. Inform me by the bearer of this 


of your health and that of Mr. Godwin, and of little and big 
young friends. I will be at your command this evening, or 
any other evening this week, from eight till eleven. Where 
is Curran ? I am resolved to see him if he be above ground. 
Another question, and I have done. Who painted my pic- 
ture of Mary Wolstoncraft ? I wish to have my daughter's 
copied in the same style. A. Burr. 


London, March 29, 1809. 

Mr. Godwin and I began to despair of seeing you again. 
Your note was most welcome. Never mind all the bad 
news, but grant us the pleasure of seeing you to-morrow at 
the time you mention. This evening and Friday we shall 
be engaged. We are all, big and little, tolerably well. 

M. J. Godwin. 


London, March 29, 1809. 

You will very reasonably conclude, my dear madam, that 
I go everywhere but where I intend. I have not yet been 
to Bath, but have returned from Gravesend, whither I went 
with some American friends, who were to embark at that 
place for New-York. On my return I find here a letter 
from my daughter of the 10th of February, conveying the 
very interesting and unexpected intelligence of her recovery. 
She ascribes the return of her health to the severity of the 
winter. She requires, to keep her in health, as much cold 
as a white bear, and endures it as well. Hence her pro- 
jected voyage to England is, for the present, abandoned. 

I am grievously disappointed in seeing that Sir George 
does not command in chief the expedition. You perceive 
that Beckwick keeps him always at his elbow, and, no doubt, 
Sir George projects everything that is well projected. Yet 
the other will bear away the laurels, and, I much fear, will 
not have the magnanimity to do justice to Sir George. The 


army, however, will discriminate, and will have no motive 
to withhold the tribute from the rightful claimant. If Sir 
George should not immediately advance his rank or his for- 
tune, he will, at least, add to the lustre of his military fame, 
and lay the foundation of future honours. 

Pray inform me from what port and on what days the 
packets sail for Alderney. I wish to make a communica- 
tion to Admiral D'A., through Col. Prevost. 

A. Burr. 


Wey bridge, November 30, 1809. 
As Weybridge has not been mentioned in your travelling 
plans, I flatter myself that your next excursion will be here, 
where I shall always be happy to see you, my dear sir. I 
had very little of your company in your last visit, and was 
sorry to hear from your compagnons de voyage how much 
you suffered in the journey to town. I congratulate you on 
vour daughter's recovery. I observed, as you have, the act 
of Beckwick, and never build my expectation beyond the 
gratification Sir George receives in actual service, as he 
could not command when Beckwick was of the party, and 
Beckwick could not remain a spectator at Barbadoes when 
the troops were engaged. I humbly pray that my beloved 
son may escape the dangers of the siege, and, what I dread 
more, the influence of the climate. The packets for Alder- 
ney sail from Weymouth every tenth, twentieth, and thirtieth 
day of the month. You must, of course, send your letters 
from London the day before it. William's address is Lieut. 
Col. Prevost, commanding the 67th regiment at Alderney 
Island, by Weymouth. The communication with Guernsey 
is frequent and regular from England, and, when anything 
material occurs, I write by that channel between the sailing 
of the Alderney boats. We are all well, and my guests join 
in best compliments to you. A. Prevost. 



London, March 31, 1809. 

It is with extreme mortification and regret, my dear 
madam, that I inform you that, owing to accidents, which 
shall be explained in person, your very kind and obliging 
note was not received till this morning. The circumstance 
has vexed and disturbed me exceedingly ; for I have been 
dressing up, in fancy, one of those little dramas in which I 
delight to be an actor; all my little and big friends expect- 
ing me, &c. I shall call, unbidden, at some hour before 
dinner to-day, and seek consolation in your cheerfulness and 
benignity. A. Burr. 


London, April 4, 1809. The evening was passed with 
Madame P., who assured me that she had ascertained that 
Dunn's negotiation had no reference to me. Having a con- 
fused presentiment that something was wrong, packed up 
my papers and clothes with intent to go out and seek other 
lodgings. At one o'clock came in, without knocking, four 
coarse-looking men, who said they had a state warrant for 
seizing me and my papers ; but refused to show the war- 
rant. I was peremptory, and the warrant was produced, 
signed "Liverpool;" but I was not permitted to read the 
whole. They took possession of my trunks, searched every 
part of the room for papers, threw all the loose articles into 
a sack, called a coach, and away we went to the Alien Office. 
Before going I wrote a note to Reeves, and on our arrival 
sent it in. Waited one hour in the coach, very cold, but I 
refused to go in. Wrote in pencil to Reeves another note. 
He came out. We had a little conversation. He could 
not then explain, but said I must have patience. After half 
an hour more orders came that I must go with one of the 
messengers (Hughes) to his house, on this order. I first 


went into the office to see Brookes, the under secretary, 
whom I knew. 

You may recollect the transaction in July, which must 
have fixed me in his memory. He did not know me, except 
that I was Mr. K. None of them knew me, though every 
devil of them knew me as well as I know you. Seeing the 
measure was resolved on, and having inquired of the sort of 
restraint to which I was doomed, I wrote a note to Koe, 
which Brookes took to show to Lord Liverpool for his ap- 
probation to forward it. Arrived at my prison, 31 Stafford 
Place, at four. The wife, a very pretty young Welsh girl. 
Both very civil. Here we are, husband, wife, and child. 

After dinner looked out for amusement. His books were 
11 German except The Secret, a play, and Tacitus's Life 
of Agricola, translated by Aiken, both of which I read ; but 
happening to discover that Hughes played chess, we took 
to that, and, having played till the poor fellow is almost 
crazed, I wrote this, and am now going to bed in a small 
room on the same floor, where is a neat, comfortable bed. 

5. Slept very sound till eight, and was then waked by 
Hughes, as I had ordered. Breakfast at nine. The only 
thing that disturbed me was some apprehension about my 
papers. They have got everything. No plots or treasons, 
to be sure, but, what is worse, all my ridiculous journal, and 
all my letters and copies. Wrote Reeves. Hughes sent 
the letter. No person is permitted to see me. 

There being no other books in any language intelligible to 
me, went to chess, our only resource. Played till five, din- 
ner-time. A very good dinner, and then Hughes, his wife, 
and I make a party of whist. I took the dead hand. The 
child fortunately asleep. This child annoys me a good deal, 
having the hooping cough. At eleven Hughes and I en- 
gaged in another game of chess, which lasted till one. I 
give him a castle to make us equal. The following are the 
notes referred to in my journal of yesterday : 

" My person, under the name of Kirby, papers, and effects 


are seized by warrant from Lord Liverpool. I wait in a 
coach at the door. Explain who Mr. K. is, and step to the 
door to save me the vexation of going in. A. Burr." 

" Three P. M. I sent in a note to you ; has it been re- 
ceived ? I am still waiting in the carriage at your door. 

"A. Burr." 

6. Cards last evening till twelve. Chess till one. Wrote 
Reeves. Just as the letter was going a message came re- 
quiring our attendance at the Alien Office at ten ; so we did 
not send the letter. Went at the hour in a hack, with 
Brookes and Beckett ; both very civil. Apology and mes- 
sage from Lord Liverpool. Discharged, and papers and ef- 
fects restored. The papers had not been opened. Beckett 
and Brookes went with a message from me to Lord Livei 
pool. In the interim came in Reeves. His advice about 
alienism. Brookes returned. £50! Heligoland! He or- 
dered Hughes to take my baggage where I might direct, 
which was to Q. S. P. 

Three P. M. Called at 35 James-street. Madame P. 
out. To 16 Palace-street. Gloomy faces. W. A. Ho- 
sack, his papers and effects seized on Tuesday night. Zeal 
and firmness of Madame P. Fearing that Gamp's interfe- 
rence might do harm, wrote to Captain Newton. To Q. S. 
P., where dined. Received a letter from Captain Edwards, 
advising that he would be here on Friday. Note from A. 
O., postponing the proposed interview till Saturday. Note 
to Achaud that would call at nine to see him and take leave. 
Walked to Godwin's. Met Mrs. Cooper, mother of the 

7. Called on Reeves, of whom learned the place of Ho- 
sack's confinement. Went there, but could not get admit- 
tance (10 Charles-street). Went to Alien Office to ask of 
Brookes permission to see him. Refused. Wrote him a 
note, which Brookes promised to send. Passed the door 
several times, and at length Hosack raised the window, and 
I spoke to him. To Reeves at two, by appointment, to meet 


Brookes, who came. Confab, one hour. Departure post- 
poned till this day week. Appointed another meeting at 
two P. M., Lundi. To Grace Church-street to take passage 
to Camberville. Arrived at five. Dr. Lettsome and fam- 
ily in town, where the dinner is to which I am invited. Set 
out to walk back, but overtaken by a stage and got in. Ar- 
rived at Dr. Lettsome's at six. They had just set down to 
dinner. Very gay and social. Dr. Morris engages me to 
dine on Monday. The following is a copy of a memoran- 
dum left with Mr. Reeves to be shown to Lord Liverpool. 

Whether I may take one or two companions. There are 
now here a number of young Americans who would be glad 
to accompany me. 

An assurance that there will be no restraint on my move- 
ments from Heligoland. I would willingly stay there till it 
might be proper to go to the United States, if this govern- 
ment would give me proper patronage and introduction. 

Something to show that I have not imposed on the gov- 
ernment by assuming the name of G. H. Edwards. 

Having in my late letters engaged to my friends in Amer- 
ica to wait here till June, I ought to have something to tes- 
tify why I now leave the country. 

8. To Reeves's at nine, and waited till he got up ; gave 
him Dr. Lettsome's letter. Left with him a mem. (entered 
in journal yesterday) about my own concerns. To Flax- 
man's. The Italian wife ! To Achaud's, to inform them of 
the postponement of my journey. 

24. To Q. S. P. at nine. There found the passport from 
Reeves. One hour with Bentham. Home. T. T. E. and 
Hosack assisting in packing. Everything at the last mo- 
ment. Left my quarters at one. Stopped at W. G.'s to get 
Coestus, which was beautifully executed. Arrive at stage- 
house just in time. Hosack with me. He returns, not be- 
ing ready. Arrive at Harwich at two P. M., being seventy- 
two miles. At four had passed through the forms at the 
Alien Office and Custom-house. Wrote Hosack, Brinck- 


man, Lettsome, and Eliza P. On board at eight. Made sail 
immediately. His Britannic majesty's packet, the Diana. 
A sloop of sixty tons ; fourteen passengers, of whom two 
dames and one little girl. Mrs. Barnes and Mrs. Daily, 
going to join their husbands in Sweden. Great confusion 
settling births, &c. Fair wind, yet at ten cast anchor. At 
eleven turned in, being the first moment I had laid down 
since rising at six yesterday morning. 

27. On board the Diana in Harwich Bay. Under way. 
The wind fair, but light. 

28. Wind N.E. and rose to a gale. Beating. No one 
at dinner but captain, mate, and myself. 

30. Friday evening taken seasick. Kept bed all Satur- 
day. Wind north, light, and veering. Heavy rolling sea. 
Caught two fine codfish. At four P. M. wind came round 
to S.W. Ran all night before the wind about six knots. 


London, April 1, 1808. 

I should like to know the author of " The Progress and 
Practice of a Modern Attorney." Could it not be learned at 
Stationers' Hall ? If so, ask Tom le Grand to make the 
inquiry. It is written with feeling, with good sense, and 
with knowledge of the subject. Pity that the names of the 
parties were not given. The pamphlet is sent as an even- 
ing's pastime. A. Burr. 


London (Limbo), April 5, 1809. 

No reasons have been assigned for my arrest and deten- 
tion, nor is it in my power to conjecture what they may be. 
It is not permitted to me to take a copy of the warrant, nor 
even to read it; to see a friend, or to write to one. I could 
contend with reason or with law ; but a stranger and money- 
less, not with power. I am ready, therefore, if desired, 
to explain the motives to my change of residence. The 

Vol. I.-I 


explanation can be given in a single sentence, and would 
be perfectly satisfactory ; but those motives being of a na- 
ture altogether private and personal, and having no manner 
of relation to the politics or governments of any country, the 
communication ought to be made to one or two persons only, 
and in confidence. 

Being under engagements to supper this evening, and to 
dinner to-morrow and Friday, pray inform me whether I 
may hope to comply with those engagements ; or I must 
apologize, by reason of subsequent and very pressing invi- 
tation from Lord Liverpool. A. Burr. 


London, April 6, 1809. 

Mr. Burr inquires whether a few lines which he wrote 
yesterday to Mr. Reeves, left at his office, have been re- 
ceived. If any reply should be intended, it may be trans- 
mitted by the bearer of this. A note is enclosed for Mr. 
Koe (left open for inspection), which please transmit. 

A. Burr. 


London, April 11, 1809. 

I shall leave this on Friday the 14th for Heligoland, whence 
I shall go to the Continent by the first conveyance. You 
must not, therefore, expect to hear from me for two or three 
months after the receipt of this. 

Let your boy read history and biography of a style suited 
to his years. The order is of no consequence, in which, 
with great humility, I differ from Madame Theodosia. By- 
and-by, when he shall come to read more in detail, the order 
may be material. Let him also learn German. Say some- 
thing more about . A true Mussulman burns all books 

except those of Mohammed, which contain all of human 
knowledge that is valuable, and to have marked the bound 
ary of human genius. A. Burr. 



London, April 13, 1809. 

I have just come from the interview. Lord Liverpool, 
through his amiable messenger, expressed his expectation 
that I should leave town this evening and the kingdom to- 
morrow. I refused. Stated some reasons, and asked a 
personal conference with Lord Liverpool. Mr. B. is to 
make report at three, at which hour we are to meet again at 
Mr. Reeves's. A. Burr. 


London, April 14, 1809. 
Sir Samuel Romilly being now in town, and, as I under- 
stand, disposed to consider the subject of alienism, I pray 
the loan of the essay, part of which I have read with so much 
pleasure and instruction. It shall be used with all the dis- 
cretion you could wish, and shall be returned within forty- 
eight hours. It may be sent by the bearer of this, or, if you 
prefer, I will call and take it. Let me be prepared for all 
events. A. Burr 

to col. burr. 

London, April 14, 1809. 

This is unfortunate. You may remember I told you I 
lent it to Mr. Beckett, and he is now out of town on account 
of his father's illness. However, Sir Samuel does not need 
that. Get Mallet to set him to work. If he has any doubts 
arise, I may be able, perhaps, to recover the papers in a 
few days. Let me see or hear from you. 

J. Reeves. 


London, April 15, 1809. 

Sir Samuel Romilly engages with zeal and promptitude in 
the consideration of the question ; but being, as you know, 



very full of occupation, the perusal of your notes, or of any 
sketch of the case and its bearing, would very much lighten 
the labour and facilitate his progress. If you could, in the 
course of the day, send anything of the kind to me at Q. S. 
P., it could be put into his hands in season to enable him to 
devote this evening to the consideration of the subject. 

A. Burr. 


London, April 16, 1809. 

It is not till now, at a quarter past seven o'clock, that I 
am able to take up my pen, in order to give you the sub- 
stance of what I have before written, and which fills 120 
such pages as this. 

The question should be stated of an American, born be- 
fore the separation, who has constantly resided there and 
borne offices ; and who has resolved to settle in this kingdom 
for the remainder of his days. 

That is the case in question, and so it should be stated. 
Not because the principle on which I should argue it does 
not apply to all Americans coming here occasionally, and 
who are transient, but because the question is more palate- 
able in this form ; and as the objectors have more of odium 
than of law on their side, it is as well for us to obviate that 
when we can. 

I go upon this principle : that the rights of a natural born 
subject are indelible. They are not liable to forfeiture for 
any crime. They cannot be surrendered or relinquished by 
the party, nor can the king take them away. Any such pro- 
ceeding is wholly unknown to the law. It follows that once 
a British subject, and always a British subject. 

This is warranted by a resolution in Calvin's case, fol. 27, 
b., where, upon the question, What would be the consequence 
of Scotland being separated from the crown of England ? 
all the judges resolve, " that naturalization due, and vested 
by birthright, cannot, by any separation of the crown, after- 


ward be taken away ; nor he, that was by judgment of law 
a natural subject at the time of his birth, become an alien 
by such matter ex post facto" 

I know nothing in any law-book, nor anything that can 
be deduced from what is laid down in any law-book, to di- 
minish the force of this resolution. On the contrary, it is 
commonly agreed, that the inhabitants of a ceded colony 
do not cease to be British subjects. They have the dis- 
advantage of residing, by such cession, in a foreign country, 
and, while there, bear the common privation ; but such in- 
dividuals, coming upon British ground, come to the exer- 
cise of their personal rights to which they were born ; and 
it never was pretended they were not British subjects as 

Those who take the negative of our question admit this ; 
but they say America is under different circumstances, which 
distinguish them from the case of ceded colonies. Namely, 
they rebelled and claimed independence. It was granted 
them by the king in the definitive treaty of peace ; and that 
peace was not made till the king was authorized by stat. 
22, Geo. III., ch. 46. They lay their principal stress upon 
this statute. They say that the independence being thus 
declared, an option was left, and those Americans who de- 
cided to take up their residence in the United States have 
abandoned their British character, and are aliens. 

The answer to such objections seems to be this : If sub- 
jects, by their own act, cannot put off their allegiance nor 
change their native character, the rebellion and claim of in- 
dependence has no effect ; and if the king is not competent, 
by his own authority, to take away the rights of a British 
subject, the definitive treaty had no such force. The two 
parties, then, the subject and the king, are incompetent to 
such a transaction as that of converting British subjects into 
aliens. Moreover, there is no wording in the treaty nor in 
the statute that warrants such a conclusion. The statute 
was made to satisfy the scruples of some persons among the 


politicians who pretended to think the king had no power to 
declare the colonies independent ; though the king, by the 
same treaty, ceded the Floridas to Spain without an act of 
parliament. And what is the difference ? None in sub- 
stance. In both cases the countries are made foreign, but 
the inhabitants of Florida are deemed still British subjects. 
Why not the Americans ? 

The treaty and the act both go to national objects wholly, 
and national character is distinct from personal character ; 
that is seen in the Floridas. The king has made them na- 
tionally and locally Spanish ; but the colonists are personally 
and municipally British. This British character they can 
enjoy only by coming to British territory, where alone British 
rights have their exercise and visible existence. In like 
manner, it was quite consistent for the king to acknowledge 
the American States to be independent, and yet for the in- 
dividuals to retain their personal character of British, which, 
though suspended and useless while resident in America, 
would resume their full enjoyment when the individual 
came into the British dominions. 

As to the notion of an option : It is an arbitrary assump- 
tion, not grounded upon any principle of law. If there is an 
option, why should the first choice be final ? Why not a 
second or third, and so on, as the party chooses to change his 
residence ? Let the objectors show the principle upon 
which the first choice has the effect of making such person 
an alien, and upon which a second choice may not have the 
effect of making him once more a British subject. They 
can show no such principle ; and, in the mean time, the sup- 
position is contrary to an established principle ; namely, 
that a subject has not an option to put off his country. Ne- 
mo potest exersive patriam. If such principle was granted 
as to Americans, what should hinder an inhabitant of Lon- 
don from going to the United States and setting up for an 
alien? for the independent states were made as much for 
one as the other. They are for anybody who choose to 


live there. But there is nothing in the treaty or act of par- 
liament that declares anything one way or the other, whether 
the persons living there shall be or shall not be deemed 
British or alien. And, considering that the Americans went 
to war to gain something in addition to what they had, I 
think both parties must have understood that independence 
was a thing to be gained, without giving up for it, what they 
already had, the character of British subjects. The Ameri- 
cans, therefore, did gain a new character in addition to their 
former. Nor is this any novelty. British subjects residing 
in Spain or Russia, &c, have a national and local character 
belonging to the country where they reside which has the 
ascendency there. They do not, therefore, lose their per- 
sonal, their natural character ; but it revives when they 
come where alone it has the property to be exercised. 

As to serving in offices in a foreign state, I do not see, 
upon principle, that this can make any difference as to the 
legal consideration. In point of fact, I dare say it might be 
found that many merchants, who reside in mercantile towns 
in Germany, become burghers, and serve in municipal of- 
fices. We certainly know that Englishmen serve in foreign 
armies and navies ; and it never entered into anybody's 
head to say they became thereby aliens. It may be seen 
in stat. 14 and 15, Hen. VIII., c. 4, that persons may be 
sworn to foreign princes, and even disobey the king's writ, 
and yet not be deemed aliens for that reason. 

I believe I have touched on the principal points in this ar- 
gument. I hold the position of law, for which I contend as 
acknowledged by lawyers, and capable of the best proof. 
The objections raised seem to me to be all novelties ; arbi- 
trary assumptions, in direct opposition to known principles. 

I send you what I have been able to put on paper as fast 
as I could write. It is, I think, the substance of the argu- 
ment, and quite enough for such a person as Sir Samuel 
Romilly. I beg of you to make a point that Sir S. R. or 
anybody else should not show my writing. In the first 


place, it will do no good for me to be thought to have had 
any communication on the subject with him. Perhaps I 
should stipulate to have my paper back again. 

John Reeves. 

from dr. lettsome. 

London, April 17, 1809. 

I am surprised and concerned to learn, by your letter, the 
orders you have received from Lord Liverpool's office. In 
all your conversation I never heard you express a sentiment 
that could occasion censure were it published to the world. 
I am not in the secrets of government or the motives of se- 
verity. Lettsome. 


London, April 18, 1809. 

If any letters for me should have come to your hands, be 
pleased to send them by the bearer of this. Adieu, my dear 
friend ; I am suddenly and unexpectedly obliged to leave 
the kingdom, and cannot even have the honour of kissing 
your hand before my departure. From some other country 
and under different auspices you may hear of me, perhaps 
from me. Offer my respectful compliments and regards to 
Mr. Wilkinson. Kiss your dear children, and teach them 
to remember me. My warmest wishes for your happiness 
will ever attend you. A. Burr. 


London, April 18, 1809. 
I am greatly chagrined and disappointed, my lovely friend, 
that an engagement of business, which can neither be post- 
poned nor neglected, must deny me the pleasure of passing 
this evening with you. But allow me just to look in, after 
five this afternoon, to kiss your fair hand and bid you adieu. 

A. Burr. 



London, April 19, 1809. 

Our friend Hosack is on sufferance, liable every hour to 
be sent off or confined. His stay cannot, I think, be pro- 
longed beyond to-morrow evening. He has not a guinea in 
his pocket, nor have I one to spare him. He is neither 
charged nor suspected of any crime, or even indiscretion, 
that I can learn. 

Your note of yesterday, covering one to Hosack, was 
received last evening. The enclosure was forthwith trans- 
mitted to its address. The conduct of the government 
towards me is to be solved by adverting to political con- 
siderations regarding the United States. Perceiving, oc- 
casionally, a slight return of the complaint in my elbow, I 
pray you to favour me with the prescription which formerly 
relieved me. A. Burr. 


London, April 19, 1809. 

My young friend, the savage, is still at large, but under 
orders to be ready for march at a minute's notice. Mr. P. 
has left town for the week ; lest, therefore, you should be 
destitute of the means of access to him, I enclose a note for 
a friend, who will obey all your commands, and who knows, 
much better than I do, all the avenues to that country. He 
is also on terms of intimacy with Mr. P. and with the 
American consul. Write to Mr. Randolph, giving your 
orders and making your inquiries with freedom. He will 
obey with cheerfulness. If it should happen that you should 
meet, be not discouraged by the unpromising appearance of 
a tall, meager, pale, white-headed man. There is truth, 
and honour, and goodness within. A. Burr. 




London, April 19, 1809. 

I must ask an hour of the time and services of Thomas le 
Grand this morning. Pray may one make him a compen- 
sation ? He is a sort of animal that I don't know how to 
treat. Has anything been heard from Sir Samuel Romilly ? 
If his opinion is to be of any use to me, it must be given 
promptly. It is still doubtful whether I may not be forced 
away this night. A. Burr. 


London, April 19, 1809. 

Though still in town, it is a state of the most unpleasant 
uncertainty as to the hour of my departure, which, unfor- 
tunately, does not depend on myself. If it should be post- 
poned till Sunday, which is hoped, I shall ask permission 
once more to kiss your hand and bid you another adieu. 

I must apologize for the intrusion of my young friend on 
Tuesday evening. In the critical state of my affairs, it is 
necessary that, when I go out, some friend be informed where 
I may be found at every hour, lest intelligence of moment 
might not be received in season. A. Burr. 


London, April 19, 1809. 

After leaving you last evening I saw one of the Phi- 
listines. He was all suavity and good-humour. Drunk, per- 
haps. He had not the least doubt of the cheerful concurrence 
of Lord Liverpool in the voyage to Gottenburg, and re- 
quested that I would write to his lordship. He engaged 
that the letter should be delivered, and read, and answered 
this morning ; and lo ! the result. When I came to write 
" my lord," penna digitis hoesit. I tried in vain, but could 
not get it out ; so I adopted the stiff diplomatic third person. 
My lady or his lordship does not stick in my savage throat ; 


but "my lord" — the Lord deliver me. Resolving, how- 
ever, that if I did quarrel, it should be for rem and not for 
modum ; and having already given up the rem, I tax your 
eyes with the perusal of the note, to see if it be secundum 
(or juxta) consuetudinem. It must be in before ten, and 
has to come all the way back here first. Erase or add as 
you like. A. Burr. 


London, April 20, 1809. 

Mr. Burr's respectful compliments. He lately received 
from Lord Liverpool an intimation that his (Mr. Burr's) 
presence in Great Britain was embarrassing to his majesty's 
government, and that it was the wish and the expectation of 
the government that he would remove. 

Without insisting on those rights which, as a natural-born 
subject, he might legally assert ; without permitting himself 
to inquire whether the motives to the order were personal or 
political, or whether the apprehensions expressed were real 
or factitious, and without adverting to the unprovoked indig- 
nities which had preceded that order, or to the personal in- 
conveniences which it would impose on him, Mr. Burr at 
once expressed his determination to gratify the wishes of the 
government by withdrawing. It being understood that he 
could not, consistently with his personal safety, visit any 
country under the control or influence of France, Sweden 
was thought the most proper asylum ; and the gentleman 
who spoke in his lordship's name having represented Heli- 
goland as a place whence passages to Sweden could readily 
be found, Mr. Burr, relying on this assurance, assented to 
that voyage, and passports were made out accordingly. 

But it is now ascertained that this assurance was predica- 
ted in error ; that there is, in fact, no direct communication 
between Heligoland and any part of Sweden, and that no 
such passage could probably be found within many months. 
Under such circumstances, Mr. Burr presumes that Lord 


Liverpool will permit the destination to be changed to Got- 
tenburg, and will have the goodness to direct passports to 
be made for that port. He has reason to believe that the 
minister of his Swedish majesty to this court will not object. 

A. Burr. 


London, April 20, 1809. 

Mr. Burr had yesterday the honour of addressing a note 
to Baron Brinkman (on the subject of Mr. Godfrey's inven- 
tion), and of transmitting for his perusal two letters from 
Mr. Gahn, the Swedish consul at New-York, 

Having a wish to visit Sweden before his return to Amer- 
ica, Mr. Burr asks such passports as may secure him against 
interruption in the territories of his Swedish majesty. He 
requests that the letters of Mr. Gahn may be returned by 
the bearer of this, together with such reply as, in the opinion 
of Baron Brinkman, the communications of Mr. Burr may 


London, April 20, 1809. 

M. de Brinkman presents his compliments to Mr. Burr, 
and is truly sorry he was prevented from having the honour 
to receive him when he called on Madame Brinkman. 

He has now the honour to send to Mr. Burr a passport 
which will enable him to land in Sweden, and does not fore- 
see any interruption he is likely to meet in that country as 
a travelling gentleman. 

Mr. Brinkman hopes Mr. Burr will excuse him for not 
waiting on Mr. Burr, on account of his having been more 
than usually busy during three days, and he wishes Mr. 
Burr a safe and a quick passage. 



London, April 21, 1809. 

Not gone, but still going. Congratulate me, however, 
on the change of my destination from Heligoland to Gotten- 
burg direct. Pray procure for me Mary W.'s Tour in 
Sweden. I shall leave London for Harwich on Monday 
evening. At my first leisure hour I shall seek an interview. 

A. Burr. 


London, April 21, 1809. 

Mr. Brooke presents compliments to Col. Burr, and has 
the honour to acquaint him that Lord Liverpool sees no ob- 
jection to Col. Burr's proceeding direct to Gottenburg, 
under the circumstances stated in Col. Burr's note of yes- 


London, April 21, 1809. 

Mr. Burr's compliments ; through inattention, he omitted 
to inform Mr. Brooke that the passport of the Swedish min- 
ister was in the name of A. Burr, to which, therefore, it will 
be proper that those of this government should conform. 


London, April 17, 1809. 

A few days ago Lord Liverpool was pleased to signify to 
me that my presence in this kingdom was embarrassing to 
his majesty's government, and to express a wish that I would 
remove to some other country. A disposition was professed 
to treat me with personal respect and courtesy ; to furnish 
passports, and even to provide for my passage and accom- 
modation. I have had several conferences with the under 
secretaries on the subject. It is not pretended that I have 
given any cause of displeasure ; but I am left to conjecture 


the motives of this extraordinary procedure. It would be 
easy for me to set the government at defiance, and to main- 
tain my residence ; but the political situation of the United 
States and Great Britain, and some private considerations, 
have induced me to acquiesce, and I shall depart on Thurs- 
day next for Heligoland, with the intention of going thence 
to Sweden. I regret that the shortness of the time will not 
admit of my visiting Weybridge, and that I must, in this 
way, bid you adieu. I shall retain a lively recollection of 
your kindness, and the warmest in the welfare of yourself 
and of all that is dear to you. 

If Captain Prevost should be with you, and should have 
any friends on or near the stations to which I am bound, a 
letter of mere civility might be useful to me. My passports 
are made out in the name of George Henry Edwards, the 
name under which I left the United States ; but my letters 
are Mr. Burr, who travels under the name of G. H. Ed- 
wards. A. Burr. 


London, April 17, 1809. 

About ten days ago I received a message from Lord Liv- 
erpool, through one of the under secretaries, that my pres- 
ence in Great Britain was embarrassing to his majesty's 
government, and it was wished and expected that I would 
remove to some other country. The government offers to 
furnish passports, and to provide a passage and accommoda- 
tions, but the motives to this measure are left to conjecture. 
There is little doubt but that I might contend successfully 
against the legality of the proceeding, and maintain my 
residence in spite of the ministry. But the critical circum- 
stances of the politics of the United States and Great Brit- 
ain, and certain private considerations, induce me to acqui- 
esce, and I shall, on Thursday next P. M., take my depart- 
ure for Heligoland, thence to Gottenburg and Stockholm. 
This resolution, and the events which have produced it, 


would have been communicated earlier but for the daily 
expectation of seeing you all in town ; a pleasure of which 
I now begin to despair. Unfortunately, too, the time is 
now so short that it is not possible for me to visit Little 
Gaddesden. Adieu, then, my dear sir. I offer to you, to 
Mrs. Bartlett, and Mrs. S. my warmest acknowledgments, 
and assurances of my lasting attachment and esteem. 

P.S. Major Gamble, at our first interview, frequently men- 
tioned to me a letter he had received from Col. Reckless, 
which he (the major) said contained a detail of the mo- 
tives and circumstances of my leaving my country. In No- 
vember he put the letter into my hands for perusal ; but, be- 
fore I had read a line of it. Col. Aubrey came in. I left the 
room, leaving the letter on the table, and did not afterward 
think to ask him for it. Seeing, however, the unrelenting 
persecution of the American government, and the strange 
manner in which I leave this country, it occurs to me that 
that letter might be useful to me ; and, if the major should 
have no objection to part with it, I should be glad that he 
or you would enclose it to me, under cover to Jeremy Ben- 
tham, Queen's Square Place. If you should see no impropri- 
ety in the request, nor feel any repugnance to the office, do 
me the favour to communicate the message to him, accom- 
panied by my respects and thanks for his civilities. I should 
have written to him directly but that I know his great aver- 
sion to the trouble of writing letters. 

This is a very awkward message. If you should find in it 
anything offensive to your feelings, or in the slightest degree 
violating delicacy or propriety, I pray you to forgive the free- 
dom and forget it. Adieu. A. Burr. 


London, April 21, 1809. 
Since writing you on the 17th my destination has been 
changed. I go direct to Gottenburg, and thence to Stock- 
holm. The Swedish minister has, in a very courteous man- 


ner, sent me a passport. It is probable I shall leave this on 
Monday evening, certainly not sooner. 

We have had bells ringing and guns firing these three 
hours. I just now learn, by the report of a servant, that the 
subject of rejoicing is a naval victory by Lord Cochrane 
over the fleet which had taken refuge in the Basque Roads. 
The same authority asserts the capture of seven and the de- 
struction of two sail of the line, which, I think, is one more 
than all. No handbill is yet out (though now 5 P. M.), or 
it would be enclosed. Nobody believes in Romana's vic- 
tories, with which you may have been amused yesterday ; 
but this of Cochrane is more than an indemnity. 

If the major should hesitate about parting with his letter, 
it shall be returned to him by return of mail. 

A. Burr. 


London, April 21, 1809. 

Many thanks, my dear friend, for your very kind note. 
This day and, it is feared, all night, I must be the slave of 
dull business. To-morrow, from seven till seven again, if 
you please, I am under your orders. I have a great deal 
to tell you. My destination is changed, greatly to my satis- 
faction. My departure certainly postponed till Monday, and 
certainly no longer. You forgot to tell me that you are well ; 
but that I will presume from the cheerful tenour of your note. 
Adieu, till demain au soir. Your Pilgrim. 


London, April 21, 1809. 

Is it this day or to-morrow at twelve that we are to meet 
at the Coffee-house in Lisle-street? I beg pardon for 
troubling you with the inquiry ; but having made, verbally, 
several appointments in the course of yesterday, I am appre- 
hensive of having confounded the time. A. Burr. 



London, April 22, 1809. 

The Pacific arrived some days ago, and your letters from 
10th of February to 24th March inclusive are received. 
They are extremely amusing and satisfactory, excepting a 
clause announcing your return to South Carolina, of which 
presently. The bill on Mr. Moore was most opportune, for 
a singular event had just taken place which, but for this suc- 
cour, would have been embarrassing indeed. 

My presence in this country was thought embarrassing to 
his majesty's government, and I was ordered to withdraw. 
Whither ? No place could be mutually agreed on. In short, 
the government would agree to no place but Heligoland, a 
barren island about sixty miles from the coast of Denmark, 
now in possession of Great Britain. This difficulty, how- 
ever, was yesterday, the day allotted for my embarcation, 
solved by the Swedish minister, who very courteously, on 
my application, sent me a passport for Sweden. Last sum- 
mer this government refused me a passport to Sweden ; but 
within an hour (this evening) a note is received advising me 
of its assent. I leave town for Harwich on Monday, and 
embark for Gottenburg on Tuesday, having every reason 
to expect a very hospitable reception in Sweden. You may 
well conclude that the £40 drawn for in favour of Captain 
Skinner, and the amount of your bill, have not been applied 
to the bookseller. 

The perfidy of the person on whose notes I relied for sup- 
port ; whose ability is known, and whose promises were the 
most solemn, had nearly produced the effect which, I am 
persuaded, he meditated. If any friend had been active 
after the first failure in December, payment might have been 
produced. But do not now enter into any quarrel about it. 
I feel myself now above dependance, and have hopes of other 
resources. I go cheerfully on this voyage. It is one I have 
long desired and meditated. You may continue to address 


your letters, as heretofore, lo Jeremy Bentham, without en- 
closure, putting some one or more letters at the left hand 
corner below, on the face. N. R. was proposed, and may 
be used. Through this country is the shortest and safest 
passage for letters to Sweden. Write by every private 
ship bound to any English or Scotch port. Write on larger 
paper and no covers. I have paid, since being here, many 
guineas for covers of American letters. 

A letter from E. W. L., by the Pacific, informs me that 
the books sent by White are all safe and in good order in the 
hands of Coit and Woolsey, in New-York, who are ready to 
deliver them to Alston on the payment of about twenty guin- 
eas. I have, therefore, this day settled with White, and 
agreed that he may draw on Mr. Alston for the balance, which 
will be from £80 to £83, at sixty days. Of course, Mr. Al- 
ston will take all the books, and, if anything should come out 
of those notes, take what you please. It is with great hesi- 
tation that I have done this, but there was no alternative. 

Your return to South Carolina at this season, and at the 
moment of incipient recovery, appears to me the most unac- 
countable instance of inconsiderate folly that ever was prac- 
tised by one out of Bedlam, and I equally blame you both. 
I consider you as lost, and all my sacrifices as useless. God 
grant a better issue. This unfortunate circumstance has 
given me more pain and solicitude than the vexations of both 
governments ; for here, too, I have had the honour of being 
a state prisoner as a dangerous alien ; an attempt, probably, 
to conciliate the government of the United States. Contem- 
plating your present situation under a burning sun, I can 
write you nothing cheerful. Some trifles I have for the 
boy will not be sent, for they would never reach him. As 
if all intercourse was to be cut off between us, you have 
given me no address. 

I claim from Mr. Alston a promise under his hand, that, 
upon the first appearance of disease or debility, he will, 
without consulting you, transport you north of the Hudson. 


He gave me his word before marriage, and I claim now the 
renewal of that promise. You may be made to do anything ; 
to say anything ; to write anything. After four experiments, 
all nearly fatal, I would not have made a fifth with a dog. 

On reading what I have written, I could almost wish 
there were less of feeling in it, for it will give you both 
pain, and this again is reflected back on me ; but I have no 
time to write over, and this is so mixed up with business 
that it must go. I shall write Mr. Alston, to accompany 
White's draft, a formal letter of business, but a sealed letter. 
I am wrong. It will not accompany the bill. This I per- 
emptorily refused. It must, however, be shown to him, and 
he trusts to my word to send it. It is late, and I have a 
thousand occupations incident to my departure. God bless 
you all. A. Burr. 


Little Gaddesden, April 22, 1809. 

Your letter of the 17th, by some inexplicable delay, did 
not reach me till yesterday, and I despaired of my answer 
arriving with you before your departure, until this morning, 
that I had the pleasure to receive yours of yesterday. I am 
much obliged to you for taking the trouble of communica- 
ting to me the important good news contained in it, which 
has afforded me much satisfaction. I trust the blow that 
has been struck by Lord Cochrane will relieve us from any 
apprehensions from the naval force of France for some time 
to come. 

I am truly sorry to find that you are so soon to leave this 
country ; for I flattered myself with the hopes of enjoying 
the pleasure of your society in London, where we think of 
going some time next week, to remain for a month. The 
conduct of our ministry to you has surprised me greatly, but 
I conclude it must proceed from the machinations of some 
secret enemy. 

I lost no time in communicating your message to my 


neighbour, Major Gamble; but I am sorry to say that he 
declines giving the letter in question, although he says he 
has no objection to giving a copy of that part of it which re 
lates to you. I am just going to make a further application 
to him on the subject, and shall let you know the result be- 
fore I close this letter. 

It will give me real pleasure to hear from you when you 
have leisure and inclination, and that you find any opportu- 
nities to this country, for be assured that no one can inter- 
est themselves more sincerely about you. With all good 
wishes for your health and happiness, in which Mrs. Bartlett 
and Mrs. Span beg to join, I am 

P. Bartlett. 

P.S. I have just seen the major again, who has returned 
me the same answer, desiring me to present his compli- 
ments, and to say that he has no objection to furnishing you 
with a copy of that part of the letter which relates to you. 
I presume he means to transmit it to you himself; for, had 
he intrusted me with it, I should have undertaken it with 
pleasure. p g 

TO MRS. , N. Y. 

London, April 25, 1809. 

Your letters, my dear friend, are worth all that I receive, 
not excepting even those of Theo. You tell me what I want 
to know, and you talk of yourself; and then, so much pretty 
flattery is so consoling. To be sure I make very bad re- 
turns. But, indeed, there is no satisfaction in writino- when 
one can't write everything ; and how this is applicable, you 
will judge before I have done this short note. 

Mr. Jefferson, or the Spanish Juntas, or probably both, 
have had influence enough to drive me out of this country. 
An intimation was lately sent me from Lord Liverpool " that 
my presence was embarrassing to his majesty's govern- 
ment," and that I must be off. So this night I shall be in 
a mailcoach for Harwich, where I shall embark to-morrow 
for Gottenburg. 


I had serious thoughts of going direct to the United States, 
but it appeared best to wait a little longer; besides, I wished 
very much to pass a few weeks in Sweden. It is some- 
thing odd, that last autumn I asked for a passport to Sweden, 
and it was refused. Now I am transported whether I will 
or not. It is civil in them, however, to provide me passage 
and accommodations. The Swedish minister, Baron Brink- 
man, has no sort of apprehension about my visiting his coun- 
try. On the contrary, he has behaved to me with something 
more than mere politeness, and has even given himself some 
trouble to secure me a kind and hospitable reception. For 
this, however, I am probably indebted to my amiable friend, 
Gahn. Send for him and tell him so ; and, further, that I 
shall write to him on my arrival in Stockholm, where I hope 
to be within eight days. Neptune, you know, is always 
kind to me. 

Now, though I am so very bad a correspondent, I must 
insist on your writing to me often and much ; and something 
of the state of parties and politics as affecting me. Address 
your letters to the care of "James Achaud, Esq., No. 16 
Bloomsbury Square, London." Let T. W. M. put them in 
the British mail ; for if you should put them into the post- 
office they will go to Washington City. By no means ad- 
dress anything to Lord B. He would be frightened into 

Teach your children to remember me, and forgive all my 
sins of omission. The only sort of sins which a fine woman 
never forgives ! God ever bless thee, and give thee a better 
friend. A. Burr. 


London, April 25, 1809. 

I shall leave town for Harwich at twelve this night, and 
shall sail to-morrow for Gottenburg. Our friend C. will 
tell you the extraordinary circumstances which occasion my 
sudden departure. 


It has been impossible for me to see you, which I greatly 
regret. I shall bear with me the recollection of your good- 
ness and friendship. Let me be kept in remembrance by 
your children. We shall, ere long, meet under different au- 
spices. A. Burr. 


London, April 25, 1809. 

At twelve this night I leave town for Harwich, whence I 
shall sail to-morrow for Gottenburg. Having found, on in- 
quiry, that it would not be easy to get from Heligoland, nor 
pleasant to stay there, the Swedish minister having mani- 
fested a disposition to do all in his power to ensure me a 
hospitable reception in Sweden, I have great reason to be 
gratified with this change in my plan. 

Seeing no present, probability of visiting Bath, your letter 
for Mrs. Clarke is herewith returned. I have only time to 
bid you adieu, and to assure you again that, in all time and 
in all places, I am your obliged friend, 

A. Burr. 


London, April 25, 1809. 
I shall embark in the mail at two to-night. Letters for 
me may come to your hands addressed to Edwards, Me- 
ville, Kirby, Dunbar, &c. You see I have as many names 
as any thief or nobleman in England. Not that I really 
wear them all, but different friends may use these different 
appellations. While in Sweden I hope to have no occasion 
for any other name than A. Burr. 


London, April 25, 1809. 

It would seem to be something out of order to enclose a 
gentleman his own note. But, if a thing must be burned, 
the author, undoubtedly, is the most proper executioner. 


Witness the Duke of York and Mrs. Clark. I thank you, 
however, for the kind attempt. Nothing further has been 
done in the question of alienism, nor is it now material that 
anything should be done. 

The mailcoach will take me this night to Harwich, whence 
I shall embark to-morrow for Gottenburg, in obedience to 
the sentence of ostracism declared by the benign Lord Liv- 
erpool. A. Burr. 


London, April 25, 1809. 

The beautiful little tale of Herman and Dorothea may 
sometimes recall me to your memory, when I may no longer 
have the power to awaken your recollection. Remember 
that I have transferred to you and to your brother that warm 
affection which I bore your father; to you, perhaps, the 
larger portion. I shall always take a most lively interest 
in all that concerns you, and be very much gratified to hear 
of your occupations, your views, and your prospects. 

A. Burr. 


Harwich, April 26, 1809. 

I slept soundly in the mailcoach, and feel quite refreshed. 
My destination will be Gottenburg, and not Heligoland, as 
was intended. The change is greatly to my satisfaction. 
We shall embark within two hours. I shall be full of so- 
licitude about you until you shall inform me that you have 
been extricated from the unpleasant dilemma in which I left 
you. Hasten to communicate this good news, and any other 
regarding yourself. Affectionately adieu, 

A. Burr. 

* Daughter of Colonel Charles Williamson. 

D 3 



Harwich, April 26, 1809. 

A letter for the Swedish minister is enclosed. That for 
Dr. Lettsome I thought it better to send by mail to himself 
direct. I have given him your address. 

The custom-house officers have executed their duty with 
great courtesy. Our baggage has been passed and is on 
board ; but, for want of wind, we shall not sail till to-mor- 
row. Get you a large sack, and cram into it the various ar- 
ticles left with you for the purpose. 

Brinkman's letter may be delivered open. The best way 
will be to call at his house about eleven A. M., and send up 
your card and the letter. God bless and speed you. 

A. Burr. 


London, April 26, 1809. 

You will be in Paris. There you cannot do us a more 
real pleasure (in addition to the letting us hear of you) than 
in contriving that we may hear of Mrs. Louisa Marlow, the 
lady from this country whom we have mentioned to you al- 
ready. It would also afford her high pleasure to see or hear 
from the gentleman I now address. She was the favourite 
pupil of Mrs. Alston's favourite author. The person who 
can tell you most about her in Paris is Mr. Frisac, Hotel de 
Grand Bretagne. And now, farewell ! All happiness and 
prosperity attend you. I wish I could persuade you (but 
what can I expect ; and who have mixed so much less in the 
busy scenes of life ?) that my method, the method I have 
laid down for doing good, is (which I firmly believe) the best. 

Wm. Godwin. 

Your picture went this morning. I have kept your port- 
folio, and wish to keep it. Need I entreat you to write to 
us ? God bless you. Sure we shall meet again. 

M. J. Godwin. 



1809. M ay 1. Rose at four. Well and hungry. Shaved 
and got breakfast at six. At noon, supposed we had made 
250 miles from Harwich. About half passage. Wind fair 
all day. At night, though clear and a steady light breeze 
from S.W., took in all sail except mainsail, a l'Angloise. 

2. Wind all night good, and still so. Two sprightly, sen- 
sible women on board, Mrs. Daily and Mrs. Barnes, going 
to join their husbands, who are in Sweden. Mrs. B. has a 
very fine little girl about four years. 

I took possession of the longboat. Made a sort of loun- 
ging-place, where, with an umbrella, I read much at my ease ; 
taking no notice of any one, not even des dames. My ter- 
ritories were invaded yesterday by Madame D. Reads re- 
markably well, and is indefatigable. Read to me all M'lle. 
Wolstoncraft's tour through Sweden, and the greater part of 
Sheridan's Revolution of 1772. Madame B. has been some 
years in Russia. Shipwrecked on the Russian coast lately on 
her way to England. Passed through a variety of adventures. 

Played much at chess with Captain Nordenskold, of the 
Swedish navy, who is rather my superior at chess. 

3. Wind still good. At five we saw the church and light- 
house of Gottenburg, at the Schone. Entered the harbour 
at twelve. Anchored at the lower town. Sent up our pass- 
ports by the captain. At two came on board the two hus- 
bands of the ladies. Both prepossessing appearance and 
manners. Permission came by a custom-house officer to 
land ; our baggage to be taken to the custom-house. Went 
in custom-house boat with several of the passengers, being 
nearly two miles to the city. Enter the canal of the main 
street. Our baggage all passed without any troublesome 
search. Trunks merely opened for form. My sack, the 
article about which I was most apprehensive of trouble, on 
account of the books it contained, passed without opening. 
But my large trunk, containing all my clothes, is missing. 

Vol. I.— K 


I sent by the captain M'Donnaugh's letter to Malm et fils, 
with a note requesting them to provide me a lodging. While 
at the custom-house, a brother-in-law of Malm came from 
him to show me my lodgings. Smith, the British consul, 
hearing that I had a letter for him from Col. Mosheim, came 
also to tender his services. Mr. Oppenheim, of Memel, 
merchant, fellow-passenger, very civil. Offered me a room 
at his quarters, which, fool-like, I did not accept. Alas ! my 
trunk, my trunk. 

My lodgings very commodious. Three large rooms well 
furnished, but not a creature in the house speaks one word 
of any language of which I have the slightest knowledge. 
Made my landlord understand that I wished to go to the 
theatre. He went with me. Paid for two seats in the pit, 
the boxes being all full. All pantomime to me. Much 
amused with two young girls in boy's clothes, tight panta- 
loons and short waistcoats, one of whom played admirably. 
The ballet and pantomime amusing enough by force of 
novelty. Two good dancers. One of each sex. Malm's 
young man, seeing me in the pit, got me a place in the box. 
Out at ten. Got home, but could not make my host under- 
stand that I wanted a dish of tea. After labouring in vain 
for a quarter of an hour, was obliged to take him out to the 
house of a Frenchman, who spoke Swedish, and who ex- 
plained for us. Tea was got very cheerfully. A long pipe 
and tobacco. 

My bed has a single light coverlet, not heavier than a 
sheet. No other covering. But, being quilted down, found 
it very warm. Mem. — While at the custom-house, Captain 
Nordenskold brought and introduced to me his brother, a 
lieutenant of artillery, and desired him to devote himself to 
me. The lieutenant speaks a few words of French, but no 

4. The tea kept me awake till four, and I had ordered the 
host to wake me at seven, which he did most punctually, 


and I got up. Dressed as well as could be without my 
trunk, and breakfasted. Not in good order. 

Lieutenant N. came in to tender himself. We walked to 
Malm's; to Consul Smith's; to a bookseller's; to the cus- 
tom house. No news from the trunk. At two the lieuten- 
ant took me to a coffee-house to dine. A public table. A 
bill of fare produced, and each guest orders what he likes, 
which is brought him on a plate, with bread and napkin. 
We drank porter. Paid and lieutenant remercied. Met the 
captain and mate of the Diana. Both swear the trunk is not 
on board ! The mate agreed to meet me at seven at Todd's, 
at the landing. Walked there with the lieutenant, one and 
a half miles. The mate not there. Took punch and pipe, 
and walked on as much farther. Met the captain on return. 
Still insists that the trunk was put into the custom-house 
boat. The steward savs the same. Engaged Smith and 
Malm to aid in search. Home at nine. Tea. 

5. Yesterday the lieutenant took my passport to show to 
the commandant, Col. , and to the police. It was re- 
turned, the production being endorsed by both. At the in- 
stance of the lieutenant also I went yesterday with him to 
pay my respects to the commandant. A very awkward 
visit. He did not ask me to sit down. A stout, square 
man of fifty-five, speaking tolerable French. 

As the packet will sail to-morrow for Harwich, and the 
mail closes this evening at five, wrote a postscript to my 
letters to Theodosia, a letter to W. Graves about my trunk, 
enclosing to him letters for Theodosia and a letter to Bel- 
lington, the agent of aliens at Harwich — a civil-looking ani- 
mal — also about the trunk. Not only all my clothes, but 
my four letter-books, gone, gone ! Went to Smith and 
Malm to urge them to search ; but it is probable that my 
trunk never left Harwich. 

At five went to Smith's to give my letters, and lo ! his 
young Swede had found my trunk on board the Diana. 



Went to the same coffee-house to dine. Salmon, potatoes, 
wine and water, cheese and butter, half a rix dollar. 

Went with my lieutenant to hunt a carriage (a sort of 
cabriole), of which, it is said, one must be bought. Mr. 
Hedborn and the Russian mineralogist called, and proposed 
to join in a journey to Stockholm. Hedborn has a carriage 
which will hold three. As he is a Swede, and speaks tol- 
erable English, this is a most acceptable overture. Neither 
Malm nor Smith have called on me, or offered any hospitality. 

6. At Gotheborg yet, which we write Gottenburg. 
Breakfast at eight. Sorti to Malm's, where learn that an 
English packet from Harwich arrived last evening. Walked 
to the landing with Hedborn. On board the packet found 
Hosack. Took my trunk from on board the Diana, and 
came up in a boat, rowed by two boys, with Hosack. My 
trunk passed and taken home. Nothing demanded at the 
custom-house. I was permitted to give a few copper pieces 
to the under officers. The principal expressed great indig- 
nation at learning that I had, on the former occasion, paid a 
guinea to a person whom I supposed to be the custom-house 
officer, but who, it is found, is a broker. On my return 
home, sent for that broker and got back my guinea, paying 
him two rix-dollars for his trouble, viz., getting a boat for 
us, and attending us to the custom-house. Showed Hosack 
to the quarters of Hedborn, where he got a room, and is to 
go with us to-morrow. We are to set off at seven in the 

11. Arrived at Stockholm at ten. Were detained at the 
gate about an hour by the custom-house officers, but they 
were not unreasonable or troublesome. The trunks not un- 
packed. All the taverns and hotels full. Through the good 
offices of our good-natured fellow-traveller, Mr. Hedborn, we 
got beds at the house of an obscure mechanic, in an alley 
near the exchange. 

The approach to Stockholm has nothing striking, nothing 
to indicate an approach to the capital. No view of the town. 


12. At ten to Professor Gahn's, who was out. Saw his 
wife, who speaks French. Left with her the letter from the 
consul, H. Gahn. Returning, called on the Count or Baron 
Mancke, governor of the palace, and having apartments 
therein. Was in his court dress, with the Spanish cloak. A 
handsome man, and has the air of a man of the world. Left 
the letter of Col. Mosheim. At one called on Baron Armfelt 
with the letter of Baron Brinkman. The baron a good, firm, 
soldierly appearance ; might pass for fifty, but must be 

Took dinner at an ordinary. Fish, potatoes, pudding, 
bread, butter, cheese, and brandy and water, three shillings 
sterling. In the evening Hedborn came in, and asked us to 
dine to-morrow. Professor Gahn called on me in the fore- 
noon, and engaged me to dine on Sunday. The hour, in 
both cases, half past two. 

13. At eleven called with the letter of Achaudon Mr. C, 
a good, respectable-looking merchant. Appeared much in- 
disposed. His head bound up. On M. Wennerquist, with 
the letter of Col. Mosheim. A house very handsomely fur- 
nished. Many fine paintings. Is a wealthy banker. Pro- 
posed to walk with me to several places. At twelve we 
went to the , where is the Society of Nobles. He in- 
scribed my name, which gives me the freedom of the house. 
Very magnificent apartments. A hotel ; a public table, 
where, at a moderate price, the members, or one introduced, 
may dine ; see all the newspapers, &c. Thence to the 
gardens, where walked an hour. Pas beau coup de monde. 
It is yet too cold. 

To Hedborn's to dine-y-his wife and her sister, Mademoi- 
selle Poussett ; two very pretty women, but, malheureuse- 
ment, speaking nothing but Swedish ; Mr. Hyland, two clerks 
of Mr. H., and Hosack. Before dinner, brandy, bread and 
cheese, salt herring, cut into small pieces and handed round. 
Fish, then soup, then bouilli and roti ; good claret, of which 
the ladies partook. All rose at once from table. Bows and 


salutations. Coffee served immediately. Then open rooms. 
Third story. At seven came off with Hosack. 

14. Wennerquist said I must positively change lodgings; 
that they are not reputable. Went to look at chambers. 
Ten rix-dollars asked for such as could be had for a guinea 
in London. To the postoffice, which is open on Sunday. 
Letters are called for, and not sent out. To Gahn's to dine. 
Wife, daughter, and niece ; two brothers ; a cousin, Diedron, 
very handsome young man ; Mr. Foster, the British charge 

15. Un peu stupid with Gahn's good wine. At eleven to 
Gahn's; saw the family. He also came in. To Colonel 
Gahn's. Walked with him and Hosack to the Observatory. 
Dinner at the French hotel with Col. Gahn, Hosack being 
engaged to dine at the Merchants' Society. After dinner 
walked to see the College. The garden and park extensive, 
and the trees fine. Met the Countess C. and her niece. 
Took tea with her. 

16. Having very mal apropos taken a little physic* last 
evening, it kept me up till five ; took cold ; lay till nine, and 
rose quite ill. While 1 was in bed Baron Mancke's servant 
called and left the baron's card (peut etre a visit a la Swe- 
daise), and inquired whether I was engaged for Friday. An 
hour after he returned with an invitation from the baron and 
baroness to dine on Friday, which accepted. At ten Baron 
Armfelt's servant called to ascertain where I lodged. No 

Col. Gahn came in at eleven ; sat half an hour. Strolled 
about for an hour. Then to Col. Gahn's, and took him to 
introduce me to Catteau, whom we found at home. A 
sprightly, well-bred man, apparently not more than forty- 
eight. His congregation being principally dispersed, he pro- 
poses to return to Paris. Is now engaged in writing a View 
Physique et Commercial of the Baltic, which will, undoubt- 
edly, be very interesting. He will not publish it till he 
reaches Paris. He had not a copy of his View of Sweden, 


nor have I been able to find one. An imperfect English 
translation I brought with me. 

Took a bowl of soup at home. At six, went with Hosack 
to introduce him to Professor Gahn's family, and to take 
tea-y-lhe family (except the doctor), two elderly ladies, a 

daughter of Gahn. Left Hosack there and came off 

at eight. Supped on bread, butter, and cheese, with porter, 
hot water, and sugar. M'lle. Gahn was engaged in making 
shoes a la Melville. 

17. At eleven came in Wennerquist, with Slade and 
Hartshorn. The latter left New- York on 24th March. 
They had just arrived from London, by the route of Har- 
wich and Gottenburg. To Col. Gahn's, who was in his 
nightgown, and writing. Took his servant to pilot me to 
the marechal du royaume, Count Klingstrop (or near that), 
and Count Bra?, governor of Gottenburg. By mistake, the 
rascal took me to a Count , where I left a card, suppo- 
sing it to be the marechal. Left cards, also, with the real 
marechal up two flights of stairs. Spent half an hour hunting 
lodgings. Home at one. Haseling came in, and we had 
three games of chess. At half past two, to the Society of 
Nobles, to dine ; an elegant, magnificent hotel, where none 
but the society, and those introduced by a member, admit- 
ted. You meet persons of the first distinction ; the first 
officers of state, foreign ministers, &c. A variety of dishes 
and dessert; and coffee served after dinner. A billiard- 
room. Card-tables. A news-room. All the domestic and 
foreign gazettes, new publications, &c. A library beauti- 
fully situated. Four of us had two bottles of French wine, 
and our bill was two rix-dollars each. 

Home at five. To the quarters of Slade and Hartshorn. 
To the theatre. A comedy and farce in Swedish. Silence. 
Order. Not one laugh, except Hosack's. Less buffoonery 
than in England or the United States. The acting natural 
and sprightly. Curtain continues up till the end of the play, 
and again from beginning to the end of the farce.. No change 


of scene. The same throughout the whole performance. 
The orchestra good, and one of the women a very fine 
voice. Not a light except on the stage ; but between the 
pieces a large lustre, with about twenty Argand lamps, 
let down from the ceiling, so that we could then see each 
other. No noise, even between the pieces, except cheerful 
talk, in the tone of common conversation. The dresses very 
good. No handsome or elegant women. But it is said that 
there is one who did not appear. A box ticket is a rix-dol- 
lar; but the highest places (they were all taken) a dollar 
banco. At home a little past ten. Still broad daylight. 

18. Mr. Gahn, nephew of the professor, and a member 
of the diet, called before I was up. Just looked into my 
room and went off. He called again at eleven. Sent by 
Professor Gahn to show us lodgings. Hosack went out 
with him and got suited. Two rooms at seven rix-dollars 
(one guinea) per week, firewood (which is nothing at this 
season) included. 

Col. Gahn having informed me that I was this day to be 
presented to the regent, dressed for the purpose, and sat in 
state waiting for him till two. Sent Hosack to see what 
was the matter. The colonel had gone out early and left 
no message. Quod mirum ! 

Went with Hosack to see our new quarters, which are 
commodious and decent. He went to dine at the hotel. I 
took three eggs at home. At four Henlaud called by appoint- 
ment to go to see the Manufacture de Fayaure, near two 
miles. The principal was out, and we saw nothing. Being 
near to the Comtesse C, went on to see her. They were 
dressing to go out. Returned alone. On the way the 
comtesse overtook me, and stopped the carriage to parley. 
Reminded me of the ball to-morrow. Home at six, a little 
weary. These stones fatigue. All the pavements pebbles. 

Before the arrival of Henlaud this afternoon, came in to 
see Hosack, by appointment, Potter, an old negro, who has 
married in this place a young lady of decent family. Ap- 


pears a shrewd old dog. About 60, as ugly as possible. 
Gentlemen and ladies talk and walk with him in the street. 
On coming in he laid aside his Spanish cloak, which is the 
fashionable costume; took a chair, and sat near an hour. 
Henlaud called at seven, and we chessed till nine. Sent 
for Hedborn to aid us to settle with our landlord. He 
would have twelve rix-dollars per week for rooms not worth 
four, and which he offered for six. Compounded for ten. 
Our week's living in this den is three guineas, though we 
had to go abroad for our dinners. 

19. Sent for Mr. Gahn, the son of the member of the diet, 
to interpret and assist in settling. At nine he came. Our 
host determined to make the most of us. He charged twelve 
sch. per day for the servants' attendance. We finally settled 
at twenty-one rix-dollars. We had breakfast and tea with 
them. Our new quarters, two handsomely-furnished and 
pleasant rooms, with the use of a third, in common with one 
other person, at seven rix-dollars per week. The rooms 
are worth double those we left, yet the price is double what 
it would be if the diet were off. 

No person in our new quarters speaks a word of French 
or English. Hence much vexation. Unpacked and settled 
ourselves. At half past two to dine with Baron Mancke-y- 
the baron et ux and a little niece (12), Professor Arnt, and 
Dr. Domcier, the German physician to the Duke of Sussex, 
who is here a missionary for benevolent purposes from the 
Philanthropic Society, invited, but did not come. 

The sideboard and brandy before dinner. At dinner, 
eggs and slices of salt salmon ; roast beef; fish, then soup, 
veal, and spinach ; wild fowl. At table about two hours, 
then all rose together. Our bows, &c. Adjourned to the 
saloon-y-coffee. At half past five came off with Professor 
Arnt. On our way he took me to the German doctor's 
(Sussex) to introduce me. Out. Left card.' Arnt came 
home with me and sat a while. At six Gahn came to tako 
us to the ball. Hosack, not being able to make his toilet, 



was left. On our way met Mr. of the City College, 

who went with us. Took boat (to save time, about five hun- 
dred going by the bridge) ; all these boats rowed by women. 
At the ball about sixty ladies (not so splendid as that at the 
Exchange) ; Countess of and her niece ; Baron Wran- 
gle, Baron Armfelt, who introduced me to his daughter, the 

Baroness of , a very fine woman ; a physiognomy of 

great intelligence ; tres belle. La Baroness De B. cru la 
plus belle pas par moi. 

21. Walked to hear Catteau preach. The service was 
nearly concluded before I got there. The congregation con- 
sisted of nine women and thirteen men. Walked to the 
King's Garden (or Vauxhall) ; full of monde. Home. Cat- 
teau came in and sat half an hour. Pleasant, cheerful, and 

22. To Dr. Gahn's to dine. We were late ; dinner was 
on the table. On coming in to Dr. Gahn's to-day, the little 
Eva, who speaks not one word of French or English, ran 
and seized me round the neck in the most affectionate man- 
ner. She talks to me a great deal, and imagines that I un- 
derstand every word. She is one of the most beautiful and 
interesting children I ever saw. 

The dinner was sumptuous, and would, in any part of the 
world, have been thought tres bien. The forms as before, 
except that soup followed immediately the salt herring. 
Three of the ladies very sprightly and animated in conver- 
sation. An officer of the rank of remarked to me that I 

spoke French much better than English, and inquired which 
of the European languages the native language of the 
Americans most resembled. 

23. Slept till nine. Professor Arnt being expected at ten, 
we had enough to do to get dressed in time. Walked with 
him to the palace to see the pictures, the statues, and libra- 
ry. Slade arid Hartshorn came in. They state that seven 
American vessels have been captured by the Danes. To 
supper at Dr. Gahn's. 


24. At nine sorli to Hedborn's. Left with him ten guineas 
to be changed into Swedish paper. Met M'lle. Posse belle 
sour de H. ; entered and talked a few minutes by signs. Mr. 
Potter noir de Boston m'd ici une blanche d'un famille. 
Very civil and useful. To vieux H.-y-the baron ux et niece, 
Le General Baron C. de Morner, ch. d'un Regt. de Hussards. 
Dined in the room in which the revolution of 1772 was pro- 
jected and matured by Gus. III. At dinner Gamp, gave 
" Les prisoniers royaux,"* which was received by Baron 
Mun., Spanish minister, with inexpressible sensibility ; tears, 

&c. Went back to meet the Countess of , being her 

we saw at Desbero's ; belle femme. All spoke French 
fluently. The prince and his elder sister walk with the 
two ladies of the queen's suite to Haga. Beautiful prome- 
nade along the lake. The temple, the pavilion. Went 
through the lower story of the palace. Four beautiful rooms. 
Picture of Gus. III. To the new palace. Magnificent 
plan. The place for the guard. Singular effect produced 
by copper pavilions and tents painted a la Chinois. Back 
to old Haga at nine. Supper. The baron walks with us 
to town. Locked out and great plague. 

The prince is a fine boy (nine); eyes and forehead very 
good ; lower part not corresponding. The princess seven, 
not handsome. Neither of them looking very healthy. They 
were in a little barouche, drawn by four little horses. Near 
the palace saw the youngest princess, about one year old ; 
pretty. The second also, about five. 

27. Gahn came at eleven. We walked to see the Psyche 
and Cupid, the Muse of History, the Mars carrying off Venus, 
wounded and fainting, the Boy picking a Thorn out of his 
Foot, and the statue of Gus. III., all of which are works of 
great merit. The queen, who was Princess of Baden, said 
to be handsome ; but in the bust very defective in the nose 
and mouth. Home at two. Found wailing Bergstrom, Ha 

* This probably alluded to Ferdinand VII. ; his father, then recently detained 
by Napoleon in France, 


offers to give me a lesson in Swedish every day, to which I 

29. Before I was out of bed a servant of Armfelt came in 
with a note from him, informing me that there would be a 
levee at the regent's at nine, when I would be presented. 
Dressed and went to Gen. A.'s a little before nine, but it 
seems that I must have a sword, chap, bra., and buckles ; so 
put off the presentation till Thursday. 

To D'Aries, French emigrant libraire, to see about lodg- 
ings. He offers rooms which we shall take, principally for 
the convenience of his library, of which he offers the use, 
and for that of being in a family whose language we can un- 

30. Baron Mancke gave me the names of five gentlemen 
(holding offices about the person of the regent) whom I 
ought to visit previous to being presented. Offered to make 
the visits for me if I would give him five cards, which I 
did. The visits will be made by sending those cards by a 
servant. Baron M. also offers to introduce me to-morrow 
morning at nine, to which agreed. 

31. At ten sorti to buy chap, bra., &c. Was asked twen- 
ty-five rix-dollars for a very indifferent castor hat, and fifteen 
for one much worse. The best of them not worth half a 
guinea. For a pair of common plated buckles three rix- 
dollars, not worth two shillings and sixpence. These are 
rather too heavy taxes to pay for the honour of visiting the 
regent. Baron Armfelt's servant was here at seven this 
morning with a message from the baron that he would meet 
me au Palais at a quarter past nine to-morrow morning, to 
introduce me. Note from Baron M. inviting us to dine at 
Haga on Friday. Replied oui. Tried to borrow a hat, but 
in vain. 

Stockholm, June 1. The journal has been neglected since 
Wednesday last, and now, on Tuesday evening, at ten at 
night, writing by daylight, I sit down to recollect the trifling 
incidents of the last six days. Trifling, indeed ! but if the 


operations of my head and heart could be delineated, each 
day would fill a volume. 

This day full of business for the levee, and am at length 
accoutred with the three deficient articles of buckles, sword, 
and hat. The buckles were bought for one rix-dollar, being 
worth about ninepence. Sword borrowed from Dr. Gahn, 
and hat, which was the greatest trouble, borrowed by H. 
from a good-natured French marchand. Baron M. sent his 
servant last evening to say that I must be at his chambers 
in the palace at a quarter before nine. Went punctually 
and found him ready. The levee commenced exactly at 
nine. We were on the spot at the moment. You would 
have laughed to see Gamp, with his sword and immense 
three-cornered hat. We waited one hour exactly before the 
regent made his appearance. He is sixty-one years of age, 
but appears much older, and an air use — something like Mr. 

Samuel H , only not so tall by about three inches, and 

has a fiat nose. Mr. H., too, has rather the advantage in 
point of dignity and grace. His royal highness exchanged 
a few words with me in French. He was in the room about 
twenty minutes. Spoke to about fifteen or twenty persons. 
A few kissed his hand. There were present sixty-three 
persons. I counted them. Vice-admiral Stedungk was 
particularly attentive to me. 

Got home at eleven, excessively fatigued. Lay an hour 
on the sofa reading Catteau. 

Made agreement to-day with Mons. d'Aries for one room 
on a first floor (which is what we call second story) and the 
occasional use of a parlour to receive visiters, and two rooms 
for Hosack in the fifth story, at seven rix-dollars per week. 

2. At two walked to Haga to dinner with Baron Mancke. 
After dinner walked two hours and returned to tea. After 
tea walked again, then came in to supper. The supper is a 
very substantial meal. Fish, roast, fricassees, &c. Two 
cards received by the Manckes while I was there, announ- 
cing the death, one of a husband, the other of a father. Both 


concluding with this caution — " condolences are not re- 
ceived." Professor Arnt expressed his opinion that all 
women ought to be shut up, as in Persia. 

3. Breakfasted at nine. Read a romance, Les Amours 
de Daphnis et Cloe, traduit du Grec de Longus par Arryot. 
This romance is supposed to have been written after that of 
Heliodorus (Thecgenes and Cariclea). 

4. Sat out for Lisbon Hill, where we are invited by Wen- 
nerquist to a musical party. Very much amused on the 
way to see the mode of passing Sunday. Vast numbers of 
both sexes engaged in various sports. Fiddles and other 
music. Dancing parties in many houses. Always a com- 
edy on Sunday. Went half a mile beyond the house of W. 
before I could ascertain where it was. At length found it. 
He was in town. One Swedish servant only at home. No 
preparation for any party. Returned home and took coffee, 
wondering at this disappointment. 

5. During the night, formed a plan for returning to the 
United States. Full of it all day. New-Jersey was to be 
my location. This forenoon saw Hosack for the first time 
since being at this house. He had been charged by Wen- 
nerquist to tell me that the party intended for Sunday was 
postponed, but omitted to do it. 

6. This day we received news of the new arrangement 
between the United States and Great Britain. The procla- 
mation of the president opening intercourse with Great 

9. Sor. at eleven with Dr. Gahn, who called to invite me 
to go and see the show. All the troops, as well militia as 
regulars, under arms, to be sworn to the new king and con- 
stitution. Sworn by regiments and by word of command. 
Immense concourse of people of all sexes and ages. The 
king rode about on horseback, saluting and saluted. 

Finished readingEustace's letter to Cleomenes, 430 octavo 
pages. A strange medley of things personal, of Grecian and 
Roman history and maxims, of anecdotes, &c, but not badly 


put together, and amusing. Written in 1730. Says he is 
the nearest male relation of the late Mr. Addison. 

At six to tea at Gahn's by invitation. Col. Gahn was to 
attend me to the levee, which is announced for this evening 
at seven. Put on my sword and tripod, and went. A very 
splendid display of beauty. There were many hundreds. 
Those who pretended to be able to form a judgment said 
1600. The king looked much better than when I last saw 
him ; went very well through the forms. The queen still 
better. The Princess Louisa appeared to labour, and to be 
fatigued with it. Met there all my acquaintance of both 
sexes. Came off at nine and supped at Gahn's. His 
nephew left town this day, to my great regret, for he was 
my most useful and willing guide. He called to take leave. 

10. I am better without the afternoon tea and coffee, and 
resolve to discontinue it. Read two or three hours this 
morning in a French work printed in 1804, entitled, " De la 
Philosophic de la Nature ou Traite de Morale pour le Genie 
Humain tire de la Philosophie et fonde sur la Nature." The 
style very fine. Great advocate for natural law, as the 
foundation of all law and morals. " Cette ioi naturelle 
gravee sur le cour." A great deal of pretty and ingenious 
nonsense of the like kind. Pretending to quote and confute 
all writers, ancient and modern, who hold a contrary doc- 
trine ; but not naming Bentham, though published at Paris. 
The book is anonymous. 

This morning, while I was shaving, came into my room a 
tall, graceful, pretty woman, plainly but neatly dressed. 
Asked if I could speak Swedish. No. German. No. Ital- 
ian. No. I then asked her if she could speak English. 
No. French. No. So that it seemed that communication 
by words was out of question. I made her, however, under- 
stand that I was going to the country, and would be glad to 
see her again on Tuesday morning at the same hour, viz., 
seven o'clock. Who she is, or what the 'pretence of the 
visit, I can form no conjecture. 


'11. Mr. d' Aries waked me at five. Went with him and 
his son, in their one-horse phaeton, to Drotingholm. A very 
beautiful ride ; cross four large bridges. At eleven went to 
visit the service at a country church, about 14- miles from 
the palace. A neat, pretty, ancient building; low, arched; 
several pictures ; a narrow alley through the middle, and 
seats (pews) on each side. The women on the left and 
men on the right ; about an equal number on each side ; 
perhaps 150 of each sex. The organ playing when I came 
in, and they were singing a psalm to the tune we call Old 
Hundred. Sacrament day. All partook, going up about twen- 
ty at a time, men and women promiscuously. The priest 
and his clerk, or cure, administered. They all returned very 
much affected; the women in tears, and many sobbing; 
the psalm going on all the while. I stood in the aisle, no 
one taking the least notice of me. The musa the principal 
headdress of the women. Two very beautiful young wo- 
men, who were near me, in black ; the head a la mode. Re- 
turned to D'Aries, and we went through the garden to see 
the palace, he having engaged one of the keepers as cice- 
rone. Just as we entered the palace met Countess Bunge 
and Comtesse Lovenkaupt, Baron Wrangle, Captain Der- 
den et al. Went altogether into the first salle. While I was 
examining a statue, the ladies and their party, with our 
guide, went out, but whither we could not discover; and 
after half an hour of fruitless search and inquiry we returned 
to the gardens, and to that part called Canton ; thence home 
to dinner at two. Mr. D'. exceedingly mortified and vexed 
that our chaperon had thus left us in the lurch. He ex- 
pected several persons to dine, but not one of them came. 

After dinner walked to see Madame de Castre and her 
daughter. Both of very pleasant manners. The mother, 
very ladylike. Ne Polonaise, Le Mari, formerly in the 
orchestra of Gus. III. ; both now enjoying pensions. M'lle. 
pleine de talents. Paints in oil in a manner to have attracted 
notice and admiration at the exhibition. At four Madame 


de Castre came to take tea with us ; but Madame d' Aries 
rather presumptuously told her we were engaged. She 

went off, and we walked out to Dr. , Medecin du Roi 

Gus. IV.; out; but an elderly lady permitted us to see his 
pictures. Brought Madame de Castre to sup with us. Be- 
fore supper went to the tower; in ruins; extensive and pic- 
turesque views. After supper saw madame and m'lle. to 
chez eux. 

There are a few Russian prisoners yet here ; a small 
hospital. The situation of the palace and disposition of the 
grounds very beautiful. Profusion of statues, principal 
bronze. Everything in decay. Two ladies on horseback. 
One riding a l'Angloise, the other en cavalier, with scarlet 
waist-jacket and white overalls, a la Turc ou Perse ; very 
wide ; a round hat with feathers. She had a very fine form, 
and made an elegant appearance. 

13. The coronation is postponed till the first week in July, 
that it may be the more brilliant. Mr. de Castre had this 
morning an interview with the king, who sent for him to 
solicit him to take part in an opera to be given on the oc- 
casion. Note. — The opera-house has been shut since the 
majority of Gus. IV., and Madame de Castre been sixteen 
years out of practice. It is not impossible, nor altogether 
improbable, that we may have a Russian audience ; for 
news was yesterday received that the Russian forces on this 
side of the Gulf of Bothnia had advanced rapidly. Yet all 
here is placid, though they are not more than ten or twelve 
days' march from Stockholm, and neither fortifications nor 
efficient army in the way. 

Called on Madame Daily, who is still in town. She is 
frightened to death about the Russians. The Russian sol- 
diers ! It is the universal opinion that, if they come, there 
will be general plundering and other worse enormities. At 
two dressed for dinner and went to Hedborn's. All locked 
fast ; not even a servant. Tried every door, and made a 
great deal of noise to no effect. Strange ! At length dis 


covered from a family on the next floor that Mr. H. and 
family lived at some distance, where it is expected that I am 
to dine. Went to hire a boat. Asked one rix-dollar, which 
I refused to give. Came home at four, and took bread and 

At half past seven went to the concert, a la Bourse, where 
I had engaged to meet Madame de Castre et m'lle. The 
concert began at six, and was more than half done when I 
came in. There was, I believe, more than one thousand 
persons, among them the queen and the Princess Sophia. 
Heard three pieces, in one of which " God save the king" 
was introduced. The last piece was accompanied by the 
voice of Madame de Castre, who has sung here for thirty 
years. Her voice is yet well preserved and really fine. I 
have great sensibility to music, but no science. Every part 
was executed extremely to my satisfaction ; but what most 
interested me was the perfect attention, and the uncommon 
degree of feeling exhibited by the audience. I have no- 
where witnessed the like. Every countenance was affected 
by those emotions to which the music was adapted. In 
England you see no expression painted on the visage at a 
concert. All is sombre and grim. They cry bravo ! bra- 
vissimo, with the same countenance that they " G — d damn" 
their servants and their government. Acerbi is wrong in 
asserting that les Swedoises have no sensibility to music. 
The crowd was so great that I could not get sight of the De 
Castres ; but, passing their quarters just as they drove up to 
the door, went in and sat a few moments. Was introduced 
to Mr. de Castre, whom I had not before seen ; nor did I 
suspect, till then informed, that it was he who sang, not 
having seen him while singing. They engaged me to tea 

on Friday, to meet Baron , " Grand Seigneur et fort 

riche, demeurant en scanie." 

20. At eleven Madame and M'lle. de Castre went with 
me to see the palace. The Wackmyster attended us, and 
we passed two hours in going through the rooms. Not so 


extensive as the Chateau in Stockholm. I could pass four 
hours a day there for a month, with pleasure, to examine 
the pictures and statues. Of the latter, however, not many. 
Gave the Wackmysler who showed us the palace half a dollar 
banco. Got home at half past nine, not at all fatigued. 
Hosack came in at eleven, and we played chess till one. 
No letters. Not a line from any human being, nor any other 
being since left London. 

22. Out at one to Catteau's, with whom sat an hour. He 
is a native of Prussia, where his father viant de mouier. 
He is going to Berlin in fifteen days, to take possession of 
his little heritage, and thence to Paris. Catteau says this is 
not the country of the Goths, or Ostrogoths, or any Goths. 
That they all came from Thrace, Asia, Caucasus, &c, and 
had been, for centuries before the invasion of the Roman 
Empire, coming into Germany. That the Swedish language 
partakes most of the same origin. That there is no reason 
to believe that any Swedes went south, as far as Italy or 
France, before the ninth or tenth century. That the appli- 
cation of the term Gotha and Ostrogotha to certain parts of 
Sweden is the error and stupidity of the geographers of the 
Middle Age. That the Romans knew nothing of the Baltic. 
That it is not mentioned by any of their writers, and that 
they had no knowledge of Sweden, only that there was a 
country hereabout which they called Scandinavia. That 
Teutons or Teutonic is the true term of the origin of all the 
northern nations of Europe, including Great Britain. That 
the Gaelic (Welsh) is, however, of distinct and more remote 

24. This is St. John's day, the greatest holyday in the 
year ; formerly celebrated with great military and royal 
pomp, i. e., before Gus. IV., who abhorred anything gay. 
It is celebrated throughout the country as May-day. At ten 
last evening the cannon were fired, and, at intervals, all night. 
At midnight, singing and prayers in all the churches. 

The tea which I had foolishly taken kept me awake, and, 


being utterly indisposed for sleep, walked out at half past two 
to see the sun rise, but the sky was clouded. At three the 
streets were full of young people ; people, indeed, of all ages 
and sexes, bearing green boughs, flowers, little May-poles 
very prettily ornamented. They had all some good-natured 
wit at me. I retorted : neither comprehending a word, and 
we all laughed. Home at four. Read the last two volumes 
of Emilia de Varmont through in the course of the night and 
morning. Soon after eight I went to bed and slept till near 

eleven. Before I was dressed Hosack came in with , 

a very amiable and well-informed young Swiss, to make me 
a visit. 

From one to two walked to see what was doing. Little 
parties of both sexes everywhere. Singing, fiddling, dan- 
cing, May-poles. The day became fine. At two walked 
with Hosack to Haga to dine with M. Invited to go with 
him to his campagna, about sixty miles, en famille, Professor 
Arnt and ourselves. Dinner always good. Greatly pleased 
with my frankness in telling him that a bottle of vin was 
bad. Refused to sup. Walked with Hosack to see some 
m'lles. Out. 

28. Your (Theodosia) picture was opened and put up in 
my parlour about ten days ago. It has been very greatly 
admired, and given occasion to many inquiries. Thinking 
it had got a little injured, I took it to Breda's to ask his ad- 
vice. He has offered to clean it and put it in order. It has 
suffered no material injury. He says that, if a picture must 
be rolled, you must roll it the paint outside. I had done the 
contrary ; but he gives me good reasons for his advice. I 
forget whether I told you that Breda is not only the first 
painter in Sweden, but really one who would in any country 
be called great. 

Walked to see the church where the ceremony of coro- 
nation is to be performed. Not very spacious, but rich and 
magnificent. Returning, met the herald going round the 
city, and proclaiming at different places the coronation in- 


tended to-morrow. He is attended by some troops of horse, 
by trumpeters, &c., in splendid costumes. 

To dinner a quarter past two, at the Merchants' Society. 
Went at the hour. A very handsome and spacious estab- 
lishment, arranged with perfect convenience. The dinner 
and wine very good. I prefer this house to that of the 
nobles. Baron Armfelt (relation of the other Gen. Armfelt 
heretofore mentioned) begged me to sit by him, and he 
amused me much. Says he is seventy-two, very sprightly, 
and been over every part of Europe. 

30. After my tea last evening I began to reflect on the 
folly, and took twelve drops of laud., being more than I ever 
before took at a dose, to balance the tea. Read till one, and 
then laid down, but no sleep. At three (sunrise) the day was 
ushered in by the firing of cannon. Gave up the business 
of sleep, and got up and dressed at four ; breakfasted by six, 
and called Hosack to aid me to get the paraphranalion for 
the day, viz., hat and sword. Yesterday Baron Mancke 
wrote me a note, enclosing tickets, and telling me how to get 
introduced. Went to his room at half past eight, where 
took another breakfast of mutton-chop, wine, &c. At a quar- 
ter past nine he took me to the room of the grand maitre de 
ceremonie ; there another breakfast, chocolate, wine, cake, 
&c, of which partook. At ten we went to the church. 
Had a very convenient seat. Got home from the church at 


London, May 4, 1809. 

On my return last night from Moffat I found yours of 
the 25th of April, which much surprises me. I am sorry to 
say that it is a mark of weak men and of a feeble govern- 
ment. Indeed, the measures of our administration for some 
time past must have satisfied you how inadequate they are 
for their situation ; at least, combined as they now are. You, 
of all men, had the means of being useful to both countries, 


and certainly ministers had the opportunity of doing what 
would have been creditable to them. Indeed, poor Charles* 
always said, that unless it was Mr. Pitt, Lord Melville, and 
Mr. Canning, all the rest of the public men were quite im- 
penetrable as to American affairs. It was latterly, only, that 
they could be moved, or any how convinced that he was 
right. What a loss to you, that link of intercourse has been 
cut off, which, no doubt, Charles would have opened to you. 
It would have opened up a confidence, the want of which 
alone, I am persuaded, is the cause of the present leave. I 
wish that they had permitted you to revisit the mountains of 
Scotland. You surely could excite no alarm there. I hale 
all those jealous, suspicious men. Suspicion is, but at best, 
a coward's virtue. I shall inform the justice of what has 
happened. If I learn anything I will acquaint you. 

There was no enclosure in your letter, which, being men- 
tioned, I imagine you have omitted in your hurry. 

I presume, from the present arrangement between Amer- 
ica and Great Britain, war will follow with France. I wish 
it may ; and I wish that you were back again in America. 
This, I am certain, you can hold forth, that all jealousy of 
the inhabitants of this country is foolish. That there is no 
thinking person here who wishes not to see commerce 
flourishing, and under a more respectable government. 

I shall be extremely glad to hear from you. Remember 
always this, that your Northern friends will not forget you, 
and they will be proud of showing their respect the more 
you stand in need of it. David Williamson. 


Gottenburg, May 5, 1809. 

We had a pleasant passage of six days, and landed here 
on the 3d. I shall hasten to Stockholm (about three hundred 
English miles), where the diet is now sitting. The loss of 
my baggage may detain me two or three days ; but, believing 

* Colonel Charles Williamson. 


it to be irretrievably lost, shall not wait longer. My whole 
wardrobe is gone. Rather awkward for one without money 
and without an acquaintance. Your picture, the little and 
the big watch, are preserved, but about two hundred pages 
of stuff, written for your amusement, is gone. The business, 
however, of this postscript is to say that, at the moment of 
leaving London, a different arrangement was made about 
While's affair. Instead of drawing on Mr. Alston, I have 
assigned over the books to a person who has thereupon paid 
White. As Mr. Alston had left the books four years with- 
out sending for them, I considered that he wanted money 
more than books. I shall, at present, say nothing of this 
place or country. Indeed, I feel as if nothing I may write 
would ever reach you. Qua te dementia ! 

Pray show a little more sensibility to the attention of Jer- 
emy Bentham. Of seeds, search for beautiful or curious 
rather than useful. If an opportunity should offer for any 
port in Scotland, you may enclose to Wm. Arbulhnot, Esq., 
Edinburgh. There is a constant intercourse between that 
place and this. As Bentham will pass the summer in the 
country, letters for me by way of England had better be to the 
care of (if by private ships, under cover to) James Achaud, 
Esq., London. If by packet, the N. R. may be used, as be- 
fore directed. If you should happen to have one or two hun- 
dred guineas to remit, let it be to him (Achaud). A. Burr. 


Oaks (S. C), May 31, 1809. 

I have just received your letters of 28th February. The 
packet had been detained a very long time. The most im- 
portant of your orders is, that 59 should be sent immedi- 
ately. Alas ! how bitterly do I regret that it is not in my 
power to obey you. The conduct of your imagined friend 
is infamous beyond expression. No man alive to one single 
feeling of honour would have behaved thus. Now the em 
bargo and non-intercourse acts are done away, and the re- 


animation of commerce lias deprived him of the only apology 
he could have offered, I shall write to him, and tell him much 
more openly my opinion, and sign my name at full length. 
But if this last effort should likewise fail, I know not what 
we can do. I sometimes, often indeed, pass the night with- 
out closing my eyes, occupied in fruitless endeavours to sug- 
gest some mode of indemnifying you. 

The unqualified severity with which you speak of my late 
determinations distresses me inexpressibly. For the whole 
world I would not displease you. But, recollect, 1 was 
governed by circumstances and discretion. Pleasure was 
least thought of. Surely, if you reflect coolly upon the situa- 
tion in which your letters found me, you cannot but approve 
my conduct. 

My health continues good, and I rejoice at it. Had I been 
so ill that the advice of Dr. Leltsome would have been the 
only means of preserving me, what would have been our 
situation ? You did not expect this great failure in funds. 
This only would have been an insuperable bar to my voyage 
in any state of health ; but mine was so much improved 
when Dr. L.'s advice arrived, that the first words my phy- 
sician uttered were, " I presume you will not go." 

To have visited England, a country so full of everything 
that can gratify, interest, and improve ; to have seen and 
conversed with the most distinguished literary characters of 
the day ; to have been honoured by the attentions, perhaps 
by the friendship, of Jeremy Bentham ; and, through all this 
labyrinth of delight, to have been guided and blessed with 
the presence of my guardian angel ! Could anything more 
fascinating be imagined ? Yet, in existing circumstances, it 
was necessary to forego these allurements. As to a farther 
residence at New-York after the recovery of my health, what 
was to be gained by it ? You absent, I felt deplacee. In 
running away from duties, there is something cowardly 
which I never could bear. Believe me, too, you do not yet 
know the world. There are certain feelings with which 


they never sympathize. I should have been of injury to you. 
Here, if anywhere, I may be of service to you. Here I 
have leisure to improve myself. 

On one point you have converted me, and I will abide 
your advice, not to render myself up a martyr because of 
late misfortunes in the pecuniary way. Still, I would give 
the world they did not exist, and I feel that they form strong 
claims on me, and a claim which no reasoning can dissolve. 
All I can add in writing is, that my judgment approves. If 
yours does not, I can only bewail a destiny which places me 
amid so many contending duties ; surrenders up my heart a 
victim to such various feelings, and at length robs me of that 
serenity which is deemed the infallible reward of sacrificing 
pleasure to what is right in our own estimation. 

Your little list of maps, books, &c, enclosed to E. A., has 
just reached me. I have written to M. L. D. and to Loss 
to procure what you desire, and to draw on me for the 
amount. This shows you M.'s present disposition. The 
manuscript papers relative to X. can nowhere be found. I 
imagined that you had taken them with you. I shall write 
to E. W. L. for the papers left with him. But after empty- 
ing box number five (for of the others I have no key), and 
carefully overlooking the papers left with me, nothing like 
the one desired could be found. My illness at the moment 
of your departure was a most unfortunate event. The more 
so, as I find that my memory is extremely defective in re- 
gard to everything which occurred during the whole time 
that I was ill. I have in mind a kind of imperfect memo- 
randum of many occurrences which I vainly endeavour to 
recollect. I can perceive the blank, but cannot fill it up. 

The translation of Jeremy Bentham's works was proposed 
last winter in one of those moments of enthusiasm and ele- 
vation of spirits when nothing seems impossible. Yet that 
he should accede to it was hardly expected. But since I 
have known that he himself had thought of it, and that he 
seriously sanctions it, I feel at once confused, confounded, 

Voj.. I.— L 


flattered, and pleased. I feel a painful diffidence of myself. 
I perceive innumerable faults in my style, till now unob- 
served. One reflection only affords me comfort, and that is 
the hope that he will be good enough to correct or destroy 
without ceremony. Perhaps in this respect I may be more 
convenient to him than any other translator, for no one else 
will be so little attached to their own composition or style. 
No one so pleased that he should alter exactly to please him- 
self. Happy in my priesthood and in the honour of publish- 
ing the oracle, I will not presume to expostulate with the 
deity I serve. I shall commence immediately, et je te prie 
de veiller la dessus. 

When do you intend that I should receive the Journal ? 
What a feast it will be for me. How sensible I am to your 
goodness and attention in writing it ; and surely it is not too 
much to say that my pride is infinitely flattered. Your short 
account of Edinburgh, Scott, and M'Kenzie, afforded me 
much pleasure. But 1 long for the details. You will laugh at 
my simplicity relating to the tongs much more when you 
know that it was suggested to me that they must be hollow ; 
" for how is it possible that steel should be made so tight ?" 
But to this mystery, however inconceivable, I bowed with 
true devotion, and, like a good believer, did not meddle with 
doubts beyond the reach of my understanding. 

I am glad the letter to Jeremy Bentham was approved. 
The caricatures and pamphlets are not received here or 
mentioned by my New-York correspondent. Madame 
d'Auvergne has published a new work, which you shall 
receive likewise. Thank you for the pretty sentence rela- 
tive to Mrs. Ogden. It shall be copied and sent to her 
daughter,* who was truly my friend. Though ill, she pro- 
vided my sea-stores and sent her servant to see me off. Not 

one of my numerous friends troubled me thus much. 

was negligent. Madame unkind. Mrs. P. tired of atten- 
tions. In fact, on my first arrival, some eclat was gained 

* Mrs. Joshua Waddington. 


by paying me attention. It was talked of; but when the 
story became old, the stimulus exhausted, and I began to ex- 
cite less sympathy by gaining strength, my friends became 

cool. Mrs. had even the cruelty to tell me that I had 

been so long ill and so long friendless, that I could not feel 
as keenly as others would ; and, if I did, I should have remain- 
ed at home ; not moved about the world helpless and depend- 
ant on others. I had felt this ; she need not have said it. 
But she is like all the rest of the world. They like to dis- 
play hospitality without suffering inconvenience. They like 
to have a character for sensibility ; but why wait with tender 
patience on a sick friend, when the desired character is so 
easily obtained by pronouncing a few fine sentences in a 
drawing-room arm-chair ? It is pleasant to have the reputa- 
tion of being capable of strong attachment ; but it is most 
pleasant when our friend is neither so situated that we may 
be disinterested without making a sacrifice, nor when she 
remains in her chamber and enables us, undisturbed, to pe- 
rorate on friendship and congeniality till we gain the undi- 
vided attention of the company. To you only be it said, 
but I found men invariably more indulgent, more attentive, 
more constant in their attentions than women. Probably 
because they did not see so much of me. Frederic's devo- 
tion is unequalled. Mrs. B. Moore, kind. I might have had 
a little court of gentlemen ; but this sort of admiration, which 
is excited by trifles, is not worth the price that must be paid 
for it. The good-will of my own sex is preferable, and a 
certain reserve respectable. I therefore received few male 
visiters, and did not encourage them to return often. 

June 5, 1809. 

After some serious debate I have doomed you to pay for 
another sheet. Dr. I. was your old friend, Dr. Peter Irving, 
who promised to deliver my letter in person. A. B. R. has 
been married some time, and is settled at Troy. He writes 
to me sometimes ; but he behaved like a brother to me at 



Do tell me, is Miss Ovvenson pretty ? I cannot tell why, 
but I have taken it in my head that she resembles ugly Pat- 
terson, who used to live with us. Has she ever had a lover ? 
I hope she has ; such an " all impassioned, sensitive, thrill- 
ing creature" should never be without one. She really pos- 
sesses imagination and genius, with all her faults. 

The boy advances rapidly. Of the tutor I have before 
spoken. He will do for a year longer, but by no means af- 
terward. He is incapable of attending to the moral part of 
education, its most important branch. This I do, but a tu- 
tor should be capable of seconding me. Endeavour to find 
me a better, if it can be done without injury to yourself. 
Prenez garde, je vous en prie. Remember, too, he must 
be a Frenchman, and if he understood Spanish perfectly 
it would be an infinite advantage. A Spaniard, however, 
would not do, because they pronounce French worse than 
any Europeans save the Italians. In fact, none but a 
Frenchman can do justice to the delicate inflexions of that 

I have written the draught of a letter to Mad. M. It does 
not quite please yet. You shall have an exact copy of that 
which is sent. For my soul I cannot bring myself to say a 
civil thing, even the good I really think of her, because I 
need her assistance, and might incur an imputation of flat- 
tery. It is not yet time to send it. The tide has turned, but 
not strong as it will be. 

In paying attentions to your friends, do not forget John 
Swartwout. His noble, steady warmth demands, or rather 
merits, every possible return from you. I believe I wrote 
you an account of the late appointments. T. Sumter will 
set off immediately to the Northward, thence to go to Rio 
Janeiro. He contemplates a very long absence, for all his 
property is advertised. I hope to see Natalie before their 

The absolute neglect with which Mari has been treated 
by the government, amid the attentions which have been 


paid to others much inferior, has been felt pretty severely. 
It may be attributed to the old cause ; and, in fact, what other 
can be assigned ? I feel this as a new and strong claim on 
me. I beseech of you be more careful in writing with ci- 
phers. Again I have been tantalized with something about 
X. Pray, pray do not let this happen again. Where did 
you meet with any of my grandmother's connexions ? I 
have informed all our friends of your attentions to them. 



Stockholm, July 5, 1809. As I was writing you last night, 
I stopped to hunt for the plays I had read, that I might give 
them their titles. It happened that the first thing I laid 
hands on was " Les Mines de Pologne, melodrame en prose, 
par Guilbert Pixerecourt," which I had not before read. It 
is very long. One paragraph led to another. I read it 
through. It was then two o'clock this morning. Being too 
late to write, went to bed. This melodrame would make a 
splendid and interesting pantomime. The incidents and scen- 
ery extremely well imagined for stage effect. 

La Vie de Chev ! Faublas, 8 vols., duodecimo ; a nou- 
velle. Well written, rather free, and in the manner of Cre- 
billon fils. Read only the last volume. The denouement 
is a very incongruous medley, and to me shocking and dis- 
gusting. " Choir Gaure," the Grand Orrery of the Ancient 
Druids, commonly called Stonehenge, by Dr. John Smith, 
1771, an extremely ingenious work. These last are now 
mentioned, though read some days ago. 

At five went on board a Prussian ship just about to sail 
for Pillau. Have a great mind to go in her. Was rowed 
by two boys, one a Swede about fifteen, perfectly beautiful, 
gay, frank, animated ; is a sailor at six rix-dollars per month. 
Speaks English. Strong affection for his mother, with a 
laudable pride and ambition. At seven walked down to 
Wennerquist's, having understood that his weekly parlies 


are altered from Sunday to Wednesday. Found there three 
or four gentlemen sitting with him in the bower, drinking 
toddy. Hosack came in. At about sunset (nine o'clock) 
they went off one after another, except H. and myself. We 
rose to go. Wennerquist said he could give us no supper, 
his housekeeper being in town ; but offered to go and sup 
with us at a tavern, which we declined. Note — He has lived 
several years in England. Home by a most, beautiful path 
through the woods and along the lake. 

10. Went to Wennerquist's to get some English book to 
read. Found him in his contoir very busy. Asked to see 
his library. He said the key was up stairs, and begged me 
to appoint another day. How ridiculous and rude. At six 
to Calberg. All out. 'Tis court day, which I did not know. 
Left card, and also one for Gen. Compte Cronstedt, who 
lias rooms with his brother. Went to Dr. Gahn's-y-the 

family and M'lle. , niece of the old gentleman, who has 

written on Finance. Sangaree and cakes, and after an ex- 
cellent supper; the first greenpease I have seen. Engaged 
his youngest son, who is a student at law, to call on me on 
Wednesday, to inform me about judicial proceedings. We 
always sup without candles. The daylight is so perfect at 
ten that candles would be ridiculous. Went to the mint at 
twelve. Mr. H., the director, said he had been expecting me 
since ten (which, indeed, was the hour appointed), and could 
then pass but a few minutes with me. Invited me to come 
on Friday morning, when he said the whole would be in 
operation. Saw a common labourer meltings gold ; several 
pounds weight of it ; no one to overlook him ; all the doors 

1 1. Went to Poppicrs. Had a long and interesting con- 
versation with Mr. P. on law subjects. You will be charmed 
to hear the result of my inquiries on this head. Only to 
think of a people, the most honest and peaceable in the world, 
and not a lawyer ! No such animal, according to English 
ideas of a lawyer, in Sweden ! But again and again I remind 


you that this journal is only a memorandum to talk from. 
The most interesting and amusing incidents are not noted at 
all, because I am sure to remember them. Mr. P. urged 
me to stay to supper, which I declined, though hungry. 
Y raiment, I was afraid to gener them, and I mean to see 
Mr. P. very often on law subjects, and madame on other 
subjects. She is very pretty, speaks French fluently, and 
sings charmingly. Read an hour in Catteau's Sweden, to 
refresh my memory about the civil administration, so that I 
may question all my acquaintance. 

12. To Breda's, where passed an hour looking at your 
picture. I was exceedingly struck and alarmed to see it 
pale and faded. Why was not this perceived before ? Per- 
haps it may arise from being placed among his portraits, 
which are very high coloured. Yet the impression that it 
is faded is fixed on my mind, and has almost made me 

13. To the mint, by appointment,with the director Hjelm, 
who very civilly took me through and showed me everything. 
Nothing very curious, unless the free manner in which com- 
mon labourers and workmen handle gold and silver in great 
quantities ; and yet no fraud has been known. To-morrow 
I am to have coronation medals. Paid 24 sch. for the laws 
of Sweden. Read for several days past Les (Euvres Pos- 
thum. de Marmontel, 4 vols. His style is always beautiful, 
and the subjects are treated in a manner new and interesting. 

18. Yesterday I found tea that appeared to be good. 
Bought half a pound, and treated myself to a dish by way 
of supper. Took two cups moderately strong. Finding 
that I should not sleep, I did not go to bed. Passed the 
night in reading French plays and arranging my notes on 
Swedish jurisprudence. I can't bear even the smell of tea, 
though nothing more grateful. But the bare scent would, I 
believe, keep me awake. Despairing of letters, I will wait 
no longer, but be off. You would never guess whither, nor 
why. In December, however, I shall be on your continent. 


Read " Camille, ou le Souterrain, par Marsellier, 1791." 
A jealous husband, without any reasonable cause, confines 
Camille, a very lovely and virtuous woman, a whole year in a 
deep vault, lying on the ground, subsisting on a scanty por- 
tion of coarse bread and water. He is suspected of having 
killed her ; and, being seized by the order of the king, the 
story comes out. Camille is loo happy that her honour is 
justified, and she restored to her dear husband. They em- 
brace, and all is made up. Not even an apology on his part. 
Is it possible that a Parisian audience in 1791 could relish 
such a tale ? In the first scene there is something like wit 
and humour ; afterward a series of improbabilities and ab- 

21. Read last evening three more French plays. The 
best is one which the author announces in his title-page had 
been hissed. Very silly, unmeaning trash. Neither wit 
nor incident to amuse or interest. Will read no more of 
them. A note from Madame B., postponing her party till 
to-morrow evening, which don't suit me at all, having 
promised myself to sup with the Helvigs at Drottingholm. 
Quoi faire ? Read " Histoire de l'Eglise du Japan, par le 
R. P. Crassett, de la Compagnie de Jesus. Paris, 1715." 
The miracles, as the compiler, a learned priest, says, are 
as well attested as any of those in the New Testament ! 
The Emperor of Japan did very right to hang them all, ac- 
cording to their own report. They were bold, daring ras- 
cals, and performed wonders, if not miracles. Also, " Essai 
sur la Megalanthropogenesie, par Robert le jeune des bas- 
ses Alpes, 1801. Dedie a l'lnstitute National de France," 
showing how talents of every sort may be perpetuated by 
being transmitted from generation to generation ; curious and 
learned. " La Guerre d'Espagne de Bavarie et de Flandre, 
ou Memoirs du Marquis D***, 1707." A medley of love, 
politics, and war, tolerably well written and worth perusal, 
i. e., the historical and military part. 

23. To Breda's, where we talked a great deal of Theo- 



dosia. "Good God," says he, "pardon the freedom; but 
can any man on earth be worthy of that woman ? I know 
how to estimate her. Such a union of delicacy, dignity, 
sweetness, and genius I never saw. Is she happy ?" He 
almost shed tears. To Count de la Gardie, who received 
me very courteously. Yesterday the valet de Helvig left 
word that her carriage would call for me at eleven to-day. 
Not being very certain that I understood the Swedish ser- 
vant of Madame d'Helvig, went to the town-house, where 
saw the servant, who repeated that he would call at eleven. 

At eleven he did call ; took me to , where, to my 

astonishment, saw Madame , l'amie d'Helvig. " Do 

you live here, madame ?" " No ; but my husband does." 
We went, all three, and arrived at one. Most friendly re- 
ception. No company but the family and us. Tant mieux. 
After dinner I walked to my lodgings at D' Aries, about one 
mile English. The family of D'H. agreed to meet me at 

six au Jardin du Roi. Madame is at my lodgings, 

and she insists that I lodge elsewhere. So a room was 
provided for me in the neighbourhood. Met Madame d'Hel- 
vig and walked two hours. Ret. to supper. Off at ten. 
Bien content with my new quarters. The old man cleaned 
his pipe and lent it to me. 

24. At ten to De Castre's. Only m'lle. at home. Pur- 
sued Madame de Castre to the mineral bath, but missed the 
way and wandered for two hours in the labyrinth. To the 
warm bath, a large establishment, to engage bath at one. 
To D'H. Madame and m'lle. sitting on the grass; ma belle 
Mary Ann becoming daily more interesting. Stayed an hour. 
Refused strawberries and cream. To the bath at one, but 
failed from misunderstanding with the young lady, and would 
not wait. Home for an hour, and then to De C.'s to dine. 
Dined in the arbour in the garden. 

25. To the Comtesse Aurore de Gyllanstolpe. You will 
think this a hard name for a beautiful woman. Hie Gear de 
Finspeng, where is a sister said to be more beautiful than 



herself. Thither I am invited. To-day a Russian messen- 
ger arrived. The preliminaries, before Russia will even 
treat, are, 1. That the Prince of , the emperor's brother- 
in-law, be declared successor to the throne. 2. The cession 
of Finland. 3. That the ports be shut against Great Britain. 
I have never spoken to you of politics, because I have per- 
sonally no hand in them, which will be reason enough for 
you, and for twenty other good reasons. We have every 
few days news of the advance of the Russian army towards 
us ; then contradicted. Victories and defeats equally false. 
Bonaparte one day vanquished, the next victor ; sometimes 
wounded or killed. Here are French parties and English 
parties. The former predominate, but nothing of our vio- 
lence. The troops in town (here) are all embarking on some 
expedition ; supposed (indeed known) to aid the army on the 
Gulf of Bothnia. There was a mutiny. Officers knocked 
down, &c. 

26. Au chateau, to see Baron Engerstrom. He was en- 
gaged, but gave me rendezvous at seven this evening. To 
Engerstrom's at seven. He never keeps me waiting a min- 
ute. Sat half an hour. Mentioned my design of visiting 
Germany, &c, and he begged that, when my route should 
be settled, I would inform him, that he might give me letters. 
At eight to Helvig's, where sat an hour tete-Ji-tete in his li- 
brary. Amused by his military science, and interested by 
his warmth and frankness. He is a German by birth. Gave 
me samples of powder which, he says, has more than double 
the usual force. That a pistol of fifteen inch barrel will do 
effect at 200 yards, and a musket at 600 ! Samples of 
fioute, a composition. Showed me a sort of paper machi 
for cannon cartridges, much cheaper and better than linen or 
cloth. A. telescope for measuring distances by time, in form 
of a watch, give with perfect accuracy the 60th part of a 
second. Every artillery officer is obliged to have one. The 
cost fifteen dollars. Moulds by which every part of the 
musket or pistol must be made, so that every part may fit 


every piece. Note. — The ladies are at Drottingholm. Lou- 
isa not arrived. Home at nine. Found, on my table the 
Latin edition of the Swedish laws, which for weeks I had 
been seeking in vain. It came from the Baron d'Albedy'hll 
(whom I have never seen), accompanied by a very honete 
note in French. Sat down most greedily to devour Suensha 
law. Read till one, and now bon soir. There is a ball to- 
night at the Pashe ; but I went not, for two reasons (which 
you may divine), though much urged. 

27. Before breakfast to Bergstrom's, whom I found. His 
uncle is a celebrated advocate, whose acquaintance I wish to 
aid my legal researches. Replied very honetely to the Baron 
d'Albedy'hlPs note. To Hedborn's, whom I found. Got 
my six ducats, which are now worth four dollars rix each. 
He offered me many civilities. Home to study law. No ; 
I came by Ulrick's, the bookseller, to get a book written 
by the Baron d'Albedy'hll, which got. Read a book before 
you see the author. Sat half an hour with M'lle. Ulrick. 
She is beautiful, very beautiful ; about fifteen, nearly your size 
and form. Speaks German and French fluently. Her elder 
sister keeps a bookstore at Nykooping or Nookyping, I for- 
get which. Dit, that she is also beautiful. Knows all lan- 
guages, ancient and modern, &c. 

Home at two. Read the baron's book. Only about fifty 
pages, extremely well written in French. The rest of the 
volume is made up of documents and public letters. The 
subject is a history of the armed neutrality, the whole merit 
of which has been given to Catharine of Russia. No such 
thing. It originated in a treaty made between Denmark and 
Sweden in 1756. Renewed between them in 1779. Cath- 
arine, during all that year, and till July, 1780, refused to 
come into it, fearing the effect on the belligerant powers. 
At length, in that month, by the influence of Count Panin, 
her minister, she acceded. 

At five to Judge Poppici's, whom, fortunately, I found 
smoking in his office. He would transfer me over to his 


beautiful wife till he made his toilet ; but I sat down and 
took a pipe, and had an hour's very satisfactory conversation 
with him. At eight to H.'s to see for Louisa. Out. Not 
even a servant. Home, and sat down to read law. I do not 
report to you my Swedish law. That has a separate depart- 
ment, and many curious things will be found in it. Met 
Mrs. Daily in the street this morning. 

28. To the watchmaker's. He has put in both the glasses 
that were broken, and mended the hinge of the case which 
was not broken by accident, but actually worn out. Every- 
thing wears out. You will wear out. No, alas ! you perish 
joyless in those infernal swamps. I wear out slowly. 
Really slowly, as you see. But, for all this watchwork, you 
will be surprised to hear that I paid only one rix-dollar, nomi- 
nally three shillings sterling, but, in fact, only two shillings 
and sixpence. 

31. Finished reading the work of Baron d'Albedy'hll, that 
is, the only volume I can get. He writes well. Something 
diffuse and declamatory. Much political information con- 
cerning the periods he was employed. Says he now lives 
on a pension of two hundred rix-dollars ; reduced by reduc- 
tion to one hundred and fifty. How the devil can a man 
live on that ? Living with the utmost economy, I have spent 
more in three months. I am in Sweden ; but here is a 
French chevalier who lives on forty-eight dollars per annum, 
and is always gay. I must take some lessons from him. 
Went with a pistol to D'H., which wants repair. He repeats 
to me the wonderful force of his firearms. Pistols the same 
length of barrel as mine ; eighty yards, point blank. Musket, 
two hundred and fifty to three hundred yards, point blank. 
I am almost incredulous, though he is scientific and exact. 
We are to make experiments some day next week. He 
showed me, at Drottingholm, a very curious air pistol of 
great force. We tried it. 



Stockholm, July 17, 1809. 

Mrs. Helvig's obliging note was received at one o'clock 
P. M. this day. Her little valet inquired for D' Aries ; the 
servant who received the note supposed it to be for D'Aries, 
and laid it on his table. D'Aries was out of town. On his 
return to-day the mistake was discovered. 

Mr. Burr was at the bath yesterday at twelve, the rain 
notwithstanding. His inquiries excited a deal of commo- 
tion among the inhabitants of Djurgards Brunn. All the 
world was out to see Madame H. and m'lle., impatient till 
the summons to dinner put an end to their expectations and 
consoled them for the disappointment. Mr. Burr, however, 
did not partake of this consolation. He returned to town. 

He congratulates the ladies on the prospect of fine weather 
for their Drottingholm expedition, and offers salutations and 
respectful compliments. 

Stockholm, August 2, 1809. It was necessary to be up 
at seven to give the Russian messenger a letter for Count 
Romanzoff. At eight to Ludert's, who introduced me to 
the Russian messenger ; a Swedish officer always present. 
Home, expecting Hosack, who ought to write by this mes- 
senger a letter on which his very existence depends. Have 
been urging him a fortnight. It could be done in fifteen 
minutes, but will not be done at all. At one came in the 
Russian messenger with his escort. Sat half an hour. He 
has gone without Hosack's letter. Nine o'clock, and the let- 
ters from D'Engerstrom, for me to his friends in Gripsholm, 
have not come, and I cannot go without them. Baron 
d'Albedy'hll sent his servant with his letter, and minute di- 
rections for me how to find the house. This is doing things 
right. The yacht for Gripsholm sails at four P. M. to- 
morrow. I shall write you on the water. Bon soir. Curse 
those South Carolina swamps. 


3. We parted last evening at ten, leaving me full of 
trouble. I sat up till near one, packing, &c., and was called 
at four, expecting to embark immediately. Went to the 
dock. Not ready. Sent to D'Helvig's for a rifle, and got it ; 
running every half hour to the boat till eleven, when we 
actually embarked and attempted to go, but find we are 
aground. Finally we are off. Our vessel is an open barge. 
We are on board, including the hands, twenty-two, viz., four 
women and eighteen men. Wind ahead. By force of oars 
got to Petersburgh. The men being fatigued, stayed two 
hours. This place (Petersburgh) is a sort of town, and the 
resort of parties in summer. Perfectly wild and pictur- 
esque. I played chess all the way. Continued rowing till 
twelve at night, and did not reach the next station. Obliged 
to lay to, where there was no house. Stowed all away in 
our barge to sleep, sub dio. Suspicion that we have missed 
the way. 

I forgot to tell you that at six P. M. yesterday went with 
the young Breda (who has certainly great talents as a painter) 
to the academy. There is every year at this season an ex- 
hibition. There were 242 pieces exhibited this year. 

4. It was, indeed, a strange night. Fortunately it did not 
rain, though very cool, and such a dew that we were all wet. 
It is this morning discovered that we in fact took a wrong 
channel last evening. Had to turn about and row back three 
miles. At seven reached the station called Buckholm, 
where we ought to have slept last night, twenty-seven miles 
from Stockholm. Chess the forenoon. View of Castle 
Gripsholm, about four miles off. Arrived at five and got a 
room. Transmitted Baron Engerstrom's letter to Colonel 
Bergenstrala, and Dr. Gahn's to his sister, Madame Halli- 
gren, with a card of address to each. Sent a card also to 
Baron Van Offer, the governor of the castle. A pretty neat 
town of about 120 houses ; all log, and painted red and cov- 
ered with tile. Home at eight. Excellent fish, potatoes, 
pease, and good butter for supper. 



5. The soldier whom I had engaged to clean our boots 
waked us punctually at five, as ordered. At half past five 
Col. Bergenstrala left word that he would call at eight. 
Good breakfast. At eight the colonel came. A man of 
pleasant manners, speaking French perfectly well. Sat 
half an hour. Will give us notice of the hour to visit the 
castle. "Walked through the town. Every house of squared 
logs; all, except one, painted red. Ruins of the ancient 
church. Date not known. Grandeur of the castle. Four 
towers of unequal diameter and height. At one the colonel 
called again to say, that at half past five he would send a 
sergeant to conduct us to the castle. At the appointed hour 
the sergeant came. Went to the colonel's quarters, a wing 
in the castle, and thence through it. The number of pic- 
tures is endless. Dit one thousand, particularly portraits. 
The prison of John and Eric. The theatre. The young 
prince came into the room where we were. Having seen 
him at Haga, saluted him, and was about to converse ; but 
told it was against the rules. The walls are twenty feet 
thick. Stairs, a great number, cut in them. The command- 
ant joined us, offered tea, which accepted. Home at eight. 
Madame Halligren not arrived, which I regret. Had counted 
on her to do the honours of the town for us. She has the 
best house in the place, and has three fine daughters. Is a 
sister of Professor Gahn. 

6. Got breakfast. Paid our bill. At nine walked off to 
Quartinge, six miles, the residence of Count Wrangle, and 
of the Baron Alberdy'hll. Stopped- at a farmhouse near the 
count's, and sent a boy with the letter of Baron A., and a 
note addressed to the baron, saying I would call apres midi. 
Received a note in reply, requesting us to come immediately 
and take dinner. La comtesse a very pleasing, intelligent, 
well-behaved woman ; four beautiful children. Le Compte 
de Ruth showed us the forge and works, the gardens and 
park, which are very extensive, and laid out with much taste. 
Canals, bridges, hot-houses, green-houses, &c. Cherries 


in profusion. Tea, sangaree, melons. Came off with the 
ladies at eight. Got out at the parting of the roads, two 
miles from town, and walked to our lodgings. M'lle. de 
Rosin is one of the most lovely blondes I ever saw. About 
one inch taller than you. In form much like. Sprightly in 
conversation. Home at ten. 

7. At nine to Col. Bergenstrala. A sergeant came in to 
desire that we might be sent out of the fort. The colonel 
went out to explain. In five minutes the sergeant came in 
to demand our names and business. Seeing so much em- 
barrassment, made our visit short. At four Captain Phren- 
hoff came and invited us to visit the castle again, and prom- 
ised us a sight of the royal family. (Gus. IV.) Went with 
him. Could pass a month in looking at the paintings. The 
picture of Gus. Vasa and M'lle. Brape, his first love, in one 
picture. (M. la Comtesse Wrangle is a direct descendant 

f tn i s Brape, and has the beautiful emerald which 

Gustavus Vasa gave M'lle. Brape.) Tea in the grand sa- 
loon. The colonel took us to his room to have a better 
view of the royal family walking in the garden. Had, in- 
deed, a very good view. The queen plainly dressed. Straw 
hat, with silk shawl. The king in black. 

8. At ten I walked off to Evertinge. Arrived at twelve, 
raining hard. Dinner at two. Music la Comtesse W., a 
most charming voice, and plays in a superior style. Mr. 
G. was to send me a cabriolet at six to take me to Aker, 
where he is to have our baggage. The cabriolet did not 
come, so set off on foot. (The distance is twelve miles.) 
The ladies remain. Set off on foot at six. Arrived at the 
tavern at a quarter past nine, where found Mr. G. The 
cabriolet was sent for me, and had passed me on the road ; 
both ignorant. 

9. At nine we set off on our route, and proceeded to 
Stringness, sixteen miles. Roads beautiful. Generally rich 
crops on each side. Harvest commenced. Pass two large 
churches, but no village. The huge church at Stringness is 


seen over the plain five miles off. A few small hills. Much 
stone wall or fence. Arrive at one. Stringness beautifully 
situated on a lake. Dine at two on fish, roasted mutton, and 
beans, which you will think a very good dinner, and it sounds 
well ; but the fish were cold, having been fried yesterday. 
The mutton (a fore quarter) was mere skin and bones. I 
tried in vain to get a single mouthful of meat. But a dish 
of raspberries and cream, and excellent bread of four kinds, 
and good butter, atoned. Went along the shore to find a 
passage by water to Westeros, whither we wished to go. 
A boat going to a town near W., and the only one for that 
quarter, had been detained by Baron Armfelt, to whom you 
may recollect I was introduced by letter from Baron Brink- 
man, the Swedish minister at London. At four Baron Arm- 
felt arrived. We met on the wharf. I told him our em- 
barrassment. Though the boat would with convenience 
have held ten, and he had only one servant and a woman, he 
not only did not offer us a passage, but shoved off rudely. 
His carriage went on empty to Westeros. After dinner 
went to see the Cathedral. The oldest date which I found 
in it is 1565, though it is undoubtedly much older. The 
organ large and handsome. The monuments numerous. 
Some of the inscriptions very long. Among the most curi- 
ous of the monuments are one of , over which is sus- 
pended his armour, a complete suit, from which it would 
appear that he was about five feet four inches high. The 
like of a Polish prince. Also of Isabella, infant daughter of 
John III., born and died in the prison of Gripsholm. In 
the cabinet was a pair of slippers of a bishop, from which 

Queen had cut off the soles, to carry to Rome as a 

holy relic. 

Passed two hours in the church. Strolled over the town. 
All log houses (except that of the bishop), and all painted 
red. Generally covered with turf, whereon the grass grows 
luxuriously. Determined to give up going to Westeros, 
and go directly to Upsala. Ordered horse and cabriolet. 


At six passed over in a ferryboat to . The road across 

the island smooth, and winding through woods and rocky 
hills. At half past eight arrived at the ferry on the opposite 
side, being eleven or twelve miles. The passage here is 
three miles. Went in a small skiff; not more than half an 
hour crossing. The ferryhouse, a little hut of two rooms, 
three wooden chairs, no bed, or couch, or blanket. Nothing 
to eat but the hard black bread, nor to drink but water. 
No horse to be had within four miles. The peasant went 
off very cheerfully to get us a horse. There being no can- 
dle in the hut, we could neither read nor play chess. 

10. At two the horse came. I had slept an hour in my 
wooden chair. Poor Gamp, finds it a hard life. At a quar- 
ter past two set off. A thick fog and mist, and chilly. 
The road good and level. Generally finely cultivated on 
each side. Pass a large church. I think two of them, but 
no village. Were often near enough to the lake to have 
seen it, had the fog permitted. Arrive at Jukoping at four. 
Found horses waiting. Ordered one without going into the 
house, though I tried the door and found it was not locked. 
Walked through the town, the cabriolet following. A 
scurvy little place. All loghouses, red, and turf covered. 
A sort of morass in the middle, or, rather, near the south end. 

At half past six arrive at breakfasting-place, twelve miles 
on the main road from Gottenburg to Stockholm. Coffee, 
bread and butter, eggs, and salmon. Here we leave the 
Stockholm road and turn north to Upsala. The castle and 
steeples of Upsala are seen about four miles off. Arrive at 
twelve and put up at the posthouse, having no direction to 
any inn here. Ordered dinner at three. Ham, eels, pease ; 
all very good, and had a bottle of excellent Rhenish wine. 
At four sent out my letters to the professors, Turnberg, the 
celebrated traveller to Japan, to Afzelius, chymist, and to 
others. All these letters from Baron Engerstrom. Learned 
by return of the servant that all are in the country except 
Afzelius, who came immediately, and appointed nine to-mor- 


row morning to conduct me to the library, &c. A man of 
forty-eight, frank, pleasing manners. Speaking French and 
English well, having been educated at Edinburgh. Well 
informed in the geography and politics of the United States, 
and, of course, knowing something of us. He says we have 
got into the very worst inn in town. After he went out G. 
and I walked through the town, which is handsome. Good 
stone houses ; a beautiful lively stream through the middle, 
which forms a port for large sloops just below the town. 
Two bridges and a ferry. Seventy houses building. About 
one fourth of the town lately burned. Walked over the 
ruins. Went to inquire for a sloop going to Stockholm. 
Found a small, dirty one, to sail on Saturday. 

1 1 . Had a good, neat bed last night. Afzelius called just 
before nine, while I was at breakfast. Coffee, bread and 
butter ; all good. The coffee is everywhere good. At half 
past nine to the University. Touched and kissed two pieces 
of the holy cross. They must have been genuine, for they 
were sent by the pope. The clothes worn by H. when 
he was stabbed by Eric. Christianus's shift and petticoat. 
The Testament an. 400. Thence to the Cathedral. It was 
true, I now recollect that is the wardrobe. Afzelius, being 
engaged, put us in charge of Mons. Turnor, also speaking 
English, under-librarian, a most civil man, and an excellent 
ciceroni. Thence to the Botanic Garden, which is also, on 
Sundays, a public walk. Turnberg ordered the gardener 
to show us the Cabinet of Natural History. Immense col- 
lection made by Turnberg. 

Having understood that the illness of Turnberg was only 
a lame hand, I determined to see a man whose works I had 
read with pleasure. Sent him word by the gardener that I 
would call on him to-morrow morning at any hour he would 
name. Received for answer that he would be visible from 
eight to ten ; but added that he was very ill, and intimated a 
sort of reluctance. Home at one. Dinner fillibouka. They 
add here to this luxury a little powdered ginger, of which 


you take what suits your palate. I like the addition. Wrote 
Hosack by mail to send my letters here, to the care of Af- 
zelius. At three Mr. A. called to walk with me. Went 
over the city. Went to all the taverns to inquire for Capt. 
Clauson, who was by birth a count, but renounced all the 
privileges of nobility from patriotism. Mr. Tjerla has done 
the same. They would, perhaps, have done better to have 
retained their seats in the Chamber des Nobles, and have 
used their influence to diminish the privileges of that body. 
Gramlion is going off this evening, which I regret. With- 
out an interpreter, I shall have a hundred ridiculous misin- 

12. Walked to the fountain, and drank the cool, pure wa- 
ter. There is no better in the world. To Turnberg's, two 
miles from town, on the plain. A full view of the town. He 
met me at the door. I was shown through a hall, and two 
upper, very neatly-furnished rooms, into a parlour having a 
view of the town. In two minutes we were at ease, and he 
invited me up stairs to see his cabinet. It consists of a very 
complete collection of insects, and a great number of curiosi- 
ties from Japan, Java, and the Cape of Good Hope. I 
stayed till twelve. He made me twenty apologies for not 
having called on me, and proposed to come to town this af- 
ternoon to show me the larger cabinet and collections which 
he has there. Returned. 

Afzelius called just as I got home. He proposes to send 
a young relation of his name, with a carriage, to take me out 
to Gamla Upsala this afternoon, to see the ancient temple of 
Thorr and the Tumuli. I appointed him to call for me at 
six ; the Bot. Garden. At half past three went to the gar- 
dens. Turnberg arrived at the same moment. We passed, 
three hours in examining the ten thousand things which are 
here, and I should have stayed till dark had not young Af- 
zelius called at six, as appointed. At seven came off with 
him. Turnberg seemed willing to have prolonged my stay. 
It requires a month to examine these collections with satis- 


faction. My head is still giddy with the number and variety. 
It would take more time and paper than I can now afford 
to enumerate the most striking. 

Turnberg lent me the English edition of his travels, four 
vols, octavo. I wish to peruse them again, that I may ques- 
tion him about Japan, a country which has always excited 
my curiosity. At seven went with young Afzelius in his 
gig to Gamla Upsala, three and a half miles. The temple 
is old, but not so old as is said. There may, indeed, be 
some of the stones of Thorr, but undoubtedly rebuilt within 
the last five hundred years. It is a rude structure of great 
rough stones. Tumuli exceedingly resemble those which 
you have seen in the Western country, particularly the one 
at Cincinnati. One has been opened, and found to contain 
human bones. Returned through the village, and got home 
at nine, much pleased with my young companion, who speaks 
very tolerable English. Has a beautiful wife and two chil- 
dren ; an advocate by profession. 

13. To Afzelius at eight, to get from him a line of intro- 
duction to some one of the family at Sofsta. Found the pro- 
fessor, and he readily agreed. Walked to the landing. There 
were five sloops, the best of them going to Stockholm on 
Tuesday. At ten, Mr. Afzelius, with a letter to Madame 
Clauson, niece of Comtesse de Passe. He assisted me to 
engage a cabriolet (a cart), for they are destitute of springs. 
Went to work again reading Turnberg, and by three had 
read four hundred pages, including one hour last evening. 
Dressed for Liffter. At four set off, and arrived at five ; 
being six miles. All the way through this beautiful plain 
covered with crops as heavy as in England ; interspersed 
with little fantastical hills or mounds, covered with rocks, 
and sometimes with trees, gardens, and houses. In the level 
of the plain scarce a house. The borders lined with pretty, 
neat farmhouses. The captain had, somehow, notice of 
my approach. He met me at the door, and received me 
like a man of the world. He has travelled much. Knew 


H. Gahn in Spain. Has a frank, open, decided manner, 
something like Moreau. There was m'lle., her mother, her 
belle soeur, and eight or ten others. 

Tea was going round, declined ; but of the fruit, sirop, 
and rusk, partook. Was coming off after tea, but the cap- 
tain urged so politely my stay to supper, that I consented 
in case my bostel could be retained, which the captain un- 
dertook. Every person spake French. Supper served at 
nine. The ham was the best I have tasted in Sweden. No 
wine. Several courses, and all very good. The four children 
sat at table ; a general custom, and one I like much. The 
youngest son, three years old, pleased me most. Left them 
at- ten, and got home in half an hour. I found that the cap- 
tain had pacified my bostel by a good supper for himself 
and horse, and plenty of brandy vin, which no bostel declines. 
One would have thought that the horse had drunk the brandy, 
he came at such a furious rate. La comtesse is a very 
pleasing, sensible woman. Her mother the handsomest 
woman of her age I ever saw. One of the young ladies, 
whose name I have lost, very pretty. 

14. Went to the fountain, of which I drank copiously, and 
brought home a decanter full. I generally meet some young 
folks at the fountain at this hour (4), and act a little panto- 
mime. At eight, the sexton of the church (Cathedral) came 
in with a German and a Latin version of the Ancient Evan- 
gelists, heretofore mentioned to be in the library, for my in- 
struction. Neither can be purchased here. The Latin is 
printed at the Clarendon press, Oxford, 1750, and may be 
had in England. Just after, Mr. Turnor called to offer his 
services. Sent him to Professor Goslin to make an appoint- 
ment for seeing the coins and medals. He came presently 
back with word that the professor would be at my com- 
mand from ten to one ; and now I am expecting young John 
Afzelius to talk law. The weather, since my arrival, has 
been uniformly most beautiful ; calm, mild, genial. 

At eleven, going to wait on Professor Goslin ; met him in 


the street on his way to my quarters. We returned to the 
Consist, building, which is spacious; furnished with pictures. 
Among them is a series of good paintings, commemorating 
the cruelties of Chrit. the Cruel, justly named. Mr. Goslin 
is an extremely polite man, speaking French very well, and 
perfectly adapted to his station. The collection of coins 
and medals is very great, seeing that it is the work of only 
a few years. Among the Russian medals, which are very 
numerous and splendid, is one in which Catharine lays on 
the ground naked, and looking up to an eagle, which appears 
to be descending with a wreath. I will go again and give a 
better account of it. Could with pleasure have stayed much 
longer, but had an appointment with Professor Afzelius. 
Went and found him. Always frank, obliging, and courte- 
ous. Got from him London papers to the first of August. 
Home and read Turnberg. At three came in a young stu- 
dent whom I had not seen. He apologized without embar- 
rassment in pretty good English. He came to see me and 
offer his service. Took him at his word, and walked to the 
landing, where he served me as interpreter to inquire of 
sloops going to Stockholm. In all my walks have not met 
a handsome man. The professor asked me to take tea with 
his family. We went. His daughter is a very charming 
girl, perhaps seventeen ; has all the ingredients of a fine 
woman. Tall, well-formed, and commanding features. 
Gay, cheerful, and plays well on the piano ; and, as is said, 
still better on the harp. The son of Professor Afzelius is a 
handsome, promising young man. 

15. At twelve, with Afzelius, to wait on the governor, 

who had returned my visit. The castle was burned in , 

and has been rebuilt in part, and that part unfinished. It 
is a vast structure, and, when the second turret (rotunda) 
shall be added, will have a most grand and imposing aspect. 
The position is magnificent, overlooking the town of Up- 
sala. The governor received me with ease and politeness. 
His countenance and manner are extremely prepossessing. 


About sixty, but extremely well preserved. He went over 
the castle with me, and engaged me to dinner to-morrow. 
At half past three called on young Afzelius by appointment, 
to go into the cupola of the Cathedral. I beg you not to go 
there. One hundred and eighty steps winding in the wall, 
nearly perpendicular, and twelve or fifteen inches each. 
Most of the way perfectly dark. The calves of my legs are 
quite sore. My young friend engaged me to tea. Went at 
six. He showed me many curious books and maps. Ma- 
dame sang and played many Swedish songs and airs. They 
are much in the style of the Scotch. 

16. Mr. Turnor came in at nine. At eleven went with 
young Afzelius to the Garden of Linnaeus, which before was 
not open. Showed the room in which he died. That in 
which he gave lectures. A large apartment in the green- 
house, the wings of which extend obliquely on each side. 
His wife not handsome, meager, &c. He had three children ; 
no son. Two married, the other an old maid. One has no 
children. The other, one daughter, an only child about 
eighteen ; soon to be married. After dinner walked to 
Turnberg's to take leave, and to question him about Japan. 
Had the walk for nothing. He is in town. Then to Pro- 
fessor Goslin's to take leave. Am to set out with young 
Afzelius in his gig to-morrow at ten. My next entry will 
not be made in this place (Upsala). 

17. I yet remain in Upsala. How could I forget to tell 
you of a new acquaintance ? Yesterday Mr. Turnor, who 
is, from good-nature, the ciceroni of all strangers, told me 
that there was a traveller who had a great desire to see me. 
He was brought up and presented. A man of about thirty- 
four. A very intelligent and prepossessing countenance. 
His name H. Barth. More I know not, but we are to meet 
in Stockholm. He speaks English fluently ; is very cheer- 
ful, and has that amiable German frankness and bonho- 
mie which I do so love. 

Got up, dressed, and walked about near an hour, very fast, 


to fatigue myself. I had before walked for some minutes, 
but all to no purpose, so set me down to read the Latin 
edition of the Swedish laws. To Turnberg's at seven ; 
found him dressed, and our coffee was immediately served. 
Brought in by a pretty maid, with bread. Afterward bread, 
butter; pickled eels and smoked salmon, both very good; 
with brandy and cordials. Mr. T. took no brandy. We 
both drank water. He offered me a copy of his travels in 
Swedish, which I very foolishly declined. He answered 
with great cheerfulness my questions about Japan. I had 
made notes, so that nothing might be forgotten. Pray read 
his travels ; they will amuse you much, and then you may 
question me. You may believe every word he writes. You 
are, perhaps, ignorant that in Japan women are as free as in 
any part of Europe, and, I think, rather more so ; but I cannot 
now (perhaps never) commit to writing all he says. Stayed 
two hours. We exchanged abundance of civil expressions, 
and have agreed to keep up an intercourse after my return 
to America. 

Home at ten. You know we are to go off this morning. 
Called on the governor to take leave. He was under the 
hands of his hair-dresser, but would see me. Stayed a few 
minutes. Engaged to see him in Stockholm. On my re- 
turn home found Afzelius, Jr. He proposes, instead of 
going now to Sigtuna, to make first a lour to the mines of 
Dannemour, which suits me perfectly well. Am to set off 
at three, and return to-morrow. Called on Mr. Turnor, who 
gave me a great number of pamphlets by the different pro- 
fessors, and other matters of curiosity A basket of cherries 
and a very pretty note from Madame Afzelius. 

A watchman in the steeple, with an immense speaking- 
trumpet, proclaims the hour throughout the day, as well as 
the night, immediately after the clock strikes, in a melodi- 
ous tone, of which not a syllable is articulated. Not a line 
from Hosack in answer to those which I wrote him on 
Friday last. Mr. Hoagsum came in. He has been to the 

Vol. I.— M 



Lagefallkapi Handelsman Borell, where I shall be always 
welcome. The newspapers, foreign and domestic, are found 
there. Afzelius, Jr., has sent me two more books on the 
ancient laws of Sweden. 

19. Called on the director Afzelius. Out. Read law 
two hours. My young student called ; a fine youth. At 
twelve the director came ; brings me a letter from Hosack, 
with news from the United States of the continuation of the 
non-importation law, &c. Story of Adjutant-general Car- 
dell, who, when Gustavus IV. was shipwrecked in 1807 on 
Rugen, saved the queen and an officer by swimming with 
them both. The king, on first meeting Cardell on shore, 
said, " Sir, where is your staff?" The general was imme- 
diately confined in prison for eight days for appearing be- 
fore the king without his staff of office, although the king 
was an eyewitness to his saving the queen. Took a sort 
of supper. Ale, sugar, &c. The ale of this country is ex- 

20. To the landing. No sloop going to Stockholm before 
to-morrow. Begin to be impatient to be off. While I was 
dressing, about six o'clock, the maid, without knocking, 
brought in a stranger, who addressed me in very good Eng- 
lish. Apologized for the liberty, that he had a great desire 
to know me, having read much about me in the newspapers. 
He gave me his address, Mr. Larsclever Husot, No. 36 
nast R'dintm'dslarehuset vid Skepsbrouen trappur upp. I 
give it as a sample of the pretty little names of streets in 
Stockholm. As another, that in which is my lodgings is call- 
ed Malmskildnadsgatan. The gentleman tendered me ci- 
vilities, and said he should be in Stockholm on the 24th. 

It was not till yesterday that I learned that I have been a 
subject of newspaper discussion for several weeks. What 
is said about me I have neither heard nor inquired. At 
eight came in my amiable Prussian acquaintance, Barth, on 
his return from his northern tour. He took charge of a let- 
ter for me to Hosack. At twelve called again on A. E. Af- 


zelius. No one at home. Went on to the landing. No 
sloop till to-morrow evening. Shall I wait so long, or take 
a posthorse this evening to Sigtuna ? The director Afze- 

lius enters. How charmingly he hates the , in which 

we agree, and we curse them by the hour together. He 
gave me a letter to Baron Hermelin, Noor, where I propose 
to stay to-night. Two P. M., all my plan is reconsidered. 
Afzelius has been here, and proposes to go with me to Stock- 
holm, by way of Sigtuna (the ancient and first capital of the 
country ; dit, the residence of Odin) and Skokloster, if I will 
wait till Wednesday morning. The further inducements to 
wait are, 1. That I am invited to pass the day to-morrow at 
the landshopdingen's, where I shall see les belles baronnes. 

2. To attend the territorial court to be held here to-morrow. 

3. To assist at the instalment of a knight, newly created, 
who, finding it inconvenient to go to Stockholm to be invest- 
ed by the king in person, his majesty has been graciously 
pleased to authorize his excellency the landshbpdingen-to 
perform the ceremony in his name and stead. After the 
ceremony, a dinner. Now I'm thinking that you'll not scold 
at this delay, because I shall have something to tell you. 
Remember to ask me to relate to you the history of Baron 
Hermelin and Baron Mac Lean. 

21. Do remind me to give you a dissertation on locking 
doors. Every person, of every sex and grade, comes in 
without knocking. Plump into your- bedroom. They do 
not seem at ail embarrassed, nor think of apologizing at 
finding you in bed, or dressing, or doing — no matter what, 
but go right on and tell their story as if all were right. 
If the door be locked and the key outside (they use alto- 
gether spring-locks here), no matter ; they unlock the door, 
and in they come. It is vain to desire them to knock ; they 
do not comprehend you, and, if they do, pay no manner of at- 
tention to it. It took me six weeks to teach my old Anna 
not to come in without knocking ; and, finally, it was only by 
appearing to get into a most violent passion, and threatening 

M 2 


to blow out her brains, which she had not the least doubt I 
would do without ceremony. I engage she is the only ser- 
vant in all Sweden who ever knocks. Notwithstanding all 
my caution, I have been almost every day disturbed in this 
way, and once last week was surprised in the most awk- 
ward situation imaginable. So, madam, when you come to 
Svenska, remember to lock the door and to take the key 

At one the director Afzelius came, and we walked up to 
the castle. There were about forty in the drawing-room 
destined for the ceremony, including the three ladies of the 
family, M'lle. , from Stockholm, and one dame un- 
known. The order to be conferred was that of Wasa. The 
subject of installation, Afzelius, a professor, and brother 
of the director. He was dressed in the costume of the or- 
der, which is black. A short coat (or coatee), round at the 

flaps. The shoulders with of black velvet. A black 

silk sash round the waist, and black silk cloak a l'Espagnole. 
The dress is rendered graceful by the sash and the cloak. 
At the upper end of the room was a small table, placed be- 
fore a chair. M'lle. Wettervtadt placed a crimson stool for 
the knight to kneel, and on the table a blue silk cushion, 
whereon was laid the gem, insigne of the order. The gov- 
ernor, in full dress, stood behind the table. On the stool, 
immediately facing him, kneeled the candidate for knight- 
hood, the spectators standing round in a circle at a dis- 
tance. The king's warrant, authorizing the governor to per- 
form the investiture, was then read by a knight. The gov- 
ernor read the oath, which the candidate repeated. Then the 
governor put on his hat ; a large cornered hat edged with 
white feathers. He then drew his sword, and laying it three 
times gently on the shoulder of the candidate, addressed 

The knight then rose. The governor embraced him. His 
relations and intimate friends did the same. He kissed the 
hands of the two baronnes, and the rest of the company 


congratulated him. Having never given you an account of 
a Swedish dinner, I may as well improve this occasion. Of 
the forms I shall only set down so much as is peculiar and 

Immediately after the congratulations, a small table was set 
in the same room, with bread of two or three kinds, butter, 
cheese cut in small slices, brandy, and wine-glasses. One 
of the young ladies occupied herself in spreading the small 
pieces of bread with butter. The gentlemen came round, 
partook of the bread and cheese, and each a glass of brandy. 
The ladies took of the bread and cheese, but not of the 
brandy. I never, on any occasion, saw a lady drink brandy. 
Various travellers have asserted the contrary. During this 
preliminary repast, all are standing and walking about, with- 
out ceremony. In about a quarter of an hour dinner was 
commenced. The governor desired me to hand in one of 
the ladies. I bowed to the new knight, intimating that he 
should take precedence, the honour of the day being due to 
him ; but no, I was the stranger. I took the hand of the 
elder Mile. W., but she would not go before the lady from 
Stockholm. The governor led her, the rest followed as they 
pleased. Arrived in the dining-room, all stand round and 
silently say grace : thus at least the half minute of silence 
is supposed to be employed. You, graceless hussy, would, I 
fear, employ it differently. I was contemplating la cadette ; 
what so proper to inspire devotion ! Grace said, you bow to 
the host, to the ladies, and to the company, and take seats. 
The governor placed me on his right hand, m'lle. on my right. 
La cadette nearly vis a vis. You touch nothing, ask for 
nothing. Every dish is handed round in succession. You 
take or not. If you see a favourite dish, you must wait till 
it comes round. The first thing is small slices of ham and 
salt fish, generally with eggs (eggs began the Roman feasts 
ab ova ad mala), then bouilli ; fish, if any ; then soup. 
(The servants give clean plates at every dish.) Then the 
roti and other dishes, one at a time, and a second not offered 


till all have done with the preceding and the plates changed. 
Bottles of wine and of water, glasses and tumblers, are on the 
table. During the repast, frequent libations ; much ease and 
cheerfulness. No healths drank. In small social parties 
toasts are often given. Theodosia, par example, very often. 
After the meats, pastry, and then fruits. We had to-day ap- 
ples, gooseberries (large and excellent), and currants. The 
moment the eating is gone through, all rise, every one car- 
rying his chair back to the wall. There is a sort of emula- 
tion in doing this with celerity and slight. No one turns his 
back. The servant took charge of my chair. All stand 
mute another half minute, returning thanks. Bow and sa- 
lute each other again. The intimate friends kiss the hands 
of the ladies, the children embrace their parents and each 
other. The ladies are then led to the parlour, where all as- 
semble. Coffee is immediately served on a table, at which 
one of the young ladies presides. You may take it standing, 
sitting, or by the table. The latter is usually my mode, but 
on this occasion I was engaged t'other side of the room, on 
the sofa with la cadette. What a quantity ! Dear sou), 
you must be surfeited with this feast. 

I was very glad to meet here the spokesmen, or presiding 
judges of the two courts I had visited, and I did not fail to 
compliment them on the decorum, the simplicity, and the 
despatch which I had witnessed in their tribunals. 

I forgot to tell you that the dishes were cut up by the 
young ladies alternately. A pretty serious labour when 
thirty-five guests. It is sometimes done by the servants at 
a sideboard. The fashionable hour of dining is two. If the 
invitation extends only to dinner, you are off at five, which 
was the case to-day. The new knight engaged me to din- 
ner to-morrow ; and A. E. Afzelius to sup and pass the 
evening. You see that my whole time is occupied until our 
departure, which will certainly be Wednesday morning. 
The governor goes to town the same day. Has frequently 
repeated that he will then have the pleasure of introducing 


me to his son, Le Chancelier de , in whom he has, 

justly, great pride. 

At seven to A. E. A., to talk law. The patience and 
cheerfulness with which he replies (in English, a language 
not very familiar to him) to all my inquiries is truly gratify- 
ing. Passed two hours, and with great satisfaction. Walked 
about town an hour. At ten all is quiet. You meet not a 
person in the street save the watchmen, who sing out the 
hour, and add, in the same strain of melody, a prayer for 
your good repose, and security from fire and enemies. 

22. Much eating and drinking requires fumigation and 
vigilance. At ten came the professor, Adam Afzelius, to 
invite me to see his cabinet, collected during ten years' resi- 
dence at Sierra Leone, in the service of the English society 
bearing that name, as physician. He is now one of the pro- 
fessors of botany in this university. Is in his sixtieth year, 
and is the oldest of the three brothers. A very sprightly 
man, speaking very good English. Might pass for forty-six. 
It is to be regretted that his travels and discoveries have not 
been published, and you will participate in that regret when 
you shall see the short notes which I have made (under this 
date) of his communications, and a few of the subjects shown 
in his cabinet. I was obliged to leave it at half past twelve 
to dress for the knight's (J. Afzelius) dinner, the invitation 
being for half past one. At three quarters past one I arrived. 
I was the last, and they had got through the bread and cheese 
course-y-the governor, several professors ; in all twelve. No 
dames, J. Afzelius being gallon. He is bon vivant. The 
dinner not as might be expected. Rhenish and claret, both 
very good. Pears, apples, melons, gooseberries ; currants, 
four sorts, one of very pale, dim red, which we have not; 
very common here. The first honours paid to Gamp. 
Dishes first presented to him, which I thought wrong, con- 
sidering that the governor is, in his government, the repre- 
sentative of majesty. 

At seven to Andreas Ericus Afzelius, the name of my 


friend, the haradshofding, to sup-y-the governor, and about 
thirty in all. A very luxurious supper and excellent wines. 
Further delays. My amiable friend the harads. has con- 
trived employment for me to-morrow, his business requiring 
a delay till Thursday. In the Botanic Garden is an Ameri- 
can black-walnut-tree; the body about five inches in di- 
ameter ; very thrifty ; grown from a nut planted here ; the 
only tree of the kind which I have seen on this side the 

24. Yesterday at ten A. E. A. called with his relation John, 
professor of chymistry, greatly distressed that an official duty, 
of which he had no notice till eight this morning, obliges 
him to delay his journey till to-morrow noon. Invited me 
to go with him to a village only two miles off, to see the 
manner of discharging the duty, &c. The subject is the 
division of a common among the parishioners ; agreed to go, 
but went first with Professor J. Afzelius to see his cabinet, 
his mineralogical and laboratory. Two hours there, and 
much amused. Complains that he can get nothing from 
America. At twelve walked with him to the house of a 
friend. Warm weather. Found there two priests, two of 
the assessors ; several peasants. While they were talking 

over their business, I went to see the tomb of , who 

reigned . It is a tumulus about the size and the form 

of that which you saw at Cincinnati. It is placed on a rocky 
eminence. Has a fine view of the Castle and Cathedral of 
Upsala, and of the Orangery, which, though about three hun- 
dred paces nearer than the castle, appears like one of its of- 

We were at the house of a respectable farmer. On com- 
ing in, brandy, beer, and skolpon were on the table, of which 
I partook. At one, brandy, beer, bread, butter, and cheese ; 
another meal. About half past two we were called in to 
dinner. Brandy, bread, and cheese again. A very good 
dinner. The first course, as in town, was salt fish, ham, 
sausages, &c. ; then I forget what ; then fillibouka ; then 


roast chickens and ham. The business was settled with the 
utmost good-humour. Home at five. 

At six Mr. Turnor invited me to visit the library again. 
Passed there two hours, and took a note, which you will 
see, of several books. Home at eight. Read till eleven in 
Cox's volume on Sweden. My first business this morning 
was to examine into the state of finance, lo determine wheth- 
er or not Gamp, might dejeune. Found that he could not. 
Continued reading Cox, and finished the volume. He is 
most accurate, and more intelligent than either of the trav- 
ellers heretofore mentioned. Please to read him, for I have 
been over much of the same ground, seen the same things, 
and some of the same persons. 

A. E. A. came in at ten, and says he will call at one with 
his carriage, and that we shall lodge to-night at Sigluna. 
Adam Afzelius came in and gave me a memorandum, in his 
own handwriting, and in English, of the several articles from 
Africa respecting which I was most desirous to be informed. 
Then P. Afzelius, with London papers to the 7th of August. 
Offers me all sorts of civilities. Now the clock strikes one, 
and I am looking out for my escort. 

25. Left Upsala, with A. E. Afzelius, haradshofding, in 
his coach (phaeton) with posthorses. Rode through this 
beautiful plain to Gamla Upsala, to Aggle-Stavall. The 
whole distance ten English miles. A cabin for a posthouse, 
and a very respectable-looking farmhouse for lodging, &c, 
for travellers. In the garden plenty of currants and goose- 
berries, with which made free. This indulgence is every- 
where as with us. On to . Among the pictures are 

several said to be of the first masters. Was particularly 
struck with one of Aurora Cambesse de Koningsmere, who 
frightened Charles XII., wrapped in a silk manteau, The 
bosom, the left foot, and right knee (and something more) 
bare. In the open field, before sunrise, alluding to her name, 
a fine landscape. A portrait of Ann Bulliun rex Henry 
VIII., beautiful and interesting. Twenty-two steps to as- 



cend to the first floor. The building is suffering for want 
of repairs. Passed two hours here. The plain narrows. 
Little rocky hills; but always small, fertile spots highly cul- 
tivated, and excellent reads. Not a stone as big as an egg. 
A peasant's house; an air of comfort and plenty. Got horses 
presently, and on to Oerubro ; a very neat, comfortable inn. 
Beds, maid, and everything neat. Were all abed, but got up 
cheerfully and got us supper. A wild fowl, sort of grouse, 
fish, salad, and fillibouka. While supper was getting we 
walked to the furnace. 

26. I preferred to lay on the sofa without undressing. 
The beds are too soft. At six came in the flika with coffee. 
This is caffe, and not breakfast. A little skolpon is served 
with it. At eight walked over to the mines, two miles. 
(Note, miles are always English, unless distinguished by S., 
which means Swedish.) This is a most beautiful village, 
and, like that at Dannemour, is the property of the owners 
of the mines. All the streets with rows of trees. The 
houses neat. For an account of the mines, see a loose sheet, 
in which the errors of writers of travels are corrected. The 
principal director, not speaking English or French, put me 

in the hands of the sub-director, Mr. , who has been in 

England. The doctor, brother of my compagnon de voyage, 
devoted himself to my amusement. The mine is in constant 
danger of being overflowed by the lake. This has twice 
happened. The mine is about 450 feet deep. From the 
orifice you see bottom. They insist that this lake cannot 
be drained, which I deny, and can demonstrate that it can. 
We talked much of it, and they listened to me with great 
attention. They bore logs (for conduit pipes) by hand with 
an augur, having no such machine as we used at New- York 
for the Manhattan Works. The doctor invited me to break- 
fast. It was a sumptuous feast of chickens, ham, fish, beans, 
salad, with dessert of preserves, made of a wild fruit which 
I found delicious ; other fruits and bonbons. Excellent ale, 
which is drank with sugar and water, in my own mode. 


The director played on the peasant's violin for me. An 
instrument with seven strings and sixteen keys. Only three 
strings are played on. The dance of the Norland peasants 
is the waltz, with varieties. A dance something like our 
country-dance, whence, probably, the English country-dance 
originated. Very pretty, and danced with great grace. A 
young peasant now played. 

On first coming to the doctor's house, had heard the gun- 
fru sing a few notes. Begged her to sing a song. Sang. 
Marching and dancing in a circle. Erect, toes out. A 
fine Italian face. Danced with great ease and agility. 
Hazel hair, parted over the forehead, and so just above the 
eyebrow, over the ear, hanging in the neck. Took my hand 
gracefully, kissed it, bowed, and thanked me in the dialect 
of her country. Went to see and hear the blasting, which 
is always at twelve. The rumbling of the sound in this 
vast vault of solid rocks is very fine. The steam-engine, 
made in England, makes no more noise than a houseclock. 

We left the chateau at dusk to seek our supper. It was 
good and abundant, only the hard bread. Having eaten 
nothing the whole day save two very small skolpons and 
some gooseberries, I did great honour to the supper, Vran 
ment je mangois comme gourmand. Beds were provided 
for us in the house of the menag£re, a house about twice 
as large as Richmond Hill.* The rooms spacious and well 
furnished. La menage-re, a smart, sensible woman, was all 
attention and civility. Our coffee was served before we 
were dressed. It is much the custom to take it in bed. A 
single cup ; far better than the drams, and too much with 
us. I never saw in Sweden a dram taken before coffee. 
With this coffee nothing is eaten. It is always strong and 
well prepared ; equally well in the meanest cottage. We 
returned to the castle. The library is said to contain ten or 
eleven thousand volumes, chiefly ancient. Many ancient 

* Owned by, and once the country residence of, Mr. Burr, but now converted 
into a city theatre. 


manuscripts. The chateau, the furniture, the books, arms, 
and manuscripts, are all entailed, and cannot be alienated. 
The proprietor, Count Brake, seldom visits this place, having 
two or three others ; and no person is permitted to visit the 
library except in the presence of the maitre d'hotel, so that 
the contents are unknown. We visited, also, the chapel, 
which is built on the spot where stood the cloister, whose 
ruins are still visible. The chapel is about the size of 
your churches : is handsome, without being magnificent. 
The organist played several tunes for us. The vaulted ceil- 
ings gave a fine effect to the sound. At eleven we went to 
seek our breakfast. It was sumptuous. La menagere hav- 
ing learned that I preferred the soft bread, had made some 
excellent, and had, in further compliment to my taste, pro- 
vided fish from the lake, which is within one hundred yards 
of the door. Ate as though I had not supped. At twelve 
embarked to return. A boat had been procured and waited 
our orders. 

It is about three miles hence to the chateau of Rudbache. 
The shores of the lake always riant and pattoresque. 
Walked to the posthouse, near a mile, and at one set off. 
At two miles a ferry, at which I was obliged to be ferryman, 
and hard work it was. Thence to the main road leading 
from Upsala to Stockholm, being about five miles ; the road 
a little stony ; not much used, and having been injured by 
the rains, and, being the midst of harvest, the peasants had 
not yet found time to repair it. Otherwise that part of the 
ride is beautiful, by the varied landscape. Lakes, mead- 
ows, rich fields, rocky hills, forests, all constantly and 
charmingly blended. 

But I forgot to tell you that Sigtuna is the most ancient 
capital of Sweden. Centuries before Upsala. Tradition, 
and some what is called history, relates that it was taken, 
sacked, and burned by the Russians about 1800 years ago. 
Very fine ruins of their ancient temples; two of them, at 
least, are fine. Fifty or sixty feet in height of the turrets are 


standing. Several of the arches entire ; trees growing on 
the tops. Rude architecture. Of the date and particular 
use of these temples, even tradition is silent. We visited 
the church. Nothing very remarkable. Much of the mate- 
rials taken from the old temple which stands near, and is 
within the same enclosure. On many of the stones Tunic 
inscriptions, so defaced as to be illegible. 

The priest asleep. Kept me two hours waiting for the 
key. Gooseberries and blackberries in the churchyard. 
The latter tasteless. Left Sigtuna at five, having taken 
there a dish of coffee and a skolpon (exactly our rusk). 
Everywhere, too, you get wafers, our wafers, made and 
eaten in the same way. Sigtuna is now an inconsiderable 
town of about one hundred wooden (log) houses. 

At three yesterday, the H. not appearing, went to his 
house. Found all ready. Took coffee with madams, and 

at half past three set off. At five arrived at , where we 

proposed to traverse the lake. Took boat at the chateau of 
Rudbache, formerly Wetterfledt, who exchanged fortune 
for titles. An old woman rowed us over, about one mile 
English, and we walked near two miles to the palace of 
Skokloster. From Rudbache's gardener we had got cur- 
rants, apples, and a melon. They were gathering vege- 
tables for market. Cabbages of uncommon size. 

Leaving Upsala in this direction, you rise the hill on 
which is the castle, and, passing over the plain, elevated 
about one hundred feet above the more extensive one to the 
north, you enter the park ; fine lofty pines, about half a 
mile ; thence four miles to the river, which you pass in a 
scow. Three miles more to the posthouse. Half a mile 
before reaching the ferry you are in sight of the lake ; and, 
after crossing the river, the road is parallel to the lake ; dis- 
tant, perhaps, half a mile, on a gentle declivity. The coun- 
try the whole way under high cultivation, interspersed with 
those little rocky hills and ridges which make it so pic- 


The chateau, now Budluck's, is very beautifully situated 
on a promontory, extending about a quarter of a mile into 
the lake. Along avenue of ancient trees. The body of the 
house, five windows each story, being two stories in front 
and three in rear. The wings, three windows each story. 
A plain house ; many outbuildings give it the air of a village. 

Skokloster, formerly a cloister, of which the ruins are still 
visible. The present chateau was built — years ago. The 
four turrets, about thirty-two feet diameter each, octagon, is 
elevated a full story above the body of the building, and 
again a story or dome, crowned with a sort of armillary 
sphere. The main building encloses an open court; below, 
an arcade or open gallery all round. Beautiful little brass 
cannon on each side. Gallery in each story on the side of 
the court, about twelve feet wide. On each pier, six in each 
story, the portrait, large as life, of distinguished person, com- 
panion in arms or in council of Gustavus Adolphus. On 
the opposite side of the galleries some historical painting. 
All painted on the walls. Mottoes in French, Latin, Italian, 
Swedish. The building is three lofty stories and an attic. 
The Gobelin, in many rooms, well preserved and very beau- 
tiful. A great number of paintings, portraits, battles, his- 
torical pieces ; of Aurora Cam. de Koningsmere by no means 
equal to one I have seen. Ebba Brake, when a girl and 
when an old woman. General Wrangle, in every possible 
way. A picture of him on horseback, as large as life ; un- 
derneath which is inscribed a concise history of him. An 
equestrian statue in the apartment in the chapel where is 
his monument. 

The attic story is principally a place of arms. Ancient 
armour. Spears, swords, bucklers, helmets, hung around 
with complete suits of armour. Guns, fusees, pistols, and 
firearms of all sorts, used one hundred and fifty years ago ; 
also, wardrobes, boots, spurs, &c. Very few of the paint- 
ings of much value. The cabinet of ebony and ivory ; and 
another, principally ivory, with a variety of jewels, trinkets, 


bawbles. Four columns of two pillars each, with pedestal 
and capital, of one solid piece of marble. These and many 
of the other things were brought from Prague when taken 
by Gust. Adolp. The columns, made in Italy, were in the 
palace at Prague, now supporting the arch of the vestibule. 

Bones found in Scaria, believed to be human. A rib 
measured eight feet six inches, and is not entire. A verte- 
bra? of the spine inches in circumference. Near the 

same place was found a sword, here also kept, of singular 
construction ; about seven feet long, and of a weight which 
could not be used by men of these days. 

Stockholm, August 27. It was half past twelve last night 
when we arrived. Being too late to go to my lodgings, i. e., 
beincf averse to wake my good old Anna, went with A. E. A. 
to a tavern in Stor Ny Gatan ; they put us three stories up ; 
that is, in the fourth story. I was so weary and sleepy that 
I threw myself on the sofa, without supper and without un- 
dressing, and slept profoundly till near six. Hosack came 
in at eleven. Not a letter for him or for me from any 

28. I did lay down at eleven and got asleep. At twelve 
I waked in a fever, and found myself devoured by bugs. 
Got up, lighted candle, and saw the bed alive. Being very- 
sleepy, went into the next room and lay on the sofa. In a 
few minutes was attacked in like manner. Got up again, 
lighted candle in despair, and read till daylight. Lay down 
on three chairs, but could not sleep, so ordered breakfast. 
At ten to wait on Governor Wetterfledt and his son, the 
chancellor Out. Left cards. To Baron Engerstrom's. 
To Hedborn's ; went with his clerk to get guineas changed. 
Home at two. Found note from Hosack that the Ameri- 
cans, Captains Van Aulen and Barry, and Mr. Robinson, all 
from New-York, had agreed to meet me at dinner at Moys- 
abacke, to dine together a l'Americaine, on beefsteaks, fish, 
and potatoes ; to rendezvous at his quarters. The savage 
had not the grace to rendezvous at mine. Being very desi- 

.- -~- 1 


rous of meeting these compatriots, as they are all said to be 
very friendly, went, and had our dinner. Barry did not come, 
being unexpectedly called off on some business about his 
ship. Van Aulen is from Kinderhook, and connected with 
the family of Van Ness ; an intelligent, friendly young man. 
The other a fine, handsome, sprightly youth. Our dinner 
in a saloon in the garden, and being elevated about 150 or 
200 feet above the mass of the city, affords a most beautiful 
bird's-eye view of the town, harbour, and country. 

I had authorized Hosack to propose this dinner, as the 
Americans had expressed a great desire to see me ; but he 
managed so ill that they supposed they came to dine at my 
invitation and expense, of which I was ignorant till the mo- 
ment of coming off. Paid for the dinner, exactly the pro- 
ceeds of my guinea. Besides this, I did not treat them as 
my guests. Very little wine was called for, and they must 
have thought it scurvy treatment. Alas ! mon guinea. 
Took tea at their quarters. Home at seven. Shall go 
early to bed, to make up my long arrears of sleep. These 
Americans have been eight or nine months from the United 
Stales. Of course, nothing new. 

29. I did go to bed at ten, promising myself a rich sleep ; 
say two hours vigil. Note, my bedstead had undergone a 
thorough ablution, and there were no bugs or insects. Got 
up and attempted to light candle, but in vain. Had flint and 
matches, but only some shreds of punk, which would not 
catch. Recollected a gun which I had had on a very late 
journey ; filled the pan with powder, and was just going to 
flash it, when it occurred that, though I had not loaded it, 
some one else might. Tried, and found it a very heavy 
charge. What a fine alarm it would have made if I had 
fired. Then poured out some powder on a piece of paper, 
put the shreds of punk with it, and, after fifty essays, suc- 
ceeded in firing the powder ; but it being quite dark, had 
put more powder than intended ; my shirt caught fire ; the 
papers on my table caught fire ; burned my fingers to a blis- 


ter, the left hand, fortunately. It seemed like a general con- 
flagration. Succeeded, however, in lighting my candle, and 
passed the night, till five this morning, in smoking, reading, 
and writing this. 

Essai sur l'Esprit des Femmes, par M. Thomas, 1772. 
Well written. Much historical information. Many books 
of which I had not heard are quoted. He meant to be liberal 
and friendly to the sex, but, like all I have read, has set out 
wrong ; has not seen the source of the evil, though the evils 
are acknowledged, and, of course, has not found the remedy. 
This will remain for Gamp. 

Tableau Litteraire de la France pendant le 18 me Siccle. 
Sujet propose en 1806, par la Classe de la Langue et de la 
Litterature. Paris, 1807. This I presume to be a sort of 
prize piece. It is well written. His distinctions are pretty 
good, but his eulogies extravagant. 

Le Voyageur Fataliste. Comedie. Par A. Charlemagne, 
1806. I had foresworn French comedies, and hate comedies 
in verse. This, though long, was not found tiresome. 

Rapprochement des Arbres. Paris, 1807. Where have 
I laid that book ? Will find it to-morrow, and give you the 
author's name. It is a new discovery, by which you give 
to any tree the sap and nourishment of another, or some 
branch of another, and by this means you may change and 
improve the colour, size, and flavour of almost any fruit. 
The results are curious and useful. Pray try it. You see, 
madam, I have not been idle. Now allow me to attempt 

30. Slept very little till ten, when Madame D. came in, 
a la Swedoise, on some very urgent message, which I an- 
swered only by a round of curses. However, 1 was waked, 
and got up. Took breakfast at twelve, rummaged in the 
library for two or three hours (there is an arrival of new 
books from Paris), then walked out with Granborn to try 
the market for guineas. Changed four. Hunted an hour 
for Barth without success. Called at the postoflice. No 


letters. No doubt my letters are stopped by the British 
government. 'Tis impossible that every human being can 
have forgotten me for four months ; for my female friends, 
I would swear. But what remedy ? Me voici. Positively 
I will go off to Hamburgh or Memel as soon as I can find 
Barth. Will hunt for passages to — everywhere, and then 
determine. Called at the lodgings of Ba. Ulp. Sparre, 
for whom I had a letter from London, and just now deter- 
mined to deliver it. Has left town. Home at six. On the 
way, called to see Capt. Van Aulen. Read an hour or two 
in l'llineraire de l'Allemagne, 1807. You see I am pre- 

Read also a treatise (French) on the authority of parents, 
i. e., of fathers ; for women are not in question. Cannot now 
lay hand on it to give you the title, but will find it. The 
subject was proposed by the Institute National, and this 
book gained the approbation and the prize. In my opinion, 
no way flattering to the genius of the nation. There is, 
indeed, a good deal of historical fact, but much declamation 
and flourish. 

Yesterday an officer (vieux militaire) called to consult me 
about seeking employment in the United States, which I 
flatly discouraged. He wishing a further conversation, ap- 
pointed nine this morning. At eight called on Baron d'Al- 
bedy'hll. Out. On Governor W-illenstadt, whom I found 
dressing. On D. Gahn ; engaged to dine with him to-day 
at eleven. Home before nine to meet the Swedish officer. 
On opening my door, found him seated, though I had the key 
in my pocket, at which I made great eyes. He apologized. 
Told him that Hosack had served in the United States' army, 
and knew more than I about the subjects of his inquiry. 
Gave him the address of Hosack and a line of introduction. 
At ten to Breda's, to pay my respects to the picture. Found 
it in good order, and looking, I fear, very different from the 
original ! Found Barth's lodgings and left card. To Baron 
Mancke's. Still at Haga. Walked to Eklun, Found, as 


always, a good dinner and good wine. We were en famille. 
Home at seven. 


Rocky River Springs (S. C), August 1, 1809. 

Your removal from England was first announced to me by 
a paragraph in the newspapers ; and for some minutes I re- 
mained stupified, as if stunned by the blow. All hope of 
its falsehood is now annihilated by the receipt of your letter 
to R. B., forwarded by Gahn. Thus, then, has vanished all 
the pleasure I derived from reflecting on the advantages of 
your late residence, which was rendered as delightful as exile 
can be by identity of language, and by the attentions of 
friends perfectly congenial to you. 

Since my arrival at this place I have received your let- 
ters of the 25th March and of the 24th of October. Than 
the last of which, later have been acknowledged already. 
This retired situation so long delays your letters that my 
spirits are exhausted in anxious expectation. Indeed, it al- 
most wears me out. Your letter to M. has been sent to the 
Low Country, where he remains busily engaged in political 
affairs. By a gentleman (whose name I never knew), a 
passenger in the Pacific, you ought to have received a bun- 
dle of newspapers, and a few lines truly announcing my 
perfect recovery, which commenced from the moment that 
the mercury was abandoned and replaced by two glasses of 
good wine daily. Shortly before that I had written to you 
at great length. By what conveyance has now escaped my 
recollection, probably the same ship (Pacific), she was de- 
tained so long. It has been my wish and intention to send 
some trifle to our revered and inestimable friend, Jeremy 
Bentham ; but it has not been in my power to do so. You 
know that my situation is not favourable to it. 

The translation is begun, but it advances slowly. I do not 
like sending it without first submitting it to your judgment. 
The mode of life necessarily led here has prevented me from 


pursuing any occupation regularly ; not, however, through 
dissipation. You undoubtedly saved my life by preventing 
me from coming here last year. The lodging is very bad ; 
such as you have often had in half-finished log cabins ; the 
food to suit, and the mineral waters are absolutely poison 
to me. 

My letter to Mrs. M. has been sent long since; but no 
answer has reached me, and this delay strengthens my ap- 
prehensions as to success. The gazettes under that influ- 
ence continue every now and then to propagate calumnies 
and make use of expressions calculated to enliven every 
spark of animosity which exists in the country. This looks 
ill. Our best and most numerous collection of friends is in 
New-York. There are many there who wish to see you 
once more established at home. 

My boy continues devotedly attached to you. His edu- 
cation advances. He reads and speaks French with facility. 
Reads English well, and begins with Latin this day. His 
present preceptor is a truly worthy man, but who does not 
possess information enough to continue his pursuit another 
year. Of course you could not attend to my commission on 
that subject. Still I will wait to hear from you before I en- 
deavour to procure another person. M. prefers a Europe- 
an to a Cuban exile. Babade wants to be on again, but I 
am tired of his caprices. He cannot be depended on; and, 
indeed, he contemplates a residence of only six months 
with us. 

None of your packets have reached me since my departure 
from New- York. Poor little B.'s caricatures of Mrs. Clark, 
newspapers, &c, all are with some of my friends. Nor 
can I discover, by writing, who has them. This is mortify- 
ing. Jeremy Bentham's bust is certainly lost. I could al- 
most cry about it. 

I have written a second time to the gentleman who prom- 
ised us the supply of funds; but there is little to be hoped 
from him. On inquiry, I find that his character does not 


stand very high as a man of punctilious honour in money- 
dealings. The style of my last letter was open, and my 
name to it at full length. Perhaps he may be teased into a 
performance of his engagements. His conduct is a serious 
addition to all the accumulated difficulties which already 
pour in upon us, and which would absolutely overwhelm 
any other being than yourself. Indeed, I witness your ex- 
traordinary fortitude with new wonder at every new misfor- 
tune. Often, after reflecting on this subject, you appear to 
me so superior, so elevated above all other men ; I contem- 
plate you with such a strange mixture of humility, admira- 
tion, reverence, love, and pride, that very little superstition 
would be necessary to make me worship you as a superior 
being : such enthusiasm does your character excite in me. 
When I afterward revert to myself, how insignificant do my 
best qualities appear. My vanity would be greater if I had 
not been placed so near you ; and yet my pride is our re- 
lationship. I had rather not live than not be the daughter of 

such a man. and have set off for Philadelphia, 

thence to embark for Brazil. N. in very ill health. 

You will be rejoiced to hear that my health continues 
good here. L. N. talks seriously and warmly of another 
visit to England. This project meets with great opposition, 
of course. God knows how it will end. I am no longer in 
confidence, thank fortune. I suspect victory will declare 
for L. N. 

I shall enclose this to Gahn, who will find the safest and 
readiest conveyance for it, no doubt. He is a most amiable 
man. Nothing could exceed the attention and considerate 
kindness I received from him in New- York. Write to him, 
pray. He disclaims all pretension to any thanks for the be- 
haviour of Baron B., who, he says, has acted thus entirely 
uninfluenced by any one. How happy his interference made 
me. Gahn acted like a good angel in forwarding your letter 
to R. B. But still every minute weighs on rae till I have 


some details from you addressed to myself. My heart 
sinks and beats in waiting for them. 

Your letter of March 26, to A. B. A., from Gravesend, 
with the hieroglyphics, is this instant received, with some 
gazettes, and Godwin's Essay on Sepulchres. The post- 
boy will not wait. I can only say how happy we are made 
by this arrival. Theodosia. 


Cheraw, S. C, August 31, 1809. 

I wrote to you about a month ago from the Rocky River 
Springs, of which you heard so much during your last visit 
to South Carolina, and where I have been residing since 
the beginning of June. We left them yesterday on our way 
to Grenville. The only lodgings are half-finished log cabins. 
The fare bad, and the mineral waters injurious to me ; but, 
as the air is pure, I have retained my lately-acquired health, 
and still continue well. Do not be distressed about my 
health. I think it quite safe now. Nothing could have af- 
forded me more happiness than your few lines of the 5th of 
May from Gottenburg, though I confess the loss of your 
journal went to my heart. I still hope to hear that you have 
recovered it. 

Reflection had already greatly reconciled me to your re- 
moval before the receipt of your letter, which has assisted 
to console me. Although I know that, whatever might be 
your sufferings in any situation, you would prevent the in- 
fection from spreading to your friends as long as you possi- 
bly could, yet your assurances cheer me irresistibly. The 
attentions of Barcn B. have excited my warmest gratitude. 
There are certainly some peculiar advantages in your new 
residence. I wish you had informed me more minutely, in 
detail, relative to the circumstances of your departure from 
Great Britain. Our newspapers say, as from authority, that 
you plead your right to remain as a British subject, assert- 
ing that you were born such, and the constitution of Great 


Britain admitted not of alienation. Is this so ? Answer me 
at length on this subject. 

I have written a second time to Judas. My letter cannot 
fail to reach him. It is written openly, in my own name. 
Perhaps he may be driven to a compliance with his engage- 
ments. I mean to try. Success cannot be of disservice at 
any time. Your hopes of future, if only temporary, inde- 
pendence came like the light of Heaven to my soul. God 
grant they may be realized. M., of course, has no part in 
my correspondence with Judas. Oh that he could prove to 
be a Peter, and repent of his sins ! 

After a short time in New-York, I should have realized 
the fable of the hare and many friends, excepting, always, 
Frederic. But I believe your friends are most numerous 
and respectable in that city. Would it were in my power 
to make Jeremy Bentham some little present. I know it 
ought to be trifling ; but what, that might gratify in any way, 
can be sent from South Carolina to England ? I will think 
further of it, however, and will write, at all events. He 
surely merits every attention from me, and he possesses my 
sincerest reverence and esteem. The translation of his sys- 
tem of legislation is begun, but no more. The mode of life 
at the R. R. Springs is not propitious to any occupation. 
For instance, there were no window-sashes ; of course, wind, 
rain, or hot sun either drove me from my chamber or kept 
me in the dark, for it had only one window. I confess that 
it would be very disagreeable to me that my translation 
should receive the first reading from any one but you. 
Therefore, I think, under existing circumstances, the plan 
must be abandoned. 

Would you believe it, L. N. has gone to England again ! 
She has grown larger than Gabriella ! Charlotte is to be 
married this autumn or winter to Mr. A.'s young friend and 
co-partner in his law office, Mr. W. Le pere greatly dis- 
pleased at it. But W. is industrious, respectable, and, I 
think, truly amiable. 


Henceforth I shall have it in my power to write oftener, 
and I will adopt the mode you recommend. A. B. A. 
shall read history as you approve. It is best, because frag- 
ments may be selected to suit his present capacity, to excite 
his taste, to form and elicit his character. Z. is good, but 
meek and timid, rest assured. It is astonishing how our en- 
emies strive to keep alive the flames. Paragraphs to that 
intent are constantly appearing in the newspapers ; but we 
have many friends. You shall have some satisfactory ac- 
count on this subject. Adieu. Theodosia. 


Stockhohn, September 2, 1809. It is no easy matter to 
determine how to dispose of myself. Why stay here ? To 
be sure, I am unmolested, and live at no great expense. 
When I came here it was with intent to stay till answers 
should be received to my letters written to the United States 
at the moment of leaving London. 

Just then it was announced to me that a lady in the li- 
brary wished to speak with me. What sort of a lady ? 
"Young and beautiful." In truth, she is very pretty. Not 
at all a Swedish face. Speaking a little French. The pre- 
tence (perhaps the real object) of the visit to inquire about 
certain friends in England, and the means of getting there. 
An aquiline nose, blue eyes, very fair, very black hair and 
eyebrows. On my remarking that she could not, from her 
appearance, be Swedish, she said she was born in Peters- 
burgh, and left me her address. 

A sad interruption this to the calculations I was about to 
make. The summary is, that I am resolved to go, without 
knowing exactly why or where. 

5. Got up late, and, for reasons unknown, in very bad 
order. Heated, nervous tremour, no appetite for breakfast, 
which is unusual. Went abroad, however, at eleven. Went 
at two to dine with Captain Barry. On getting home at 
eight, found all my maladies exceedingly increased. Avery 


quick pulse, agitation of nerves, and burning hot, though the 
weather is quite cold, and I had drank very little wine. 
Withal, a sort of exaltation of t§te, which altogether dis- 
tressed me exceedingly ; pains in my bones. The family of 
D'Aries are in the country. Mr. G. out. No means of ex- 
planation with old Anna. Not a lime, or lemon, or anything 
else to be had at this hour. Ordered hot water and warm 
drink, but no relief; though lay in bed, exceedingly restless. 
Took thirteen drops of laudanum, the greatest dose I ever 
took ; and, finding sleep quite out of the question, got up, 
dressed, and read a long, dull comedie, Le Jaloux. About 
two A. M. a little relieved. Went to bed; slept about four 
hours and got up well. There prevails in this city a malignant 
fever, which has carried off persons in two and three days. 
Having been often in the quarter most infected with this dis- 
ease, no doubt I had caught it, and I have given you this de- 
tail to show how very slightly any such disease can affect me. 
I disclosed to no one that I was sick. A sick man is a very 
contemptible animal. Owing to very temperate habits, my 
constitution affords no pabulum to such diseases. 

Gottenburg, October 7. Slept last evening at , where 

we arrived at eleven, the family all in bed. The maid got 
up, made us fire, got an excellent supper and clean beds, 
and all with a cheerfulness which gave value to our sup- 
plies. Our last coachman was again a girl ; a very pretty 
girl, of about sixteen. She drove us most rapidly, and with 
boldness and skill. Sam himself could not have done bet- 
ter; nor here so well, for it was very dark. She returned 
immediately, having a horse to lead. 

We had ordered horses for this place (Gottenburg) at 

five this morning. At six we set off, and got here (fourteen 

miles) at half past eight. Drove to the posthouse. Not a 

room or bed to be had. Not even a place to sit down and 

take breakfast. We were cold and hungry, and were till 

ten cruising about town before we could get admission into 

a house. We engaged a room, i. e., one corner of it, for it 
Vol. I.-N 


was a public room, for two hours, with promise of breakfast. 
We ate so enormously that we were charged one and a half 
rix-dollars each for our breakfast, being just three times the 
usual price. Wrote notes to L. Nordenschold and young 
Damur, requesting aid to procure lodgings, as we must other- 
wise go into the street at twelve. Neither of them came ; 
but my indefatigable companion found two decent rooms, 
at twenty-seven Tong Gatan, two stories up ! at ten rix- 
dollars per week. More than double the price of Stockholm. 
This place is just now very full of strangers, particularly 
English. There were more than twenty of them in and out 
of the room while we were breakfasting, God d — ning every- 
thing that was not exactly as in England. 

Got settled in our quarters by one o'clock, and sent my 
letters to the governor and to others, with a card in each, 
h la mode de Swedoise. A mode which I approve. Now 
I engage that neither of the parties takes the least notice of 
the letter or card. Sent my card also to the Lieutenant N. 
Called at Edou's, where I lodged on my arrival here from 
England in May, to see the family. La belle M. is much 
altered. Very thin. Wrote to Captain Van Aulen and to 
Grandborn by the mail. Took tea at seven, having dined 
at our enormous breakfast. Our hostess speaks English, 
being of an English mother. Is neat, active, obliging. 

In the afternoon walked with Luning to the port, about 
two English miles. Missed the way and walked double the 
distance. Laughed at Luning's distress at passing through 
some ill-looking alleys and streets. Sent card this evening, 
with my address, to General Consul Gram, who is still here. 
You may recollect that I saw him about ten days ago, and 
that he undertook to procure passports for me from the Dan- 
ish government, to be sent to Helsingbourg, so that I might 
not be detained there. 

8. Though I think it must be the ninth of October. Will 
ask some learned man in the course of the day. Mr. Gogle, 
of Frankfort, a very pleasant, well-bred young man, lodges 


on the same floor with us ; claims my acquaintance, and is 
extremely obliging. Sorti at ten to find Daily. Got his 
address. Wrote notes to Dr. Shultzen, to Gibson, and to 
Damm, inquiring for letters. Verbal answers that they have 
none. Our landlord is a bookbinder. Gave him all Ben- 
tham's small works and Panoptique to bind. They had 
suffered, and were in danger of being ruined. Yesterday 
opened your picture. It is in perfect order. Luning's con- 
trivance had secured it completely from the dust. Since 
opening it at Stockholm, I have carried it the whole way 
(two hundred miles) on my lap. Indeed, madam, you gened 
me not a little. You are now hung up in my room, so that 
I can talk with you. 

Walked to the harbour at four. Met Daily, and also the 
captain with whom I came from Harwich. He seemed quite 
alarmed, and looked about, the few minutes I detained him 
to make some inquiries, as if he was afraid of being seen. 
He has probably learned how dangerous, &c. The streets 
of the lower town full of drunken English sailors. Home 
at six. Luning came in at seven. His whole time seems 
to be employed in my concerns. He discovers my wants, 
and, without saying a word to me, makes them his own busi- 
ness. This afternoon he has procured me a travelling com- 
panion ; a German gentleman, who speaks the Swedish, go- 
ing to Copenhagen, and to set off on Tuesday, but will 
wait a day or two for me if requisite ! He (Luning) has 
also found Dutch ducats, for which I can exchange the small 
sum of Swedish paper I have on hand. 

On our arrival our passports were sent to the police for 
inspection, as the law requires. They were brought back 
this morning. The bearer demanded 36 sch. each for his 
trouble. Apropos of passports. On our way from Stock- 
holm, at a town, a sentinel, rather harsh looking, stopped us 
and demanded if we had passports. " Yes, sir," says Luning ; 
and presenting a silver plate, the face of the sentinel relax- 
ed into complacency. He thanked us with earnestness, and 

N 2 


wished us a pleasant journey. At another time we were 
brought to by a custom-house officer. In every town they 
have a right to search your baggage for contraband goods. 
L., who is never at a loss, presented a 12 sch. bill, which 
satisfied the officer that we had nothing unlawful. Nor- 
denshjold and Damm called this afternoon ; but from the 
gentlemen to whom I sent letters, not a word. N. and D. 
something cooler. There is something in the atmosphere 
which I have not yet discovered, and, probably, never shall. 

10. At ten called on Mrs. Daily. She anticipated the 
object of my visit (so far, I mean, as regards business) by of- 
fering her services to take anything, parcels or letters, for 
me to England. This is just what I wished, finding that I 
must still disencumber myself of papers and small articles. 
On her fidelity and punctuality I can rely. Sat an hour. 
Home, and went to overhauling papers and baggage to see 
what I could spare. A very embarrassing business. I can 
never decide what to leave and what to take. If you were 
here — ah, why are you not ? — you would settle all this in a 
single minute, and all would be right. But I take up a pa- 
per and hold it, turning and twisting it, for ten minutes, and 
am still undecided. Already I have had occasion to regret 
the want of a paper which is among those sent off by Barry. 
This makes me still more cautious and indecisive. If there 
were an opportunity direct to the United States, I should be 
at no loss. But there is no such thing, nor can I find any 
mode of communication to you but through England ; a 
mode to which, you know, I have very serious objections. 
At one P. M. walked to the harbour to hunt up the Ameri- 
cans who are here. Saw none of them, but got the names 
of six captains. Not one of my acquaintance. Left my ad- 
dress for them at the tavern which is their rendezvous, and at 
the same place consoled myself with bread and cheese, and 
Swedish ale, 16 sch. At half past two went to work again 
at my papers, but made no progress. 

Luning came in at five, having been running about, as 


usual, for me. He walked to see Lehman, a Bremener, 
who is to be my compagnon de voyage. It won't do. He 
has a lady in charge, and will travel in a way which will 
not suit me. He goes at four to-morrow morning. Will 
forward a letter for me to Hauterive. In our walk we met 
a man of Luning's acquaintance whose name is Bollman ; a 
circumstance I did not learn till we got home. Will see 
him again to inquire. L. and I agreed to treat ourselves to 
a supper of oysters and Rhenish wine. Sent out for both. 
Two bottles of wine cost three dollars. About a peck of 
oysters, three dollars ; rather an extravagant meal. After 
all was served, L., who had taken all the trouble, and af- 
fected to be very keen, acknowledged that he was unwell. 
Could neither eat nor drink, and must go to bed, which he 
did at seven. So you see all his zeal for the supper was to 
gratify me. I made him drink a bottle of warm sangaree, 
made of our wine. Made my supper. The oysters are very- 
small, generally of a greenish colour, and always a strong 
coppery taste. Just like the English. I tried them roasted 
and raw, but could only get down nine. Of the wine I drank 
two thirds of a bottle. Wrote very little to Hauterive, en- 
closing a copy of that which I wrote him from Stockholm, 
and at half past ten took it to Lehman's, but all were abed. 
Knocked ; no answer, and so came off. Must be up at 
four to secure the conveyance of it. 

11. At four made my own fire. Waked up the boy (a 
beautiful lad of thirteen, son of the landlady) and sent him. 
with the letter. He found all asleep, and no signs of trav- 
elling At five he went again ; still asleep. At seven found 
a servant, who said that his master never got up till nine. 
At nine sent him, and the letter was delivered. Walked 
with Luning, who is quite well this morning. Called on. 
Lehman returning. He does not go till to-morrow. 

A letter — a letter — a letter ! At a moment when I had 
given up all expectation and even all hope ; at five P. M. 
this same Tuesday, October 11, came in a tall, meager, 


well-dressed man, and asked if I were Colonel Burr. Yes. 
He handed me a letter, superscribed in your handwriting. 
It is your letter of August 1. I could have kissed the fel- 
low. After reading it a few times, I went to return the visit 
of Dr. Shultzen, whom found at home. A modest man, of 
good sense, and a countenance of goodness. Home at six. 
Tea. Luning not come in, and now, at ten o'clock, I have 
done nothing but write this. Your letter has discomposed 
my projects a little ; but I shall persist in them, as you shall 


Helsingborg, October 21, 1809. Supped last night with 
the beautiful family of Barque. Drank trop de vin, seeing 
that I had dined with the governor ; was, in consequence, 
obliged to sit up till three, smoking, and reading, and writing. 
Having resolved to be up early and off at nine, slept sound 
till half past ten ! Called on the commandant, who com- 
ports with the utmost politeness. Will order a boat at any 
hour. Desired it might be at two ; but the passports of Hen- 
dricks not having arrived, shall be obliged to go alone. At 
half past twelve got my breakfast, and went to packing up. 
In the midst of it came in a very gentlemanly-looking man, 
who introduced himself to me as the Prussian consul at El- 
sinore. Gave me most useful information. Had a special 
favour to ask, to which agreed. Had just done packing, 
when came in the visiting officer, whose duty it is to inspect 
the baggage, &c. Was sent by the governor, that I might 
not have the trouble of sending my trunks to the custom- 
house, or opening them on the wharf. The examination 
consisted in opening my trunks, and without moving an arti- 
cle he passed them, and then, receiving from me half a 
dollar, retired very pleasantly. 

How fortunate is my long sleeping. The commandant 
came in at half past two — " Good news for you. The pass- 
port of Hendricks is arrived, and he shall have mine in fif- 
teen minutes." A few minutes after he brought it, and 
waited to escort me to the landing, and see me safe aboard. 


Heighho ! for another, and, nominally, a hostile kingdom. 
Drizzling, fog, and brisk gale. 

Elsinore, October 21. We crossed in an hour in a small 
open boat, though the wind was strong ahead. Before leav- 
ing the Danish shore the sky cleared, and the sun shone 
brilliant. Weather mild. At about one hundred yards from 
the Danish shore were met by the Danish flag of truce, an- 
other boat like ours ; for the Swedish boat is not allowed to 
approach nearer the shore. Each boat has a white flag to 
manifest the pacific intent. In the Danish boat we and our 
baggage embarked, and were presently ashore. Another 
boat took our passports to the Danish commandant at the 
castle. The castle which has long levied tribute on all Eu- 
rope. We landed, leaving our baggage, and went under 
guard to the custom-house, where an officer examined our 
passports, endorsed them, and transmitted us, under guard, 
to the castle, about half a mile, where we were exhibited to 
the commandant, an elderly man of grave but courteous de- 
portment. He asked, in French, if I were Colonel Burr. 
I replied that I had no claim to a military title, but was com- 
monly so called. Asked me to sit. Inquired when I pro- 
posed to go to Copenhagen. To-morrow. Said my pass- 
port should be transmitted to me that evening. Went then 
to our proposed lodgings, Madame Juil's. At the door saw 
carts loaded with furniture and much bustle. The good 
lady had sold out, and was in the act of moving. In this 
dilemma a sprightly young man interposed. Supposed we 
were Americans ; offered to provide us lodgings, and in ten 
minutes we were splendidly lodged chez Oder, a confec- 
tioner. Our new friend then went with us to see after our 
baggage. Found it at the custom-house. Our trunks were 
barely opened and shut. He paid the necessary (customa- 
ry) douceurs. Our baggage being lodged, he ordered tea, 
at which we had the pleasure of his company. Inquired 
what hour we should sup, and ordered supper. Told us the 
wines were excellent, and ordered claret and port. 


It being a mild, brilliant, moonlight evening, he proposed 
a walk to the king's garden and park adjoining the town, 
and thither we went. The palace small, but neat and good 
taste. About twenty or thirty statues in a circular area in 
front, prettily disposed. The hill and terrace in the rear, 
something higher than the top of the palace, extends a con- 
siderable length, perhaps half a mile, and affords a magnifi- 
cent and varied view of the town, the castle, the ocean, the 
Baltic, the Swedish coast, and the town of Helsingborg. 
Paused at the tomb of Hamlet. It is on this terrace ; a 
square pillar, about four feet high, and without inscription ; 
the only monument. I would willingly have passed an hour 
alone on this terrace. Returned by another gate. The 
town very quiet. Our supper served at nine. Eels and 
mutton, both excellent, and the wines did justice to his rec- 
ommendation, as he did to them. At half past ten he left us, 
first inquiring at what hour in the morning he should call to 
go and show us the church, which I had expressed a curios- 
ity to see. I appointed eight. My companion, Hendricks, 
went to bed, and I sat till past twelve, smoking the segars 
which our young friend had given me. 

22. The coverture of my bed last night was a down (du- 
vet) bed, very light, but so intolerably hot that I was obliged 
to dismiss it and get a blanket. Our friend came punctually 
at the appointed time. We were at breakfast, and he joined 
us, not having breakfasted. Went to see the church. The 
interior is Gothic, excessively surcharged with ornament 
of all colours. The pictures in a very coarse style. Yet 
there is a solemnity in these lofty arches which renders it 
the best style of architecture for temples. The sexton could 
tell nothing of the history of the church. Saw no date older 
than three hundred years. Went up into the cupola. The 
fog prevented seeing anything, and we had the pleasure of 
coming down again, a dark, steep stairway, and sometimes 
a ladder. Thence went to see the commandant, in which I 
had several views, one of which was to get rid of the vexa- 


tious ceremony of presentation at the police on my arrival 
at Copenhagen. Was, of course, stopped by the sentinel at 
the outer gate. Sent by a soldier my card, together with a 
message that I was waiting for admission to see him. Was 
admitted and courteously received. Asked indirectly, and 
with apologies, to see the apartments in the castle. He in- 
formed me that the whole was now a barracks, and the chapel 
a magazine. That all the furniture and pictures were re- 
moved to Copenhagen. He walked with me through two 
or three rooms, but with evident reluctance ; so, pretending 
that my curiosity was quite satisfied, and having obtained 
the promise of a letter, which, being shown to the police at 
Copenhagen, would exonerate me from personal attendance, 
I took leave. 

One circumstance, however, did not quite please me. 
When I was yesterday at the custom-house to exhibit my 
baggage, the officer asked if I had any sealed letters. I 
told him I had one of introduction from Baron Engerstrom 
to Mr. Didelot, the French minister at Copenhagen. He 
made no further inquiry, nor did he ask to see this letter ; 
but, having accidentally shown it to the commandant, he said 
he was bound, by his orders, to retain it, and to transmit it 
to the king ; but assured me that it would be forthwith de- 
livered, unopened, to its address. I had scarcely got home 
when a sergeant brought me the promised letter from the 
commandant, an open letter to be shown to the police. 

We had engaged a carriage ; a long wicker wagon, with 
seats on springs, for five dollars. The distance is about 
twenty-six English miles. These five dollars are equal to 
about one and a half of your money. It was near twelve 
before we were ready to set off, and our young friend 
thought we had better eat a beefsteak, to prevent delay on 
the road, and he ordered it. With the steak (which was 
very good), potatoes, and porter, we made a hearty meal, and 
he had the goodness to join us. Our bill at this house was 
twenty-two dollars and three marks. At twelve we set off. 



The road is broad, straight, elevated, turnpiked, and requires 
toll ; very small, however, about eight sti. for the whole dis- 
tance. The fog and mist prevented the enjoyment of dis- 
tant views. There is generally cultivation on each side. 
Some heaths. Rather deficient in wood. Generally thin 
soil, of sandy loam. Everywhere piles of turf dug up for 
fuel. The fences of sod, with a small ditch 6n one or both 
sides. In some places a substantial bank, like those on 
your rice-plantations. No rocks or ridges ; few stones. 
Few houses worthy of notice. Gentle swells and hills ; 
some lofty. Frequently in view of the ocean on the left, 
and several small lakes. At half way, a town, about sixty 
houses in one street ; with few exceptions, of one story and 
very low, called Amsterdam. Passed two manufactories, 
one of cotton spinning, weaving, and printing. A palace of 
the king a little this side of Amsterdam. It was dark be- 
fore reaching this city. At the first gate our passports were 
examined. At the next, the custom-house officer visited our 
baggage. It was done with courtesy, and did not detain us 
two minutes. Arrived at Raw's Hotel, in the Grand Square, 
at seven. The approach to the city is very pretty ; for, not- 
withstanding the fog, the moon (nearly full) gave light 
enough to show us something. About a mile before reach- 
ing the walls of the town, on an extensive plain, you are pre- 
sented with three avenues through rows of trees. The 
middle one was our road. 

Copenhagen, October 23. No theatre was opened last 
evening, nor was there any public amusement. After stroll- 
ing an hour, came home ; took tea as my supper ; engaged 
a servant at three marks a day ; not, however, to attend 
me exclusively. My room, a very large and elegant one on 
the first floor, looks into the square, and it is again my good 
fortune to have a military parade and band of music under 
my window in the morning. After breakfast sent cards to 
Olsen, formerly minister plenipotentiary from this govern- 
ment to the United States, and to Nailsen, formerly judge in 


Santa Cruz, who passed some time in New- York on his way 
home. Both were abroad. Olsen at some distance at a 
country seat. Sent also Baron Albedy'hll's letter to M. de 
Coningk, conseiller d'etat, with card. Hearing that G. L, 
American consul for Rotterdam, lodged in this house, sent 
my name by a servant. 

Walked about town an hour or two. It is regularly laid 
out on a plain. The harbour artificial. Very few vessels. 
Houses almost universally of brick, but made white or 
stone-coloured. Had a bowl of soup, with a bottle of Rhe- 
nish wine, in my room for dinner. In the afternoon took a 
servant to pilot me to the Observatory. The height is said 
to be one hundred and sixty feet, placed nearly in the centre 
of the town, and affords a most perfect bird's-eye view of the 
whole, with a prospect of the ocean ; a fine landscape in the 
interior; the palace of Fredericksborg, placed on an emi- 
nence, and the Swedish coast. The ascent to the top is sin- 
gular ; not by steps, but an inclined plane, paved with brick. 
It is said that a former king drove up with a coach and four, 
which is very practicable, till you come within about ten 
feet of the summit, where you have steps. But how the 
king got back is not said, for it is utterly impossible to turn. 
Paid one mark, and one more to my conductor. 

25. At ten to Coningk's. It is an immense house, and 
everything in a style of great elegance. Thence to return 
the visit of the Prussian consul, about one mile, being just 
without the walls on the road to Elsinore. Not at home ; 
but his wife, whom I met in the court, on seeing my card, 
introduced me to her sister and daughter, and proposed a 
walk in the garden. It is prettily laid out, and contains 
many acres. An avenue extending in a straight line to the 
sea about one quarter of a mile. Madame a very pleasing, 
well-behaved woman. Home at twelve. Walked over the 
ruins, of which a part is the magnificent church of——, the 
most splendid in the city, and containing many monuments 
of kings and great men. The walls and the roof are stand- 


ing. To a bookseller's, where, on entering, I was called by 
my name. In a town of this size, about eighty thousand 
inhabitants, a stranger is immediately known. Home, and 
wrote a short letter to Luning. A very short and unsatis- 
factory one, not having procured for him the mercantile in- 
formation which I had promised ; but, indeed, I have tried. 
At two Hend. actually set off, having been on the point of 
starting since eight this morning. Sold a doubloon for forty- 
eight rix-dollars. The money here, as in Sweden, is paper, 
but still more depreciated than there. A guinea is worth 
sixteen dollars. Prices have not advanced quite in the same 
proportion ; so that, to one having gold or credit in Ham- 
burgh, living is very cheap, as you shall see. 

In the evening the maid, at the usual hour, brought tea, 
but in a very unusual style. A splendid tea-service of silver 
and two cups. I asked why she brought two cups, I being 
alone. She said, with perfect simplicity, and without any 
smile or queer looks, that she supposed madame would have 
stayed to tea. 

26. Sat up till one last evening, being a little out of hu- 
mour with Gamp. Made some pious resolutions. At ten 
to leave a card for the French minister, Mon. Didelot. In 
country ; not having yet returned to town. Perhaps I have 
not told you that the commandant at Elsinore retained En- 
gerstrom's letter to Didelot. He said he was expressly 
bound by his orders to do so. I learned yesterday that the 
letter had been delivered. All letters coming in or going 
out must be examined by the police. I went there (to the 
police-office) yesterday with my letter for Hauterive, which 
was examined and sealed with their seal, which is a warrant 
to the postoffice to receive and forward it. My letter being 
in English, and written stylographically, was not very legible, 
as you know. Yesterday, too, I went with Hendricks to the 
museum, of which more another time. Paid for the party 
three dollars. Remember, when dollars are mentioned in 
Denmark, it means the paper dollar, as before explained. 


At three went to De Coningk's to dine. Found there the 
son heretofore mentioned ; a very sensible and well-bred 
man, speaking perfectly well French and English ; his wife 
ditto; her sister; two daughters of Professor Puerari, Gene- 
vois, a man of very prepossessing manners and appearance. 
The dinner good and abundant. No troublesome stiffness or 
forms. All rose at once. After coffee and tea, home at seven. 
Had scarcely got home before Hosack and Robinson came 
in. I was, indeed, very glad to see them. You may recol- 
lect that we parted on the 2d of October. They brought 
me a letter from Luning ; a most affectionate letter, but 
something more ; enclosing a draught on his correspondent at 
Hamburgh for one thousand marks ! Did you ever hear of 
anything to equal this except in novels ? I am quite em- 
barrassed what to do. In the evening, to my great surprise, 
and uninvited, tapped gently at my door Tempe. You know 
I never disappoint people if I can help it. 

With great trepidation I opened the picture on Sunday 
morning. It has suffered no injury. It hangs in my room ; 
but I am quite out of humour that my visiters have expressed 
only commonplace admiration. La jeune M'lle. de Coningk 
has expressed a desire to see it, and thither you go to- 

27. You must know, madam, that the king and queen are 
expected to arrive at Fred, to-morrow, and to make formal 
entre in town on Saturday. There are to be great doings. 
M. de Coningk called this morning to propose to take me to 
Mr. de Hellfried's this evening, who would invite me to take 
my stand at his house on Saturday, as being a most eligible 
spot for seeing the procession. Agreed. Mr. de H. is com- 
mander of the order of Danbrog, and one of his daughters, 
Madame Schlezel, is author of a Treatise on Neutral Rights, 
which I read some three or four years ago with great pleas- 
ure and approbation. 

Walked about town this forenoon. It is very handsome, 
but of this more anon. Have tried in vain to hire a valet de 


place, my Mons. Thomas being of no use to me. He gets 
drunk before dinner. At seven Mr. De C. called, and we 
went to Mr. De Hellfried's. There was Schlezel, daughter 
of D'C. I did not at first recognise her, nor did I after- 
ward atone for it. She stayed but a few minutes. A bonnet 
and change of dress disguised her. At dinner, yesterday, 
was much pleased with her. Will atone the first oppor- 
tunity. Stayed about an hour. Schlezel just such a man as 
I wished and expected to find. Apparently about forty-four. 
Mr. Hellfried lent me a book, of which he is the author — 
" A Survey of the British Attack on Denmark in 1807." I 
read about one hundred pages. It is written with a genuine 
patriotic enthusiasm. 

28. Went this afternoon to see the king's library ; three 
hundred thousand volumes ! Deemed the third in Europe. 
There are reading-rooms and fires. Catteau says this library 
was burned in 1794. Not a book. The librarian extremely 
civil ; no pay. Called at De Coningk's. Was received by 
madame with very engaging frankness and ease. Got some 
books, and he sent his servant for others for me from the 
king's library. Had scarcely got home, when Puerari called 
on me. We walked to see the library of Classenborg, about 
which I have a pretty story to tell you. This library is con- 
fined to natural history and botany, and is magnificent in 
those departments. It is in care of Professor Ramus, to 
whom I was there introduced. He tendered himself to go 
with me on Sunday to the palace of Rofen, and to show me 
the collection of coins and medals, which is said to be splendid. 
I shall make some addition to Gampy's stock here. You can't 
think what trouble the little varlet has brought me into. Hav- 
ing on my arrival inquired where some coins and medals 
could be had, it was immediately noised about that I was a 
medal and coin hunter, and scientific, of course, in medalogy. 
Puerari introduced me as such to Ramus, for which I could 
have boxed him. 

Dined to day, for the first time, at the table d'hote, and 


am so well pleased with the company that shall dine there 
henceforth when not engaged abroad. At six walked out to 
see the illuminations and fireworks at the palace of Freder- 
icksborg (about one and a half miles), on occasion of the ar- 
rival of the king and queen. You must know that the queen 
has been passing some months (ever since the death of the 
late king) with her father in Holstein, and has never yet been 
seen here as queen, which is the cause of all this stir. And 
so it happened that we all, about twenty thousand of us, 
came back as we went ; the king and queen had not arrived ; 
there was neither illumination nor fireworks ; we were all 
quite sad. The report is, that the king cannot get across 
the belt — a cause, the British fleet. 

29. Got another servant (My er) at one dollar per day ; but 
wholly to myself. This partnership in servants won't do at 
all. Myer is a dignified German of seventy-two. Was in 
the United States' war, and has been twenty-five years in 
England. His last service was with the Russian minister. 
Sent Myer with a note to G. H. Olsen, brother of the late 
minister, to inquire of the latter. Received a very civil note 
in reply, saying that B. Olsen was in the country ; but wife 
and daughters in town, and would be happy to see me. 
Went off forthwith to see them. Madame is perfectly well 
preserved; a sensible, ladylike woman. The daughters very 
well. Mr. G. H. O. tendered all sorts of civilities. 

30. Catteau says that it rains usually every day of Octo- 
ber in Zealand. Since I landed at Elsinore, I forget when, 
but you may see by looking back, it has been every day 
fine till Friday last, excepting only the day I came from El- 
sinore to this place. But, since Thursday, we have not seen 
sun or moon. A constant fog, and, generally, mist so heavy 
as to wet you. 

Called at D'C.'s ; the king and queen have arrived on the 
Island of Zealand. Will be this night at Fredericksborg, and 
to-morrow make their entre in town. G. H. Olsen called 
this morning ; and at twelve, Professor Ramus, by appoint- 


ment, to visit the collection of coins and medals at Rosenborg. 
This palace was built by Charles IV. or V., I forget which, 
and is at one end of the gardens, which are open to the 
public as a promenade. The palace and the garden are in 
the same enclosure. A wood extending the length of the 
garden, and about one hundred yards wide. 

The collection is immense. Rumour says forty thou- 
sand, being in value and number next to those of Paris and 
Vienna. The coins of all times and all nations. Europe, 
Asia, America, and from the early days of Athens. Several 
of Alexander and Philip. Most of them are described in a 
work printed at the expense of the government, three im- 
mense volumes in folio, and sold for an inconsiderable price. 
The Flora Danica is published and sold in like manner. 
Being with the professor, paid nothing. In the evening to 
Fredericksborg, a very muddy walk of more than two Eng- 
lish miles. The park and gardens must be about one hun- 
dred acres. Water, bridges, fountains ; the effect (of the 
illumination) in some places pretty, but nowhere answering 
my expectations. Almost total want of music. The crowd 
such that one was in a constant struggle. The sentinels on 
each side prevented any one from going out of the walks. 
Got home at ten. 

31. At eleven to Olsen's. Met Blicker Olsen, who looks 
as well as when in the United States, though complaining of 
very bad health. Received me civilly and kindly. Has no 
establishment in town, and a very plain one in the country. 
Their house and furniture were burned during the English 
siege. Madame stayed in the house till it was in flames. 
Fifty-two balls and shells had come into it while she re- 
mained there. Hundreds of families have been ruined by 
that infernal siege. Dined at De C.'s ; nothing very remark- 
able. The widow Clermenti has announced her intended 

marriage with Mr. , a gentleman about ten years her 

junior. She is still handsome and desirable, though a grand- 



Gottenburg, September 10, 1809. 

You are doubtless informed of the events which have in- 
duced me to travel, and, possibly, of the indignities which I 
suffered in England. I have been among the kind and ami- 
able Swedes about five months, quietly and pleasantly. 
Nothing can be finer than their summer ; but the winter I 
dread, and am just now going to Hamburgh, by way of Co- 
penhagen. It is my wish to visit Paris, to see the people 
and the things of which all the world talk so much ; to see 
you and a few others. I have a tale to tell at which you 
will laugh, though at my expense. If there should be no 
objection, procure passports to be transmitted to Hamburgh, 
to the care of Mr. Natzel, whose address is underneath, and 
where I shall wait long enough to admit of your reply and 
no longer. Thence I propose to go to Berlin (to pass there 
two or three days), to see the city and Humboldt. You 
may also address me one line to Berlin, to the care of your 
minister there. 

I should have written also to Adet, lest you might be out 
of the way ; but, looking over the Almanac Imperial for this 
year, and not finding his name, am apprehensive that he has 
either retired to the country, or gone on a very long voyage, 
which God avert, for I really love him. You must not lose 
a day in writing to me, or your letter may not find me in 
Hamburgh. A. Burr. 


Stockholm, September 12, 1809. 
Having proposed to visit Copenhagen from motives of cu- 
riosity and amusement, and it being understood that persons 
passing thither by way of Helsingborg are liable to deten- 
tion at the last-mentioned place until permission can be had 
from the Danish government, I take the liberty of requesting 
that you would have the goodness to apply for a passport 


for me, to be transmitted to the Swedish governor at Hel- 
singborg, to whom I am addressed by his excellency the 
Baron d'Engerstrom. The baron has also given me a letter 
to the minister of France resident at Copenhagen. My 
passport from this government is herewith transmitted for 
your inspection ; and I also enclose an extract of a letter 
from the Swedish consul at New-York to Professor Gahn 
of this city, which the professor has just now transmitted to 
me for this purpose. 

To leave no doubt, however, as to my country and the 
identity of my person, it may be proper further to add, that 
I am personally well known to Mr. Olsen, formerly minister 
of his Danish majesty to the United States. Also to Mr. 
Nailson, who held some judicial office in Santa Cruz, and to 
the military commandant in the same island ; as well as to 
many other of the subjects of his Danish majesty, to whom 
my house at New-York was always open. 

Messrs. William A. Hosack and Thomas Robinson, both 
natives of New- York and citizens of the United States, will 
accompany me. We shall take no servant. I offer apologies 
for this trouble, and assurances of respectful consideration. 

A. Burr. 


Stockholm, September 17, 1809. 

It may be extremely material to me to be described in 
the passport as " a citizen of the United States of America." 
As the fact of my being a citizen of the United States is 
known to you through the consul, H. Gahn, in a manner 
which may be deemed official, I take the liberty of request- 
ing that it may be inserted. As to my young friends Hosack 
and Robinson, if their citizenship should not be thought to 
be sufficiently attested by that which I have had the honour 
to write to your excellency respecting them, there are many 
persons now present who will certify the fact in any form 
which may be prescribed. I beg pardon for this further 
intrusion on your time. A. Burr. 


P.S. The two American savages will herewith present 
themselves. The elder, the blackest, the tallest, &c, nomme 
Hosack. The other, younger and less black, Robinson. 
They are so far tamed as not to bite, unless greatly excited 
by some strong passion, as love or anger. They will receive 
your commands for me, and I pray that you will allow them 

to see you and M'lle. , that they may have something to 

talk about when they get home. 

I am still lingering and uncertain of the day of departure. 
Certainly not more distant than Sunday. Perhaps I may 
see you again at Drottingholm. A. Burr. 


Stockholm, September 17, 1809. 

It being found impracticable to obtain a passage direct to 
any convenient part of Germany, I have determined to go 
by way of Denmark. My route will be through Carlstadt, 
Gottenburg, Helsingborg, Copenhagen, Hamburgh to Ber- 
lin. William A. Hosack and Thomas Robinson, two young 
Americans, now in this city, will accompany me. Robinson 
is a merchant ; has served in the army, but has now no 
particular occupation. He is my constant attendant. They 
are both of respectable families and irreproachable char- 
acters, and known to me to be natives of the City of New- 
York and citizens of the United States. Permit me to ask 
passports for them also. 

Baron de Brinkman, in a passport which I received from 
him in Londonj was pleased to describe me as " Colonel in 
the army of the United States." Having long since resigned 
that rank and title, I should prefer to be designated as Mr. 
Burr, or by name only. 

I propose to leave town on Wednesday evening. To 
pass three or four days in Gottenburg, and thence to Copen- 
hagen, with as little delay as possible. It would afford me 
very great satisfaction to be in any way useful to this gov- 
ernment or to your excellency in the course of this tour. 

A. Burr. 



September 24, 1809. 

J'ai l'hr. de vous retourner sous ce pli la feuille Ameri- 
caine, dont j'ai tire tout le parti, dont je l'ai trouve suscep- 
tible. Pour donner au moins quelque complement a mes no- 
tions Helos ! tres incompletes sur les evenements si interes- 
sants de votre vie publique, faites moi la grace, monsieur, 
je vous en conjure, de marquer sur une petite feuille a part : 

Le jour et l'amiee de votre naissance aussi bien que le lieu. 

Les dates de votre affaire avec M. Hamilton. 

Celles de votre presidence au Senat, ausi que del epoque 
ou vous etiez vice-president du Congres, et enfin del affaire 
du Mexique. Vous voyez, monsieur, que je ne vous de- 
mande que desdonnees chronologiques, et c'est pour compte 
ce serdient des details sur les memes objets si vous voulez, 
mais dans un tout autre. 

En attendant je vous prierai de m'attendez plus que tout 
cela, c'est la faveur de votre amitee, et de votre souvenir ! et 
je vous offre en retour l'hommage de la consideration et de 
l'attachment les plus sinceres ; qui vont vous suivre en tout 
seus, jusque dans Vautre monde ! 

Le Bar. D'Albedy'hll. 


September 24, 1809. 

I have the honour to return, under this envelope, the American Journal, from 
which I have taken everything which it could afford. To give some finish to my 
ideas, which are quite indistinct, of the very interesting events of your life, I beg 
you will do me the favour to put down for me : 

The day, year, and place of your birth. The date of your affair with Mr. Ham- 
ilton, and that of your presidency of the Senate, as also the epoch in which you 
were the vice-president of Congress; and, finally, the date of your Mexican affair. 

You perceive I do not ask mere chronological data ; but I ask for the sake of a 
friend who intends to adorn with these details his historical annals. If I dare to 
ask anything on my own account, it would be details on the same subjects, but 
in quite another sense. In the mean while, I beg you to grant — more than all I 
have asked— the favour of your friendship and your recollection. I offer in re- 
turn the homage of the most sincere esteem and attachment, which will ac- 
company you to the other world. Le Bar. D'Albedy'hll. 



Stockholm, September 24, 1809. 

After the lapse of a month, it may be fairly presumed that 
you have got to Upsala without passing through Stockholm. 
I cannot express 'to you my regret at this disappointment. 
You replied to all my inquiries with so much intelligence and 
perspicuity, and with such inexhaustible good-humour, that 
I was encouraged to meditate still farther trials of your 
temper and patience. In truth, I had prepared a long list of 
queries, with which you would have been assailed the mo- 
ment you returned. This you have escaped ; but not 
wholly, for some of them will be found in this letter. First, 
however, of your pecuniary claims. It was abominable to 
run off and leave me so much your debtor. Let me know 
the amount by return of mail, and to whom here it may be 

Considering the multiplicity of your professional and offi- 
cial engagements, it would be unreasonable to expect writ- 
ten answers to questions respecting the jurisprudence of the 
country. In this important branch I must grope my way as 
well as I can without you. The following will be less 
troublesome : 

1st. The dates and names of persons and places of the 
two cases which you mentioned of exemplary punishment 
inflicted for violation of the personal liberty of two obscure 

2d. Dates and names of persons and places connected 
with the interesting narrative which you gave me of the late 
revolution. I do not ask you to repeat the facts, having a 
pretty distinct recollection of them. 

3d. Names of the persons we saw at Dannemour, not for- 
getting the singers and dancers. 

4th. Our route from Upsala to this place. 

5th. If any of your clerks should have leisure to copy 
from your ancient edition of the laws a few of the most cu- 


rious articles, which you would point out, it would gratify 
me much. You may recollect to have read and translated 
for me several clauses, at which we laughed heartily. 

An edition of your laws was published by direction of 
Charles IX. in 1608; can you advise me where in Stock- 
holm or Gottenburg that edition can be had ? 

In case you should not have time to answer the whole of 
this letter by return of mail, I pray you to answer at least 
so much as regards our money concerns, that I may leave 
town with a clear conscience. Your reply to the residue of 
the letter may then be addressed to me at Gottenburg, 
where I shall be unavoidably detained several days. 

I wrote about eight days ago to the director, P. Afzelius, 
but have not the satisfaction of an answer. I shall leave 
town on Thursday. Present my most respectful compli- 
ments to your lovely wife, and accept assurances of the great 
confidence and esteem with which 1 am your friend, 

A. Burr. 


Stockholm, September 26, 1809. 

How these French and English, one by land and the other 
by water, do torment the whole world. But we quiet folks 
must submit and conform. The interruption of intercourse 
between Sweden and all the ports under French control has 
obliged me to alter my plans. I continue, however, in the 
determination of seeing something of Germany. My route 
is to Gottenburg, Helsingborg, Copenhagen, Hamburgh, 
Berlin. Thence as objects may invite and whim direct. 
Probably to Dresden, Wiemar, Frankfort. By objects is 
meant, principally, animated objects. Your advice would 
have influence; "your," that is, all three of you, but emi- 
nently your individual self; for which I humbly beg pardon 
of . 

Be very careful what you write. Every letter is liable to 
inspection. One indiscreet expression might expose your 


letters to be burned, and perhaps me with them. Avoid ev- 
erything having reference to politics, and there is no danger. 
It would relieve me from much solicitude to hear that 

Madame was well, or, at least, convalescent. I go on 

Wednesday evening. God ever bless you all. I do not 
say adieu, entertaining a hope of saying that in person. 

A. Burr. 


Stockholm, September 26, 1809. 

My northern tour was protracted far beyond the period I 
had prescribed for myself. On my return your obliging let- 
ter consoled me, in some degree, for the loss of your society. 
I am exceedingly pleased and flattered by so kind a token 
of your recollection. It is with extreme regret that I aban- 
don the hope of visiting Petersburgh ; but the silence of the 
Count Romzoff is an indication that my presence is not de- 
sired, perhaps that it would not be suffered. 

I have, therefore, resolved to go to Berlin by the circuitous 
route of Copenhagen, and shall, on the 30th, leave Stockholm 
for Gottenburg. It would gratify me very much, on my ar- 
rival in Berlin, to find there a letter from you, informing me 
of your safe arrival, and of any good fortune which may 
have occurred to you. 

You are recollected with great interest by the family with 
which you last lodged in this city, and particularly by la 
charmante . A. Burr. 

to baron d'albedy'hll. 

Stockholm, September 30, 1809. 
I am perfectly sensible, my dear baron, to the friendly 
motives which have produced your inquiries ; and it would 
afford me pleasure to be able to satisfy a curiosity with 
which I have so much reason to be flattered. But if other 
circumstances did not forbid, it would, at this juncture, be 
impossible, being on the eve of my departure, and surrounded 


by trifling but indispensable occupations. The imperfect 
notes I might now make would lead only to error and con- 

To convince you, however, of my entire confidence, and 
of my disposition to gratify your wishes, I will call on you 
this afternoon, and give such explanations as the time and 
the nature of the subjects may permit. Be assured always 
of my very great respect and attachment. A. Burr. 


Gottenburg, October 12, 1809. 

The enclosed was put into my hands very long ago, as 
you will perceive from its date ; but I was told it was most 
material that it go safe ; so I have used the freedom to keep 
it till now, not having before found an opportunity which I 
thought safe. 

I landed here about the 2d of May, and went directly to 
Stockholm, by way of Westeras, north of Lake Malaren. 
In Stockholm and its vicinity I passed nearly three months. 
Two more in visiting various parts of the country, particu- 
larly Upsala and Dannemour, which was my farthest point 
north. I have never known, in any country or at any time, 
five months of weather so uniformly fine. The excellence 
of the roads has been a constant subject of admiration to 
me ; much superior to those of England, and all free of toll. 
In travelling more than twelve hundred English miles, I 
have never found a bridge out of order, nor an obstruction in 
the road which could retard your progress for a second. 
There is no country in which travelling is at once so cheap, 
expeditious, and secure. All travellers have borne testi- 
mony to Swedish honesty, but no one has attempted to dis- 
cover the cause of a distinction so honourable. 

I have sought for it in their laws, in their social and mu- 
nicipal institutions, particularly in the judicial department. 
There is no country with whose jurisprudence I am ac- 
quainted in which personal liberty is so well secured ; none 


in which the violation of it is punished with so much cer- 
tainty and promptitude ; no one in which civil justice is ad- 
ministered with so much despatch and so little expense. 
These are strong assertions, but I shall bring with me the 
proofs. It is surprising, it is unaccountable, that a system 
differing so essentially from every other in Europe, and so 
fraught with valuable matter, should have remained to this 
day locked up in the Swedish and Ruric tongues', and that 
not the slightest information on this interesting subject could 
be found either in English or French. I should have 
thought that some Swede, from national pride if not from 
philanthropy, would have diffused the knowledge of them 
throughout Europe. 

It would require volumes to give you an account of the 
persons and the things which I have seen and thought wor- 
thy of notice. An imperfect sketch is preserved in a jour- 
nal which I have kept for the amusement of my daughter; 
and which, if it should ever reach America, shall be offered 
to your perusal. I hasten to topics nearer my heart — the 
attentions and kindness of your friends. 

The doctor met me with that ingenuousness and courtesy 
which put us at once at ease with each other. I have been 
domesticated in his house both in town and country. (Ek- 
lund, near Carlburg.) He keeps the best table in Stockholm. 
I doubt whether even the king has so choice a collection of 
wines. At his house one is always sure to find a circle of 
the best society. Your relations, ihe Hochschilds, must 
have been quite children when you left the country. Of 
these three lovely women, the elder married, about four 
years ago, the young Baron Hjerta, who now directs the 
finances, under what title of office I forget. Much is ex- 
pected from his genius and knowledge, and the expectation 
will not be disappointed. The youngest married, in April 
last, Poppius, then lagman (a superior office of the law) of 
a province on the Moelas, lately advanced to the dignity of 
Tushtice Rad (a still higher degree). I am indebted to him 
Vol. L— O 


for the greater portion of my small stock of Swedish juris- 
prudence. The single sister will, if I mistake not, soon be 
married to a very accomplished young man, whose name I 
cannot, at this moment, recall. Two of these women are 
called beautiful, even in this land of beauty. Colonel Gahn 
is a Danish prisoner, taken two years ago in Norway, but in 
Stockholm on parole. He distinguished himself very much 
by a daring and successful enterprise in the late war in Fin- 
land. It is expected that he will be ennobled as soon as he 
shall be exchanged or peace takes place. His brother-in- 
law is still governor of Dalecarlia — Gahn, of Fahlun, the 
capital of Dalecarlia. The brother of the doctor is a mem- 
ber of le Chambre des Bourgeois, and of most predominant 
influence. His son is in the College of Mines. He devoted 
himself to my amusement. All your family favoured the 
late revolution. Hjerta was a principal projector and leader. 
I am furnished with the details of those events by one of the 

Among those, not of your family, from whom I received 
attentions, I ought particularly to distinguish Baron d'Enger- 
strom, Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres, and Baron Mancke, 
Premier Marechal du Palais. You will be surprised to hear 
that this last still retains his office. Engerstrom made it 
his duty to take care that I should everywhere be well re- 
ceived, and have the means of gratifying my curiosity. 

I have much to tell you of the affectionate inquiries which 
have been made after you ; but the letters of Dr. Gahn and 
of his son will have, in part, anticipated me, and the residue 
must be deferred till the next occasion. I began this in- 
tending to write you a great deal ; but had not written ten 
lines before a number of letters from England and America, 
arrived by the packet this day, were handed to me. They 
are the first, the only letters which I have received since 
leaving London, and they claim my immediate attention. 
The packet which takes this will sail to-morrow. To-mor- 
row, also, I proceed to Copenhagen, and thence to see some- 


thing of Germany. Letters for me may be enclosed to 
William Graves, No 18 Wallbrook, London. He will be 
possessed of my address, and know how to communicate 
with me. 

Dr. Gahn retains perfect health, and all the cheerfulness 
and activity of youth. I enclose two pictures of him (a very 
fine likeness), one for yourself, the other to be transmitted 
to my daughter. I was making a collection of recent pub- 
lications on political subjects for you (the liberty of the press 
being now perfect) ; but, having consulted the doctor, he and 
his son undertook the charge. They have put up a very 
large parcel, from which you may promise yourself great 
amusement. The parcel will go to London by Captain 
Barry, of New- York, who was just about to sail when I left 
Stockholm. You see that I claim part of the merit. The 
diet are doing good, as you will see from these commu- 
nications. Peace with Russia is not finally ratified. Over- 
tures have been made by Denmark, and negotiations will 
soon be commenced. Austria will again try the fate of war. 
The conduct of Russia is at least equivocal. 

Having time to write only a short note to my daughter, I 
must ask of you to transmit to her that which I have written 
to you, or a copy of it. Apologize for me to Mrs. B. that 
I do not now write to her. 

Adieu, my dear sir. I am indebted to you for the amuse- 
ment and instruction which I have found in this country ; 
which, but for you, I should not have visited. I leave it 
with regret, bearing the most pleasing recollections of its 
hospitalities, and with indelible sentiments of admiration and 
respect. A. Burr. 


Gottenburg, October 13, 1809. 
I arrived here on the seventh, on my way to Copenhagen, 
and am this day made happy, very happy, by the receipt of 
your letter of the first of August. The first, the only letter 



from you since I left London. It would seem as if, by con- 
cert, we had both been silent for five months. A safe con- 
veyance to London is unexpectedly found at the moment I 
am going off; and, being overwhelmed with all those vexa- 
tious occupations which are incident to the hours just pre- 
ceding a removal, I can only thank you, mgst cordially 
thank you. Tell the boy how much I am delighted to hear 
of his progress. I beg him to make haste to learn Latin, 
for I want him to translate for me a Latin book which I have 
bought here for our amusement and instruction. 

Our amiable friend, the consul Gahn, will forward you a 
letter which I write to him by this opportunity, together 
with a picture of my learned and good friend, his relation 
l'Assesseur Gahn (commonly called Dr. Gahn). The doctor 
has most faithfully fulfilled the injunctions of the consul as 
respects me. He devoted himself to my amusement, and 
with success, for he is justly held in the highest estimation. 
It is impossible not to love and admire the character of this 
people. Honesty is not a virtue here ; it is a mere habit. 
Coming from England, where no vigilance can secure you 
against fraud and theft, it is like passing to another planet 
to travel in this, where you sleep in security without a latch 
to your door; where you may send your trunk, without 
a lock, to any distance, without hazard, though driven by a 
child, often a little girl, at all hours of night, in their little 
open chairs. This circumstance, the beauty of their roads, 
being everywhere like that from New-York to Harlem, 
and the kindness and cheerful good-humour with which you 
are everywhere received, render travelling very pleasant in 
this country. It is also the cheapest in the world. A horse 
and chair, with driver, costs less than three cents per Eng- 
lish mile, and no toll. 

The picture is safe, though it has encountered great haz- 
ards. It has been greatly admired at Stockholm, where 
for some weeks I left it with Breda, a celebrated painter, 
who has varnished and put it in frame. There, amid a gal- 


axy of Swedish beauty, and I have nowhere seen a greater 
proportion than at Stockholm, it was distinguished, and did 
honour to the subject, to the artist, and to me. Breda, who 
is not only an artist, but a man of erudition, of sensibility, of 
taste, and fashion, said some things which I have no time 
now to repeat, but which you will find in my journal ; that 
journal goes on toujours, but very irregularly ; sometimes a 
great deal, and sometimes, and when most was to be said — 
nothing. I keep it with me, but my letter-books and other 
papers I have sent to England. This reminds me to tell 
you that my trunk, of the loss of which you was advised in 
my letter from this place in May, was found by the indefat- 
igable zeal of a Swedish lad, who. firmly believing that the 
English were all thieves, went, without my knowledge or 
order, searched the packet in which I came, there found it, 
buried under old junk and cordage, and brought it up with 
the double triumph of having restored my property and re- 
deemed the honour of his country, for my suspicions had 

vrniaavty fastened un a Gwcdc. 

Tell my little Gampy that I have bought a parcel of beau- 
tiful medals for him of the distinguished personages and 
events of this country. That which will please him most is 
one of Charles XII., when a boy of twelve years. These 
I must bring myself, for my shipments to you both have been 
very unfortunate. 

I have again seen 60,* of whom I have so often written 
to you. He is quite resolved to remove to the United States, 
and establish himself there ; perhaps at Charleston. You 
will know how to prepare for his reception. Mrs. F. would 
be useful to him ; but there is no doubt he will succeed. It 
was formerly suggested to you to write something to 85 — 87, 
and to the Corn Doctor.! The expediency is left to your 
discretion. He will not be addressed to 62, nor count on 
him. I wish to say more, but in this way and at this mo- 
ment cannot ; and, besides, as I have never a good idea 
* Aaron Burr, t Dr Eustis. 


which does not occur to you first, it is deemed unnecessary. 
By him you will receive the journal. 

I am very much pleased to learn that you have engaged 
in the translation of " Principes." If you persevere, as I 
have no doubt, the venerable author will transmit to you all 
the original papers. I have written to my friend, near 75, 
and, on receipt of a proper reply, advising me of his exist- 
ence and good-will, shall make him a visit; a very short 
one, however. I desire, I command you, to pass a few days 
in Charleston this winter. 

With your letter came one from a gentleman who had 
lately seen the person to whom you have once or twice 
written about those funds. That person professed inviola- 
ble friendship ; said that he had paid the money, but that 
the agent who received it might have been treacherous. 
Write E. A. to sift this matter. Write at the same time, as 
by my order, so much of this letter as may interest him. 

When you write to Consul Gahn, let him know how much 
he has served and obliged me. lie win huuw iiuw ^ re- 
ward your letters. But if there should be an opportunity 
direct from Charleston to England, endorse to Wm. Graves, 
No. 18 Wallbrook, London, who will always have my ad- 
dress. A. Burr. 


Gottenburg, October 21, 1809. 

" It may very easy be the case, that by the behaviour of 
your agent, who took the rix-dolls., or by the interrup- 
tion of correspondence between Germany and England, you 
may come in any embarrassment, I take myself the liberty 
to send you the enclosed letter, at the producing of which 
Mr. H. Brauer will pay you one thousand marks, Ham- 
burgh currency, which you'll please to reimburse when you 
arrive in England or America. 

" I cannot tell you how much I am thankful to Providence 
for having given me the pleasure to get acquainted with a 


man whom I admired long ago. I esteemed you before, 
now I love you. Diedr. Luning."* 



Rochild, November 8, 1809. The ancient, not, however, 
the most ancient, residence of the kings of Denmark. To 
Madame Wederkop. Gave her in charge my letter to 
Luning. To A. B. Rothe, with whom half an hour about 
committees, council, &c. A very prompt, intelligent, com- 
municative man, about forty-six. He is to address to me at 
Hamburgh his reply to my queries. At one were ready 
and embarked on our journey, Hosack, Robinson, and self. 
The mode of travelling is in a long wagon. The body 
wickerwork. No springs ; but the seats with cushions and 
backs, hung on leather. The road is paved with pebbles, 
like the streets in our towns. The promise of three marks 
above the customary fare to the driver brought us on very 
briskly. With four fine, large black horses, we performed 
this stage in three hours ; the distance about twenty-one 
English miles. After rising and descending the hill un 
which is the palace of Fredericksborg, the whole is almost 
a plain. Many village churches ; all low, and with a square 
tower at one end, interspersed with those little hills which 
are called barrows — places of interment at a period beyond 
tradition or record. At one time I counted thirteen in 
view. These, and those I have seen in Sweden, resemble 
those which we have seen on the Ohio, the Mississippi, and 
the Missouri. We dined at Taastrup ; an excellent dinner; 
our drink was a kind of light ale. This repast for us three, 
including drink for our coachman, cost about one dollar 
United States' money. Very soon after leaving Taastrup 
we had in view the turrets of the ancient Cathedral of Ro- 
child. We are lodged in a neat, comfortable inn. A widow 
lady, two smiling maids, so like Swedes that we cannot be- 
lieve they are Danes. 

* See Journal, p. 301, 


On my arrival called on Professor Gamberg, and showed 
him Olsen's note. He returned with me to the inn. He 
has notified the sexton to be ready to show us the cathedral 
at eight in the morning. This is the object of my staying 
here to-night. I must see the tomb and bust of Marguerite, 
called the Semiramis of the North. The whole expense of 
travelling this day, for three of us, is about twelve shillings 

Gluckstadt, November 18. We were taken this morn- 
ing to see Le haut Chancellier de Holstein, le Baron some- 
thing, which shall be found out and told anon. It seems we 
had already been announced, for his excellency knew all 
about us. We were received very courteously ; and, under- 
standing that we were to leave town to-morrow, asked us to 
dine to-day en famille. Agreed. We went at half past 
two, and found there a literary man of modest, intelligent 
appearance, whose name I regret to have lost. The chancel- 
lier appears about forty-seven ; small, meager, but sprightly, 
courteous, and sensible ; something like Mr. Madison in ap- 
pearance. A la Swedoise, we all stood and said our grace ; 
and after dinner all rose at once, and after returning thanks, 
bowing, &c, returned to the drawing-room. The din- 
ner was of several courses. Each dish served in suc- 
cession, first being carved by madame, and then handed 
round by the servant. At each two plates a bottle of wine, 
tumblers and glasses ; each drank as he pleased. Some 
choice wines were sent round, a glass to each. Madame has 
four lovely children, the three youngest particularly. Home 
at seven. Snow and hail. The house at which I lodge is 
the rendezvous of the club. The noblesse of the town meet 
every Saturday evening for conversation, cards, and supper. 
The ladies' club assemble at the same house every Tuesday 
evening. I went in a few minutes, but I declined to join at 
cards, as well from an aversion to lose as because I must 
pack up. And so adieu, madam, till that labour be gone 


Done. Even the picture, all — all packed. Ready for 
starting at sunrise. I bid you bon soir a dozen times before 
I shut you up in that dark case. I can never do it without 
regret. It seems as if I were burying you alive. 

Altona, November 20. We did actually move at nine 
this morning. The mode of travelling since we crossed the 
Sund is in an immense long wagon, exactly like the great 
Pennsylvania wagons, only not covered, and that the body 
is wicker. There are three, and sometimes four seats. All 
open ; no springs, except that the seats are hung on leathern 
straps. If you wish a cover, you ask for a calash, which is 
exactly like a chaise-top, which falls back. This chaise occu- 
pies and forms a seat. As it snowed a little and threatened 
more, we took a calash. At Kieme, one Danish mile, we 
saw again the beautiful little m'lle. of the house. She was 
very glad to see us, knowing how much we admired her, 
and was all activity and attention. It was two o'clock when 
we arrived at Elmsholm. There is no getting these people 
on more than three English miles an hour, though I had 
promised him a dollar if he would drive it in four hours. 
While we were here waiting for horses, came in our French 
friend whom we left at Konsoer, and with him a young 
Holsteiner going to Altona. At Pinnesborg six o'clock. 
Here Hosack and I parted. He went with the Frenchman 
to Hamburgh. I came hither (Altona) with the Holsteiner. 

He recommends to me to lodge at Madame Neyls V . 

We could get no calash at Pinnesborg. There was rain, hail, 
and wind, and we in an open wagon. You will shiver to 
think how I suffered. You may spare yourself the trouble. 
I did not suffer at all. We were before the wind. My great 
para-plui defended me from the rain, and my feet and legs 
were covered with straw. We were stopped at the gate to 
exhibit our passports and have our trunks examined. A very 
courteous old man performed this duty ; and, to save us 
trouble, came out in the rain to inspect our baggage. The 
picture, about which I was most concerned, was not opened. 



The trunks opened and very slightly examined ; but, in the 
operation, some things were a little displaced (you know how 
my trunks are always packed), for which I scolded the old 
gentleman. He apologized as if he had really erred ; but, 
in fact, I did very ill, for he might have unpacked everything, 
which would have delayed us two hours. I was very sorry 
afterward that I did not treat him more kindly : and why 
did I not, seeing it was my nature and my habit ? I have 
not now time to tell you, madam. 

My landlady has a son ten, and two daughters twenty- 
three and twelve. L'ainee, a pretty, lively, sensible girl, 
speaking French fluently, and English a little. They have 
seen better days. Not a servant in the house. Everything 
is done by these children, which is embarrassing, for one 
does not know how to treat them. My room is plainly fur- 
nished, but neat and comfortable. 

21. Hosack, as you may recollect, was charged with a 
certain inquiry of some interest to me, and his report was 
expected at an early hour this morning ; but nothing was 
heard from him till a line received by the post at six this 
evening. Matters are just as I suspected. 

Sent the letter of L. Donner to his brother, C. H. Donner, 
early this morning, with a message that I would call at 
eleven. At that hour I did call. He received me with bon- 
homie and politeness. Stayed half an hour, and then home. 
Changed my quarters, at the request of m'lle., to a larger 
room. Rain and snow all day. Paid for hack to Donner's 
and to Frank's tavern, to leave my address there, 40 sch., 
about three shillings sterling. All day impatiently expecting 
Hosack. Walked out several times ; saw nothing remark- 
able. At five walked over to Hamburgh. The gates about 
half a mile apart. The walk is adorned with fine rows of 
trees ; a plain. Certainly a beautiful promenade. After 
five you pay four sch. for passing the Hamburgh gate. Did 
not dare to walk very far for fear of egareing. Forgot that 
I should want money to get back. Stopped at the gate and 


obliged to pawn my pencil. Home to get money, which 
borrowed of m'lle. Back to redeem my pencil, and then 
walked again about Hamburgh. Home at nine, and now 
was stopped at the Altona gate, an exigence for which I had 
made no provision. Obliged again to pawn the pencil. 

I forgot to say that at six this morning lighted my candle 
and turf fire with my own flint and steel. You see I go al- 
ways provided. At six this evening the sky cleared, and 
the moon shone out beautifully. I walked at least half a 
dozen times from one to t'other gate. 

22. Raining and snowing this morning, and all day till 
evening. Went over to Hamburgh, and found my way to 
where Hosack lodges. Left the notes which I had written 
to him and Robinson. Went to Donner's. He had just left 
home to visit me ; so hastened back to meet him, but failed. 
Saw two ladies at his house, who received me very hand- 
somely ; but I, like a fool, refused to sit, in the hope of find- 
ing mons. at my house. Wrote him a note about a bill of 
three hundred dollars which I enclosed to him to get pay- 
ment, being sans sou. 

23. At eleven walked to Hamburgh to see Hosack. Out. 
To Keyser Hoff to find Netzel ; did not lodge there, nor 
could I find where. Attempted to come home another way, 
and got completely lost. Asked at least twenty persons, 
not one of whom could understand me. At length found 
one who spoke French, and he took great pains to put me in 
the right way; nevertheless, got lost again ; but, seeing a gate 
through the ramparts, and, a mile beyond, a church, con- 
cluded it must be another way to Altona. On I went mer- 
rily. After going round the town, found it to be only a village 
of about one hundred houses, but could get no point of view 
where I could judge of the course, and, besides, the weather 
too sombre to see one mile. On return to that gate through 
which I had come, met a woman who spoke a few words 
of French. She told me that Altona was far off t'other side 
of Hamburgh. Very consoling. Getting into the city again, 


weary and hungry, stopped at a pastry shop ; there found a 
pretty black-eyed girl, speaking French fluently. She had 
no doubt but in five minutes she could find me a hack or a 
pilot. While she was looking out at the door for this pur- 
pose, I amused myself, greatly to my satisfaction, with her 
cakes and pastry, and some hot punch. She found a lad to 
convey me. Paid for my repast 18 sch., and 5 sch. to the 
boy, whom I dismissed at the gate, recognising it to be that 
at which I had come. Being refreshed by my repast and 
by the discovery of my way home, roved about within limits 
of which I was sure. 

Home at five. Robinson had been here and left me a 
note. Donner's servant with a verbal message to know 
whether I was engaged for dinner on Monday (certainly 
not), and to say that he would call at seven this evening if 
chez moi. Yes. He did call. Sat an hour and amused 
me much. Related a very curious anecdote of Constantine 
at Erfurth. Something of the King .of Saxony. 

Now I must tell you a great secret. Ma has a lover 

whom she has promised to marry. Herself told me the day 
after my arrival, and yesterday evening presented him to 
me. He is really a young man of prepossessing appear- 
ance, about twenty-two; she is twenty-five. He is a mer- 
chant of genteel manners, and speaking French. I have 
pronounced in his favour, which I suspect he has heard, for 
this evening he has been extremely attentive to me. Would 
himself bring anything I asked for. Both together, they 
brought the tea, and I invited them to take a dish with me. 
It is a luxury to see people happy. He goes home at ten, 

and then comes to take an English lesson. A very 

apt scholar. Pleine d'esprit. 

24. Took hack at ten to go to Hamburgh. To Robinson 
at the Keyser Hoff. I find that, among the great number of 
Americans here and there, all are hostile to A. B. All — 
what a lot of rascals they must be, to make war on one 
whom they do not know ; on one who never did harm or 


wished harm to a human being. Yet they, perhaps, ought 
not to be blamed, for they are influenced by what they hear. 
I learn further that A. B. is announced in the Paris papers 
in a manner no way auspicious. Further, my small slock 
of money was in a bill drawn on a house in Hamburgh. 
This bill was remitted to Mr. F., who, being absent, his friend 
and agent got the bill and the money, and " as he does not 
know but the money may belong to Mr. F.," refuses to pay 
it without his orders. A very pretty mess this for one day. 
Went to Netzel's. You may recollect that I desired Hau- 
terive to transmit his answers to this gentleman. He had 
no letter for me. Resolved then to go direct to the French 
minister to see if he had any orders to give or refuse me 
passports. Sent in my name, but did not get out of my car- 
riage. After some minutes the servant returned, saying his 
excellency was then very much engaged, but would be glad 
to see me at three o'clock. Went to Hosack's to lounge un- 
til three, then again to the minister's. Another apology 
that he was still much engaged, but begged that I would 
call to-morrow at twelve. 

Went to Hosack's to dine with him. Forgot to say that I 
went to see Luning's friend, Brauer, who received me very 
kindly, and asked me to a supper and party on Monday, which 
declined, being engaged to dine that day with Donner. Did 
not present Luning's bill on Brauer, being still doubtful about 

that. Learned also to day that the threatens everything, 

and are taking measures against the peace and dignity of our 
sovereign self. 

Intended to have written many letters to-night to the 
United States. Captain Davis sails to-morrow, and such 
another opportunity may never offer. But, in this state of 
things, what can I write ? To be silent as to my intended 
movements would be strange, and to tell the true state of 
things afflicting to my friends. So I will leave you all to 
your own conjectures. My belle Jan. came up and took tea 


with me, and had then an hour of English lesson. She makes 
great progress, and amuses me. 

2-5. To Hosack's, where found a letter from Luning, tell- 
ing me of the prosperous state of his business. One from 
Graves full of goodness. One from S. S., containing a long 
bill of untoward circumstances regarding himself. The let- 
ter, however, does great honour to his head and heart. L.'s 
letter determined me to make use of his draught, especially 
as there was no prospect of getting my own money, and I am 
penniless. Hosack had just got up, and, of course, had not 
made further inquiries on this or the other more interesting 

At twelve to the minister's ;* was at once received. He 
is the transcript of our J. B. Prevost, only fifteen years 
older; but marked with the same characters. His reception 
was courteous, but with a mixture of surprise and curiosity. 
At once offered me a passport to any frontier town, but 
has no authority to do more. Passports to go to Paris must 
come from Paris, and to that end I must write, &c. He 
advises that I direct the reply to be transmitted to Mayence, 
where it will be before I can get there. At parting he apol- 
ogized for the delays of yesterday, and asked me to dine at 
his country-house, three miles from Altona, to-morrow. 
Agreed. Home. Dined in my room, M'lle. J. attending me. 
Sent word to Donner that, if he would be at home, 1 would 
call to pass the evening. He is engaged out. After dinner, 
walked to Hamburgh to see what news Hosack had got for 
me. He was abroad dining, but left a note and a sack of 
money, the proceeds of the bill, two hundred dollars. In 
the morning I had called again on Brauer, presented the bill 
of Luning, and got the one thousand marks, so that I am at 
this moment rich. Strolled about Hamburgh for two hours, 
doing twenty foolish things, and spending two dollars. Took 
care, however, this time to reserve money enough to get 
through the gates. Lounged till two ; and now, while the 

* See Burr's Memoirs, vol ii., p. 417. 


watchmen are shaking their rattles, I bid you bon soir. Mist 
and fog, with some rain and snow all day. 

26. Though the day has not been cold, and I doubt 
whether there was frost last night, yet I felt fire comfortable, 
and, for the first time, put on my flannel waistcoat. You 
recollect that I travelled from Stockholm to Gottenburg, day 
and night (all night), finding half an inch thickness of ice in 
the morning, obstinately refusing to put on this waistcoat. 
Now I am condemned to it for the winter. Sent word to 
Donner that I would call on him at eleven. He was going 
out, and would call on me. He called about eleven. Sat 
near an hour, amusing me very much. 

At five to Mons. Bourrienne, le Ministre de France. Met 
there Mons. Thierry and three others. A daughter about 
fourteen, and finely grown for that age ; a very interesting 
girl. Sweetness and intelligence prettily blended. Four 
others, pretty. The minister occupies a very handsome 
house on the Elbe, about three miles below Altona, for 
which he pays 1000 dollars per annum. Madame sa fem- 
me is from Leipsic, and appears very amiable. Thierry 
made me many civilities. Gave a history of Pitcairne, of 
whom every one speaks well. 

27. You have not yet been informed, at least by me, that 
Altona and Hamburgh are on the same plain, on the north side 
of the Elbe. The territory of Hamburgh extends to the very 
gates of Altona. Hamburgh is fortified. An immense ditch 
and parapet. Altona not. The gates of Hamburgh and Al- 
tona are about one third of an English mile apart. A beau- 
tiful walk through rows of trees, and on the left, going to 
Hamburgh, a wood nearly half way. The plain between the 
two towns belongs to Hamburgh, and the senate do not suffer 
any houses. A few, however, have formerly been allowed 
on the side nearest Altona. The city of Hamburgh is esti- 
mated to contain one hundred thousand inhabitants, the 
territory about thirty-five thousand more. Altona contains 
about twenty-seven thousand. It is in Holstein now, and, 


for some years past, part of Denmark. German is the lan- 
guage of Holstein as well as of Hamburgh. Altona is below 
Hamburgh, on the Elbe. The contribution paid by Ham- 
burgh to the French the last three years is about twenty-three 
millions of marks (three marks to a dollar). This is exclu- 
sive of the maintenance of the troops who have assisted the 
Hamburghers to govern themselves. Now to ourselves. 

At five to dine with Donner. A male party of about fif- 
teen, extremely well composed. De Blucher, General Wal- 
terstoff, &c. Every dish is carved at the sideboard, and 
handed round by a servant, a la Swedoise. Sometimes a 
portion is brought on a plate. Wine of different sorts on 
table, and every one drinks as he pleases. Now and then 
one pledges another. After dinner, which lasted at least 
two hours, all rise together, bow, and make compliments. 
The lady is handed out, and all return to the drawing-room, 
where coffee is immediately served. About an hour after 
coffee, tea was served in the same manner. One retires 
without taking leave. Mr. B. proposed cards, which I de- 
clined. Off at eight. The mode of entertaining is easy, 
and everything was in handsome style. Madame is a lovely 
little woman. Fair, with very black hair, with blue eyes. 
Has three small children, whom I did not see. Lawaetz, 
Conseil d'Etat, engages me to dine with him to-morrow. 

I had not been at home this evening half an hour before I 
was seized with a tormenting toothache. This comes of put- 
ting on a flannel waistcoat. Being an under tooth, and hol- 
low, I thought of my old remedy, camphire and opium, and 
have crammed it full, which has relieved me so far as to al- 
low me to write this, but still growling. 

28. Have had a most uncomfortable night. Swallowed 
of the opium enough to stupify and sicken me. Got asleep, 
and slept till about seven. Swallowed the juice of three 
lemons, and afterward took a dish of coffee, but ate nothing. 
At two walked an hour, but found no relief either from the 
stupor or pain. Smoking increases it; however, dressed 


for dinner, and at half past four went in a hack. M. La- 
waetz's residence is about one English mile below the town, 
beautifully situated on the Elbe. The house is large, and 
finished in very handsome taste. It is not more than one 
hundred and fifty yards from the road in a direct line, but 
you are taken round a pretty circular or winding road, through 
trees and shrubs, for several hundred yards. On our return 
this was lighted by lamps hung in the trees and bushes. 
There must have been near one hundred lamps. It was 
again a male party of about twenty. De Blucher, cham- 
berlain and premier president, and le General Walterstoff 
among the guests. Also, the amiable young Donner. In 
short, the grandees of the country. Our host a very sprightly, 
intelligent man, d'un certain age. Madame just such a wife 
as he ought to have. Both noted for their benevolence and 
goodness. Among the guests several learned men. The 
D., whom I shall ever be glad to see. I was, unfortunately, 
in bad order. The toothache, though not violent, was felt, 
and the stupor and nausea of the opium remained. Stole 
off at eight. The form of the entertainment was as yester- 
day, but in more splendour. The rooms are all warmed 
by stoves ; but these stoves are often a very elegant and 
costly piece of furniture. Pillars, ruins, statues bronzed, 
and many whimsical and pretty forms of iron, sometimes 
bronzed or of porcelain. They put something about the 
stove, I believe frankincense, which gave a charming perfume 
to the air. In the country (Holstein) a similar effect is pro- 
duced by a preparation of dried rose-leaves and other fra- 
grant herbs. Mons. L. is very rich, and has no children. 

Before I had been half an hour home the toothache re- 
turned with all its violence. I resolved to have it out early 
in the morning; but how to get through the night was the 
first question. The application of pepper and brandy oc- 
curred to me. I applied it, and was relieved in ten minutes ; 
but still there is a growling and menacing which alarms me. 
The opium, too, has brought on a headache. It can be only 


that, for I did not eat two ounces, nor drink a single glass 
of wine, though there was a luxurious dinner, and wines of 
a great variety. Among them Champagne and Burgundy. 
Bon soir. 

29. It was just as I feared. The toothache returned and 
kept me in misery all night. Towards morning I got some 
sleep and lay till ten. Headache and appetite. Off to 
Hamburgh with my valet (whom I forgot to introduce to 
you, and now have no time) to hunt a dentist. He recom- 
mended to me Mons. , from Paris, as most celebrated 

and the best. Before we got out of the Altona gate the pain 
left me, and, as the tooth is the most important one of the 
few I have left, postponed my visit to mons., and went first 
to Robinson's. Thence to Chapeaurouge, for whom I have 
a letter of introduction from Achaud. At his country seat, 
but will be home to-morrow from ten to twelve. To L. Me- 
nard's, for whom also a letter from Achaud. He received 
me very courteously, and tendered me all manner of civili- 
ties. This was unexpected, for he could not hope to make 
money out of me. He is a man of very pleasing manners 
and appearance. (M'lle. J. has been up, and interrupted me 
very pleasantly for more than an hour. It is now half past 
twelve, therefore, philosophically speaking, Thursday morn- 
ing.) But to go on with my story. Mons. M. is a mer- 
chant of high standing, appearing about thirty-six. Of an 
open, frank, cheerful physiognomy. " Why did you not 
deliver these letters on your first arrival ?" Why, madame, 
in the first place, I have a very great aversion to letters of 
introduction, having everywhere found acquaintances, made 
accidentally, the most agreeable and permanent ; obviously, 
because they are made from sympathy. Second, M'lle. M. 
Wolstonecraft, and some other books, had given me a pre- 
judice against Hamburgh negotiators. I will never again 
believe in anything I read in a book (excepting Jeremy Ben- 
tham's). Third, that matter of M. gave me some little dis- 
gust for Hamburgh. Fourth, the two letters of Achaud to 


Sweden, you remember, never paid the customary rate of 
postage. Four such good reasons must, I am sure, have 
satisfied you. " Yes, but why, in spite of all these reasons, 
did you deliver them now ?" From a certain whim, which I 
will whisper to you, but dare not write. (Do remind me to tell 
you how contraband trade is carried on here.) On my re- 
turn from town I saw about twenty poor women and girls 
under guard. From Menard's to the French minister's. My 
valet gave my name to the porter of his excellency, and, after 
waiting several minutes in the corridor, received answer 
that he was engaged and could not see me. No appoint- 
ment of any other hour, which I thought odd. Sent back F. 
with my card, requesting to know when he would be visible, 
and walked off. Immediately the minister's valet came run- 
ning after me, asking me to walk in. It seems that a name 
totally unlike mine had come to his ears through the mouths 
of two servants. He received me as might have been ex- 
pected from his former civilities. Gave me a passport, and, 

1 -..-....,.. 1 ... « iUo.( I tv«» to- otofcj- t-*ro ox tlnoo uay o lorierorj ooiilid.IV 

to what I had told him, gave a general invitation to his house ; 
engaged to dine with him to-morrow. 

Thence to see Hosack. Out. Made Francois take up 
my sack of money. Thence to the Salon d'Apollon. It is a 
building containing concert and ball rooms in very handsome 
style. The concert-room circular, about ninety feet diame- 
ter. Vaulted, and no pillars. Home by four o'clock, having 
been out five hours, walking the whole time except about 
thirty minutes. The headache came on about one, and in- 
creased continually. That infernal opium yet. Found the 
card of the President de Blucher, which reminds me of a 
part of the employment of the day which has been omitted ; 
and, to explain, I must go back to yesterday. 

Sitting near General W. either yesterday or Monday, I 
intimated that I should be very much gratified to be present 
at one of the President Blucher's courts. He (the general), 
without my orders or knowledge, mentioned it to the presi- 


dent ; and when we met again at Lawaetz's, the general told 
me that he was authorized from the president to say that it 
would afford him pleasure to receive me at his court the 
next audience day (this day). So this morning, when I got 
to the gate and found the toothache missing, my engagement 
with Le H. Chancelleire came to my mind, and we turned 
short about to go to the audience chamber, which is at the 
other end of the town. On the way, called on Donner to ask 
some instruction as to how to get in, and to place myself, 
&c. Madame received me. I made her produce her chil- 
dren, a girl and a boy, about five and three. It is impossible 
to imagine anything more lovely than they are both. I was 
quite enraptured with them. Then came in the younger 
Donner, and, finally, Mons. Donner. By the time all this 
had passed it was half past eleven, and too late for the court. 
Mr. D., therefore, proposed to show me their museum ; but 
I took for this purpose the younger Donner, and on the way 
left my card at the president's house, and thus you account 
for the card returned mis evening. Tin, uliu»» u >» ;«. ~ v^:idi« s 
of no show, but replete wilh convenience. It is maintained 
by an association of the principal gentlemen of the town, 
who pay about sixteen dollars each a year. The principal 
gazettes in Europe are taken, and new publications, and 
maps. There are reading-rooms, conversation-rooms, card- 
rooms. A very convenient ball-room, with parlours, and clos- 
ets, and smoking-rooms. Also a very spacious and well-laid 
out garden. The associates meet two evenings in the week. 
Once to sup, and once for conversation, &c. Balls, I for- 
get how often in the season. The rooms always open to 
the associates, and to any stranger introduced by a member, 
as now am I. Two o'clock is rattling, and I must be up at 
seven. You see that my aches are all cured; how, you 
shall hear to-morrow. 

30. Had ordered Francis to be here at half past seven. 
He came, and I rose. Dressed by candle. A very thick, 
chilling fog. To Robinson's ; settled accounts with him, 


and received a balance due me from him and Hosack of 
forty-five dollars. To De Netzel's. He has no letters for 
me. Engaged Hosack and Robinson to breakfast with me 
to-morrow. To the dentist's ; he thinks he can preserve the 
tooth for me, but the inflammation must subside before he can 
do anything. Home at two. Found a card from Menard, 
and invitation to dine on Monday, December 4. Declined, 
being engaged. " Where am I engaged ?" Why, to go out 
of town, to be sure. What do I stay here for ? Did not 
call to day on De Chapeaurouge. Determined not to deliver 
the letter, for all the reasons mentioned yesterday. 

At five to the French minister's. He did not return from 

town till six-y-Gen. Damasque, Gen. de Westphalie, 

Commandant en Hamburgh, and others. M'lle. Emilie 
l'ainee est toujours plus et plus jolie et interressante. Off 
at half past seven. To Donner's to sup. Madame came in 
at half past nine, having been to the play. Supper at ten. 
Oysters served raw, in the shell ; the best I have tasted 
on this side the Atlantic. Then a supper in form of meats, 
fowl, and dessert. A very pleasant evening. 


Copenhagen, November 7, 1809. 

I avail myself of the indulgence you were pleased to 
allow, to ask from you, 

1. A note of the statutes which organize the " Committee 

2. The titles of any publications in French or Danish 
explanatory of the subject. 

3. A note of the alterations suggested by experience, 
which have been made in the system since the date of your 

4. Extracts "des Rapports, des Committees," for the 
years subsequent to 1801, similar to that which is seen in 
page 117 of your Memoire. 

Intending to recommend to my fellow-citizens in the 


United States of America the adoption of similar institutions, 
I wish to prefix as much as possible of the experience already 
had in this country. The motive will, it is hoped, excuse 
me for this intrusion on your time. Accept assurances of 
my great consideration. A. Burr. 


Altona, Decemher 1, 1809. Rose at half past seven, at 
which hour one must light candle. At nine came Hosack 
and Robinson to breakfast. Grand dejeune aprez le caffe et 
toast, et sausage. Wine, cakes, eau de vie. Two bottles 
wine ! Being sunshine for the second time since our ad- 
vent, invited them to walk out to see L.'s house and gar- 
den. Lawaetz not at home; but walked over the gardens 
and the rooms which were open in the house. The bank 
appears to be one hundred and fifty feet above the level of 
the river, and the view, as well from this garden as from 
many points on the road, is extensive and beautiful. There 
are still many vessels sailing up and down. A few years 
ago many, many more. Met General Walterstoff and fam- 
ily. Chez nous at one. Walked to Hamburgh with H. and 
R. Separated at the gate. To the French minister's, to 
see the mosaic work, which is truly wonderful. I am in- 
credulous even when I touch it, that all this fine effect is 
produced by stones and the natural colour of stones. Many 
civil words. To De Netzel, who offers me a letter to Cas- 
sel. To hunt bijoux. Three rix-dollars, par M'lle. J. 
Round about, with Francois as my guide, and home at sev- 
en. Sans accident. Tea and J. filled up the evening. 
This morning called on Dr. Munson, both going and return- 
ing from L.'s, but out. Had this morning a note from 
Chapeaurouge, enclosing a letter from Achaud, and asking 
me to dinner to-morrow. Agreed. 

2. At eleven to Dr. Munson's. He gave me a line of in- 
troduction to Madame Sievekin, of Hamburgh. Walked 
with him to see Schoenbron. Out. To Donner's. Saw 


his sister, a very intelligent brunette. Home at one ; thence 
to Hamburgh to see Madame Sievekin. Received with 
great politeness. It is a lady of very prepossessing appear- 
ance. About fifty, but exceedingly well preserved. Still 
handsome, mild, intelligent, dignified. L'amie de Bollman, 
of whom we talked much. Engaged me to dine to-morrow. 
To Chapeaurouge's to dine. Met there Menard et ux, a 
very amiable, cheerful, well-bred woman, who has travelled 
over France and England. In all, about twenty-two, of 
whom five were women. Madame C. very ladylike. M. 
de Chapeaurouge offered letters and other civilities. Din- 
ner and wines good. A house superbly fitted up, and the 
company cheerful. Off at eight. It is a custom I do not 
much approve, that the guests give to the servants about a 
mark or more. To Hosack's ; he and R. had gone to the 
concert. Home at nine. Francois showed his address 
when I came down from dinner ; the servants called for my 
carriage. F. said it was not at the door, but waiting at a 
house just by, where I was going. J. and I agreed to drink 
a bottle of Champagne, which we did, and sat till half past 


3. Tooth and jaws plaguing me again. Yesterday Mr. 
Jacobson, an advocate of great eminence, called on me and 
introduced himself. Having heard from President Blucher 
that I was inquiring into the laws and judicial proceedings 
of this country, he came to offer his services, &c. ; so this 
morning went to return his visit and to have a talk. He 
has a very neat, pretty little house and large garden in the 
Pal Maille. Sat an hour. Thence home. At three to 
Hamburgh. Called on Hosack; thence at four to Madame 
Sievekin's. There were about fifteen at dinner. Mr. and 
Mrs. Poole, a very sensible couple ; Professor Ebeling ; 
Professor Rimarius, father of Madame S. ; De Netzel ; 
three or four sons of Madame S., very handsome, and a 
daughter who will not survive six months. There were 
several other men of learning. I never saw a party more 


cheerful. I had dismissed Francois for the evening, and at 
eight walked off alone to Altona, and quite to the lower end 
of the town to Jacobson's, who had invited me to sup. Met 
about a dozen equally mixed. Madame is handsome and 
pleasing. Her elder sister also handsome. Two sets were 
at cards. I talked law with Mr. Jacobson. Played chess 
with madame, who plays extremely well. M'lle. played 
and sang. A fine voice, and mistress of music. Off at 
eleven. Then an hour with J. 

4. Robinson came in before I was out of bed. Tooth and 
jaws in bad order. But the lip which was bitten by a ven- 
omous animal on Friday last has swollen, and is very pain- 
ful. I did not mention it before, because the origin of the 
thing is so ridiculous, that I wished to hush it up ; for the 
bite was given in a paroxysm of great good-humour. Hosack 
came in just after we had done breakfast. At twelve came 
in Mr. Jacobson, by appointment, to attend the court with 
me. Left my young friends and went with Mr. Jacobson. 
The president not there. His chair vacant. The burgo- 
masters ; the police-officers. I was introduced to all the 
advocates. There are but six. The number is limited. 
Have no time to detail the proceedings. 

Home at one. At two to Hamburgh", to De Chapeau- 
rouge's ; thence to Menard's. Saw him, madame, and her 
brother. Madame had just had a tooth drawn. Mr. M. went 
with me to a society, where are newspapers, new publica- 
tions, &c. He inscribed my name, which gives admission. 
We were then to have gone to see the senate and burgo- 
masters en costume and in session ; but they had adjourned. 
I called, by appointment, on Robinson, to take him with me 
in this walk, but he had not come in ; thence to Hosack's, 
where dined. My tooth still growling. At length made up 
my mind to have it drawn, notwithstanding the serious loss 
it will be to me, to say nothing of the pretty operation of 
drawing. Went off to the dentist's full of resolution. He 
was out, and Avould not be home till the morning. So that 


I shall have again to make all this effort to get myself in a. 
tooth-drawing humour. 

Went thence, by appointment, to Professor Ebeling's. He 
is a most cheerful, amiable man, of about sixty-two. Per- 
fectly deaf. The only mode of communication with him is 
by writing. He always carries in his pocket pencil and pa- 
per; and, when he asks a question, hands them to you to re- 
ply. When he has had your answer, he returns it to you ; 
because, he says, persons may not choose to have their free 
conversations preserved in writing. He speaks, however, 
extremely well, both French and English. Takes great in- 
terest in all that concerns America. Is writing a statistical, 
geographical, political, &c, account of the United States. 
Has a quarto volume for each state, beginning North, and 
has got South as far as Virginia. I saw twelve of these 
quartoes. They are interleaved with blank paper, on which 
he continually makes his additions and corrections. His 
library of American books, i.e., books on American affairs, 
is nearly as large as all the Richmond-Hill library. Ge- 
ography is more particularly his department ; and the extent 
and accuracy of his knowledge is astonishing. A part of 
his American works were published a few years ago. You 
will receive a copy, addressed to you by himself, as he un- 
derstands that you read and write German. Passed near 
three hours with this amiable man. 

Called on Madame Sievekin this morning, and sat half an 
hour. The state of her daughter's health seemed to depress 
her. Mr. Menard gave me four letters of introduction for 
different persons in Germany. Begged that I would advise 
him if I went to Paris, that he might introduce me to his 
friends there. 

Brought home my tooth and my life, both in bad condi- 
tion. Tea with J. Will go early to bed, and pos. go be- 
fore breakfast to the dentist's, in Hamburgh, about two and 
a half miles, and get rid of the tooth. You don't believe me, 
but I will. 

Vol. I.— P 


5. I did go to bed at twelve and rose before seven, when 
it is as dark as at midnight. Dressed in the dark, having 
made arrangements therefor ; and, before a creature in the 
house had moved, sallied forth, fasting, to the dentist. He 
was abed. I had him called up in great haste, and, what 
might not have been expected, he met me with great good- 
humour. He advised strongly against drawing the tooth. 
Could give me an application which, if I would confine my- 
self for the day, would take out the pain and inflammation, 
and then he would plombe it. How easily one receives ad- 
vice when it concurs with one's wishes ! Like a fool, I lis- 
tened, and came off with his application, which is flowers 
of chamomile and rye-meal, a dry cushion applied hot and 
frequently heated. M'lle. J. made the cushions very quick 
and very nice, and has been all day heating and applying 
them. It is something better, but still the jaw is not in a 
condition to travel with or to be plombed. I am very much 
inclined, not quite resolved, to have the tooth drawn to-mor- 

Sent Francois to Donner with a note about money mat- 
ters, and then to town with a dozen notes. Received a very 
kind letter from Ebeling, with four letters of introduction to 
different learned men. Tea with J. Her lover, hearing 
that I was indisposed, came to see me and tendered his ser- 
vices. He is a very handsome and amiable young man. 
Have had no other visit to-day. Intended to have written a 
great many letters to distant friends, but have not written a 
line. My principal occupation has been in running over a 
vast pile of American papers which Ebeling sent me. 

I opened your picture yesterday to gratify J., who has the 
same kind of eyes and mouth. Got my bill, which frightens 
me to death. Seventy-three marks for the last eight days; 
equal to twenty specie dollars, and Francois not included. 
I must, I will be off, if it be only to Hamburgh ; but not to- 
morrow. To-morrow I must go to President Blucher's 


court, having been twice expected there and failed, but next 
day I do think I shall go. 

6. Had a bad night. That bitten lip gave me most in- 
tolerable pain. Very like the application of a hot coal. 
The jaw, too, was not quite silent. Got up at seven, and 
dressed in the dark, and without fire, being resolved to at- 
tend President Blucher's court. Francois came presently 
and helped me. Got breakfast at eight, and, having sent 
my greatcoat to ihe tailor's for improvement, took coach 
and went to Jacobson's (but first I wrote notes to Robinson, 
and Hosack, and Netzel, and sent off Francois to Hamburgh 
with them). M. Jacobson is author of a very learned trea- 
tise on maritime law, which I shall send out to the United 
States. Sat an hour with him, greatly interested by his 
communications on Holstein and Altona law. Then to 
court. The president received me with great politeness, 
and gave me a chair at his right hand. Stayed in court two 
hours, during which time more than forty causes were de- 
spatched in a manner quite new to me, and highly interesting. 
In the department of the president there was a happy com- 
bination of dignity, courtesy, intelligence, and despatch. 
Remind me to relate to you the trial between a sea captain 
and a little girl whom he had enticed from Redensburg, and 
abandoned here, where he has fem. Between a widow lady 
and her lover. He had lent her money. How the account 
was balanced. A suit by a girl for breach of promise of 
marriage. Several cases of debt acknowledged. Of the 
manner of giving bail for strangers (citizens or burghers give 
none). No imprisonment for debt in Holstein or Altona. 
Tools of a trade, necessary furniture, &c, cannot be taken 
in execution. A singular custom, and the manner of exe- 
cuting it. The president in another district, where he pre- 
sided, at first gave all gratis. No fee for a summons. Four 
sch. for a citation. 

Having dismissed my coach and paid him 24 sch., walk- 
ed, sans greatcoat, and the weather bleak and raw, to Don- 



ner's. Out ; but his younger brother settled my money 
affairs. Home at one. Found Hosack and Robinson had 
just gone. I wished to see them, and wrote them this- morn- 
ing not to come before one o'clock. I had, with very great 
reluctance, left the court merely to observe my appointment 
with them. 

The president asked me to dine on Friday, which I de- 
clined. Must and will go off. At two to Hamburgh. To 
the library to see Professor Ebeling. Passed half an hour 
with him, and always much amused. Received another let- 
ter from him. Dismissed Francois, and went to the dentist's 
with the full determination to have out the tooth, in spite of 
his advice or remonstrances. He was out. To la vice-pres- 
ident an hour, and home at five, not having dined nor hav- 
ing any appetite. The jaw more swollen and very painful. 
Tea with J. Sent out for the ingredients of what, in the 
family, we used to call Matt's salve, and set Francois to 
cook it, which he did very ill. Applied a large plaster to 
the place affected. Lay down and got asleep; but the lip, 
which is worse and worse, and which I am at a loss what to 
think of, waked me after an hour. Found the jaw much 
relieved, and now quite in repose ; but the lip gives me 
such strange twinges, that I am afraid to lie down, for it is 
much worse. What strange sort of poison can this be, which 
does not diffuse itself, but rankles in that spot. The lip is 
a little swollen and quite numb ; not painful, except by 
twinges, which become more frequent and severe. Donner 
called while I was in Hamburgh. The president is very 
like the late Dr. Ledyard. Could discern the sun this fore- 
noon, but now raining again. What vile roads I shall have 
if I should ever get out of Altona. 

7. Slept very well till eight. Only two twinges of the 
lip. The swelling in the face not having subsided, and a 
dull pain in the jaw keeping me in constant bad-humour, 
immediately after breakfast took a hack, and set off for the 
dentist's. Francois had been sent to Hamburgh early in 


the morning. The coachman mistook his directions, or was 
not acquainted with the town of Hamburgh. I could not 
inform him, as he understood not a word of French or Eng- 
lish. He drove about the city a full hour, stopping fre- 
quently to ask questions, probably to get directions. At 
length, seeing no end to the journey, I got out, and, after 
walking an hour, during which got my feet wet, found our- 
selves on the north side of the Lake Alster ; whence, how- 
ever, I could see the place of our destination, and, having 
shown to him, I got in again. The fellow was so sulky 
that he would not get off the box to shut the door, and stood 
still full five minutes, till a person passing by shut the door 
for us. Finally, got to the dentist's, and went in with the 
full determination not to listen to a word of his advice. He 
was abroad, and not expected home till night ! To Hosack's 
quarters to inquire for another dentist. The servant knew 
of one in the neighbourhood. Sent him to see if he were at 
home. After half an hour's absence, returned with an an- 
swer that the dentist would call on me immediately. This 
was exactly what I did not wish, for two obvious reasons, 
so drove off to the dentist's house. It is a very handsome 
house, and I was received with politeness, too much for the 
occasion, by a well-dressed gentleman and lady. The lady 
came up to me officiously, and was about to apply her hands 
to my face. Wishing to get rid of her, I very civilly beg- 
ged her not to trouble herself; that I had come to have a 
tooth drawn. " Eh bien, monsieur, c'est moi qui vois l'arra- 
cher." Vous, madame 1 " Oui moi." Mais voyons, est 
ce que vos petites mains ont la force ? Vous en serois con- 
vainqu et content. I submitted, and she drew the tooth 
very quick and perfectly well. Paid one ducat (two spe- 
cies). Home at one, in ten times more pain than I went 
out. Lay on the bed and slept an hour. The pain still 
continues (ten P. M.), though not so violent, but enough to 
unfit me for writing anything but this. While talking with 
you, I can forget the pain for half an hour together. 


Received this afternoon a note from Ebeling, apologizing 
that he could not call on me, having been seized with a 
colic. Reponse. Sent apology to De Blucher that I could 
not dine with him to-morrow ; indisposition. Received 
from Jacobson a message and present of a book on Holstein 
law, with explanatory notes in his own hand ; and thus I 
have passed the day. Alas, at this rate, when shall I get to 
Paris ; and when to you ? 

J. and her lover have been very attentive to me. Looking 
at the map since writing the above, I see that I was north 
of Binnen Alster, having passed over that causeway which 
divides the Binnen from the Grosse Alster. It affords on 
each side fine views ; but I was not much in the humour to 
enjoy fine views. Raining all this evening, twelve o'clock. 
J. had been to a dinner and party with her lover, and has 
just been passing an hour with me. Had been very suc- 
cessful in the toilet. Simply, but prettily dressed. Showed 
her the watch ring, by which you will know that it is safe. 

8. Have found very little relief, I believe none, by the 
loss of the tooth. The jaw continues in the same state of 
inflammation, which has now extended to the glands of the 
throat. A very restless and uncomfortable night. At ten 
came in R., and at half past eleven H. Great distress about 
the finances of the latter. 

Received this morning a very kind note from Ebeling, 
with some more American papers. Not stirred out all day. 
Determined to try the infallible remedy of fasting. Took 
no dinner. Nothing. Tea at eight with J. Wrote to 
Hauterive a very short and rather morose letter. Wrote 
also to the minister of police in Paris. Sent Francis to 
Hamburgh on sundry errands, particularly to call on De 
Chap, and De Vetzel, to ask if any letters for me. None. 
Have done nothing but lounge all day, and went over the 
Cesta this evening. The starving has done a little good. 
Answered Ebeling's note by his servant. At eleven had 
wine, hot water, and sugar with J, 


9. Worse and worse. AH 'the teeth, neighbours of the 
departed, have combined in vengeance. Sat up till two this 
morning, and then went to bed because I had no more can- 
dle. Wrote H. and R. that I should not go to-day. Might 
as well write that I should never go. Wrote also to Mon- 
sieur de Bourrienne, enclosing my letter to the minister of 
police, &c., and sent off Francois with them all. 

Young Donner came in and sat an hour with me. Have 
been lying on the bed half the day in much pain. J., 
whose attentions are unremitted, boiled figs in milk, and 
applied them warm to the part most affected in the gums, 
which has had a good effect. But J., being strongly opposed 
to my starving system, insisted so much on my eating, that 
1 took a very little (not half a pint) of boiled milk by way 
of dinner, and in two hours had a violent headache. To 
remove this took cr. tart, punch, which, indeed, has carried 
off the headache, but in a way that will keep me up the 
whole night. At two o'clock A. M. of Sunday I write this. 
The fig application has had a most wonderful effect ; the 
swelling is much reduced, and I am at this moment quite 
free of pain ; but the soreness remains. Think of travelling 
to-morrow. Will that be prudent ? It shall depend on the 
weather. Have been sorting and burning papers all the 
evening, i. e., since eleven, and must now write a letter — 
not to thee, hussy, but to that good Luning. 

10. The jaws plagued me " more or less" all night. Rose, 
however, with the determination to go. The pain, however, 
increased, and retarded my proceedings, and by eleven found 
it utterly impossible to be ready by one, the hour at which 
the boat goes. The pain became so violent that I was 
obliged to muffle up and lay down. It occurred to me that 
I was just a fit subject for a stool wagon, and fit for nothing 
else. Got up and fell to packing, which had not yet been 
begun. Wrote notes to Hosack and Ebeling, and sent off 
Francois. H. C. Donner came in and sat half an hour. 
Oh ! wrote to Luning the father that I should cross the river 


to-morrow on my way to his house, and sent letter to the 
postoffice. Francois returned at five with note from Ho- 
sack. He had done nothing, attempted nothing in his own 
affairs. The application of the cushion at length relieved 
me. No Donner. No appetite. Adieu ; my next will be 
from the other side the Elbe, once Hanover. 

Harbour g, December 11, 1809. You see that I have 
actually got out of Altona. Some tears were shed at parting. 
After having been so many days confined to a warm room, my 
head wrapped up with bandages, my first sortie has been 
to the ferry, and three hours on the water in an open boat, 
exposed to a very strong gale, and without any bandage; and 
under this process the pain has left me, though I do assure 
you I was chilled to the very bone. 

Hosack and Robinson called on me about twelve ; at one 
came to the ferry, where waited a full hour. Robinson goes 
to Leipsic. Hosack stays at Hamburgh, so that I shall make 
this journey without a servant and without a companion, 
totally ignorant of the language, and in the very worst season 
of the year. Yet do not be alarmed, we shall get along and 
find amusement. 

I have just taken tea and biscuit, by way of dinner and 
supper. The inn is comfortable and neat. Have been talk- 
ing an hour with a very intelligent traveller who speaks Eng- 
lish. Have written letters to Luning, to H., and to R. ; and 
this morning, before leaving Altona, wrote to Gahn and to 
Montval. Your picture gave me a great deal of plague, and, 
but for J., I should never have got it well put up. I have 
a great mind to roll you up again, and pack you away in the 
trunk, though your great and good friend, Breda, so strongly 
remonstrated against it. He also varnished and put you in 
frame from mere love ; and now, at twelve, am just going 
to bed, having ordered horses for seven in the morning. 
Written in my bedroom without a fire. 

Wille, December 12. Had got to bed and blown out my 
candle last night, when I found that the sheets were very 


damp. After laying a few minutes thought I felt some 
twinges in the jaw, and, finding no disposition to sleep, 
began to apprehend a sleepless and uncomfortable night. 
Presently in comes Francois with a candle. " Qui est ce 
que vous vouley ?" " Monsieur, vous n'avez ordonne de vous 
eveiller a sept heures, et sept heures viennent de sonner." 
I looked at my watch, and it was so. Thus I had slept six 
hours so perfectly that I was no way conscious of having 
been asleep. Embarrassed in getting off. Stopped at the 
commandant's to show passport. At eight got fairly out of 
the town. A fine view of Hamburgh and Altona. Clear, 
windy, and cold. A little ice. Rise a hill of fifty or sixty 
feet, then broken little hills for half a mile, after which less 
broken, but sandy, barren, and bleak. Neither trees nor en- 
closures. Some small patches of wood. Houses of plas- 
ter ; very few of brick. All covered with thatch, which ac- 
quires a green moss. The roof, as in Holstein, coming with- 
in five feet of the ground. The greater part of the houses 
without chimneys. There are only five or six houses at 
Wille. It is relieved by the small patches of woods which 
surround it. My breakfast is tea, bread and butter, boiled 
beef, and potatoes ; all good. The beef, slightly salted and 
a little smoked, is excellent. This is the first meat I have 
tasted in eight days. At nine P. M. arrived at Rethem 
sur l'Aller, being seven miles from Harbourg, and here I 
stay for the night. While fire is making in my room, 
I am in the family room, where they are making sausages. 
Four women at a large table chopping meat. They have 
knives shaped like a horseshoe, but larger than half a plate. 
Each end is a handle, so that it is held in both hands. Two 
beautiful little girls, children of the host, running about and 

Rain and hail soon after leaving Wille. The wind blew 
a tempest right in our teeth. Night overtook us at two 
miles from Wille. The roads are so very bad, that, having 
been thirteen hours from Harbourg, I have made only seven 

P 3 


miles. The whole way open, uncultivated, barren plains 
The roads very like those from Bowling Green to Peters- 
burgh, Virginia, at this season. No trees ; now and then a 
patch of wood, which is always the sign of a house ; the 
houses being always placed in such a patch of forest trees. 
One flock of about one hundred sheep, all black, and a herd 
of about fifty cattle, is all I have seen. The country, all 
this distance from Harbourg, is dreary, and has a desolate 
appearance. At this place is the first church in all the dis- 
tance (about thirty-two English miles), and the first village. 
This tavern, which is also the posthouse, is very good. 
My ignorance of the language will cost me a dollar to-night. 
I told the landlord, who speaks a little French, to give me 
my supper in this room, meaning my tea, having thought of 
no other supper. The tea was brought in, but without 
anything to eat. Asked for bread and butter, and it was 
brought. He then asked if I would have my supper now. 
Yes. Then was brought soup, bouilli, roast goose, bread, 
butter, and cheese. I tasted all, and found all excellent, and 
asked for wine, which I am always better without. Had a 
very pleasant French wine. I have made the landlord write 
down for you the name of this village. 

13. The supper did me no good. Off at half past seven. 
Snow, rain, and wind in our teeth. Pass into a barren 
plain about one mile English. Then woods which had been 
planted. A chateau, that is, a coarse two-story brick house, 
two mills, and four or five farmhouses.. Then plain two or 
three miles. Stop at a pleasant little valley, through which 
runs a lively brook. (Query, if all brooks are not lively 
after a heavy rain ?) The farmhouses are thus : you enter 
a large barn door ; on each side cattle in stalls, with their 
heads towards the middle or passage. At the farther end 
you see a fire in a sort of oven, and, ranged along on one or 
both sides of it, kitchen utensils. On one side you open a 
door into the common eating-room, in which is a stove 
heated by the aforesaid oven. 


Here my postillion took schnaps, for which I paid four 
bon gros. Was glad to stop, being very cold. There are 
four or five such farmhouses in this valley. Rising very 
gently the plain for one mile English to the right or west, 
there is an extensive view. On the summit of this plain are 
woods, in which are a great number of buildings about four- 
teen feet square. Roof-boards and sides wickerwork. No 
chimney or window ; what can they be for ? Descend gently, 
a village and church to the left, on the low plain, now before 
us. A rope ferry (the river Aller) ; land on an island, nearly 
a mile on a raised causeway ; trees on each side. A bridge 

which brings you to the station and town of , whence 

this is written, at a most comfortable house. Two beautiful 
girls, both speaking French, not sisters, but too busy to talk 
much. At the last stage I was told that there were four re- 
giments (French) in Nionsborg. Here the lady says there 
are none at all. We shall know presently, being only two 
miles and a half of£ Statue. A gallant horse, going on at 
a great rate. A hand, issuing from a cloud and holding a 
wreath, crowns the horse. Motto, In recto decus, 

I forgot to tell you, that while we were at the valley men- 
tioned on the preceding page, the storm ceased, and the sun 
came out. In the ferry-boat with me were five persons, or 
bourgeois, all in the same costume, viz., a long blue coat, 
straight before, worked worsted buttons, three-cornered 
hat, &c. 

Nionsborg, six P. M. Almost a dead plain the whole 
way. Either wading in mud and water or ploughing through 
sand. We were three and a half hours coming these two 
miles, and I cannot complain of the postillion. The lady 
was right. There are no troops here. It is a smart little 
town, but here no calash is to be had. I must either go 
in an open wagon more than three miles, or wait till morn- 
ing. I'll go. 

Sulingen, December 14. I did come on in an open 
wagon last night, and was from seven till one o'clock. Six 


hours coming a little more than three miles. You who love 
so to ride fast would die to go at this rate. I could walk 
much faster ; but, then, how transport my little malle and 
the picture ? 

A little before entering Nionsborg, and for half a mile this 
side, the country enclosed with hedges and ditches. Then a 
small village of half a dozen farmhouses ; a few very small 
hills. Then more than a mile without a house, save one, 
which appeared uninhabited. All the way open plain. Some 
pretty forests, however, planted by the late sovereign, Gus. 
III., both oak and pine. There is also a small forest of fine 
old oak-trees. At one o'clock arrived at Mr. Luning's, the 
father of my young friend. The madgen made me fire and 
got tea. Couche at two, but, hating to give more trouble, 
slept under the down (duvet) bed, the universal covering in 
this country and in Holstein. In about twenty minutes one 
of these things heats me up to about 150° of Fahrenheit; 
then I throw all off till I get cooled down to the freezing- 
point ; then heat again, and so on, repeating the process. 
Not very refreshing. At seven was very glad to see the 
madgen come in with candle and fire. Mr. Luning came 
in and invited me to take breakfast with him below, which 
I did. I was exceedingly mortified to learn that I had passed 
at Nionsborg a brother of Dr. Bollman, a merchant, very 
handsomely established there. Another brother, well settled 
in trade at Hoya, three miles from this. A sister married 
to an apothecary at Luneberg, also well. I cannot now go 
to see any of them. Mr. Luning offers to go with me any- 
where and everywhere. Insists on my staying a fortnight, 
&c, but I'll do no such thing, though nothing can be more 
kind than every member of the family. There are eight 
children, three girls and five boys, of whom all are at home 
except the two elder sons. You shall have some account 
of them another time. I am now planning how to pursue 
my journey. The post extra is horribly expensive. It has 
cost me eighteen dollars from Harbourg to this. The dili- 


gence goes day and night, and at the rate of about one mile 
in three hours. An open wagon. Think of trying it to 

15. At length I yielded to the solicitations of E. and D., 
and opened the picture. No small labour ; for, to secure it 
more perfectly, I had covered it with cartridge paper, sealed 
down to the edge of the box, and over that the lid tied by 
a hundred cords. It is in perfect order, and was greatly 
admired. Of course, a thousand questions about you. The 
girls did it up again without my aid. 

Lest I should lead you into error as to the soil and means 
of subsistence in this country, observe that the cattle are not 
seen abroad, because they are housed. Though the soil be 
thin, yet cultivations are seen more or less extensive, and 
where you see a house there is an air of comfort and even 
abundance. Though no enclosures are seen except in and 
near the towns and villages, yet, as cattle are not allowed to 
run at large, this is no impediment to cultivation. The meat 
is very fine. Everywhere good bread ; both wheat and rye 
are as cheap as on the seacoast. The common fuel is turf, 
which is very pleasant for stoves, and so very cheap that 
Mr. Luning, who has a very large family, and a house as 
big as six of yours at the Oaks, told me that his fuel cost 
him but about twelve louis (about fifty dollars) per annum. 
Taxes are light even now under the French administration. 
The tax on land is about two cents per acre. The French 
government derive a revenue of about two millions per an- 
num from this government (Hanover) ; but this is the mere 
conjecture of those I conversed with. I cannot perceive the 
sources of one half that sum. While this country was held 
by George III., he made a point that the whole revenue 
drawn from the electorate should be expended within it. It 
was not, however, appropriated, that I can learn, to useful 

After leaving you last night I weighed again the merits of 
going to Bremen, to Hoya, whither Mr. Luning proposes to 


escort me with his carriage, or of going on my route. The 
different projects preponderated alternately. At length I 
resolved to go on, and to go with the diligence, the most 
detestable, the slowest, and the cheapest of all modes. 
Went to work, packed all up, and lay down at twelve, ex- 
pecting every minute the diligence. Slept sound till the 
madgen came in to make fire at seven, for I had got rid of 
the down covering, and had a light warm quilt in place. 
Hearing nothing of the diligence, took another nap till eight, 
and now at twelve (midi), it has not arrived. While I am 
writing, le bon L. has been up to offer new parties and al- 
lurements to detain. Eleon. and Doris, too, have used some 
pretty arts ; but I shall resist all and go. 

Walked over the village this morning with Mr. Luning, 
his mills, houses, and farms. It is a wealthy establishment, 
in that style of simplicity which leaves one at ease. Doris 
is manager this week. It is a beautiful creature of fifteen ; 
more natural grace, and sweetness, and modesty, without 
mauvaise honte, I never saw. Played chess last night with 
Eleonore ; then she gave me a number of songs, accompanied 
with the piano. Her voice is very fine, and just enough 
formed to leave little of the wildness of nature. 

Just now school is out, and I counted passing my window 
one hundred and four children of each sex. It is fair to 
conclude that as many went the other way, for we are ad- 
joining the priest's house, opposite the church, in the centre 
of the village, which appears to have about sixty houses. 
Not one mean. 

But let me tell you how we got on from Nionsborg. 
There was a cold wind in our face. Took away the seat; 
filled the wagon with straw ; sat down on the straw, with 
my back to the horses ; made the postillion sit right against 
me, being a full-blooded fellow. His back served as well to 
lean against as to keep me warm. In five minutes I could 
feel him through all my clothes, like a heater. He had his 
flint, steel, and tinder, and we kept our pipes going the whole 


day. During the six hours, from seven to one, I did not get 
out of the wagon, nor did I suffer. 

Every minute some one of this amiable family is offering 
me some kindness or civility. One brings me a fine apple, 
another a pear, another a new pipe or better tobacco, and 
they are all in constant good-humour with each other. All 
the children, except the youngest (Christopher), speak 
French fluently. 


Altona, December 5, 1809. 

Your note is received and is very satisfactory. Next time 
please to seal it, for M'lle. J. reads English. I learn that 
you stayed more than an hour, and that your time did not 
pass heavily. A faithful report has been made to me of all 
you said ; but, perhaps, not of all you did. 

I shall call on you to-day between one and two. Have 
ready the account of your expenses, and, en attendant, the 
reply of Forbes. I shall want thirty dollars more. Be pre- 
pared with the address of Dr. Netzel, and the No. of Brauer. 

A. Burr. 


Altona, December 5, 1809. 

The book* herewith sent for your perusal is a very silly 
one, so far as depends on the intellect of the author ; but his 
facts are taken from public documents, and may be received 
as authentic. The newspapers shall be sent to you to-mor- 
row morning. By the return of that messenger you may 
transmit any commands with which you may favour me for 
Brunswick, Cassel, Weimar, Frankfort, or Berlin. 

Enclosed is an order for the map of North Carolina. The 
engraving is superior to anything which had theretofore ap- 
peared in the United States. A. Burr. 

* Blodget's Statistics, &c. 



Altona, December 5, 1809. 

Please to deliver to the order of Professor Ebeling my 
map of North Carolina. It is in three or four sheets, and 
will be found in the large trunk. If you should not have 
the key of that trunk, let K. open it by force or by gentle 
means, as he may see proper. Your devoted pilgrim, 

A. Burr. 


Hamburgh, December 5, 1809. 

I have the honour to send you the promised letters. You 
will allow me to add a few remarks on the literary character 
of the gentlemen they are addressed to. 

Mr. Niebuhr is the son of the celebrated Arabian travel- 
ler. He is versed in every kind of literature, particularly of 
languages and geography. His political knowledge is ex- 
tensive. He was, before he entered into the privy council of 
the king, one of the directors of the Bank of Berlin. He is 
just now returning from Konigsberg to Berlin. You will 
hear from him of a very valuable work, undertaken by Pro- 
fessor Vater, at Konigsberg, concerning the languages of 
America, to be published under the name of Mithridates. 
Two volumes, containing those of Europe and Asia, are al- 
ready published. As to America, he is assisted by Mr. Von 
Humboldt, and I have sent him books and supplements. 
The same author published, just now, a treatise on the ori- 
gin of the first inhabitants of America, written with the true 
spirit of inquiry. Though it deviates in some way from Dr. 
Smith Barton's ideas, the author shows him due respect. 

Mr. Von Zimmerman was professor at Brunswick, but 
is now a pensionary. He is a great mathematician, natural 
philosopher, and statistical author. His Specimen Zoologiae, 
Geographic Quadrupedum domicilia et migrationes Sistens, 
published at Leyden, 1777, in quarto, and afterward in three 


volumes, enlarged in German by himself, gave him due ce- 
lebrity. So did his political Survey of the present Political 
State of Europe, published at London, 1787, octavo. He 
translated Pennant's Natural History of Animals, with con- 
siderable additions and corrections ; Long's Travels in the 
interior parts of America ; Imlay on Kentucky ; Bertram's 
Travels. One of his latest works is A Comparaison de la 
Revolution de France, avec celle de l'Amerique, written in 
German and in French, in two volumes. The comparison 
is greatly to the advantage of your country., The very ex- 
tensive learning of this amiable man, and his character, did 
not preserve him from aristocratical prejudices. 

Professor Heeren is one of our most enlightened and 
learned historians and statistical authors. Among his wri- 
tings, his ideas on the Politics, Trade, &c, of the principal 
Ancient Republics of Carthage, &c, two volumes, octavo, 
went through several editions. They are now translated 
into French. His History of the Crusades was crowned by 
the Imperial Institute at Paris. Just now he published a 
Manual of the History of the European System of States and 
Colonies, from the discovery of America to the establishing 
of the French imperial dignity ; a book full of new lights 
and fine, discerning historical judgment. He is also editor of 
several Greek classical authors. His father-in-law is the 
much celebrated Mr. Heyne, the editor of Homer, Virgil, Ti- 
bullus, Exichet, &c, the worthy father of our philology. His 
brother-in-law is Professor Blumenbach, a great natural phi- 
losopher, who possesses a valuable museum, and is keeper 
of the Royal Museum at Gottingen, one of the best in the 
world, next to those at Paris and London. 

Mr. Hassel, whom I don't know personally, is known by 
his statistical works, especially by the new ones he pub- 
lished this year at Gottingen, and by another work which 
gives an account of the political state of each empire, king- 
dom, &c. ; its reigning dynasty, ministers, &c. ; and is to 
be renewed every year. We had such a work for a great 


many years, but it was interrupted by the war, and never so 
judiciously conducted as Mr. Hassel has began at Wiemar. 
In case he should be absent (for he shifts his abode), the let- 
ter may be destroyed. 

Your kindness, highly respected sir, will excuse these re- 
marks and their prolixity, as well as bad style. I have the 
honour to wish you a most prosperous journey, and shall 
think myself very happy if, on your return to Hamburgh, 
you will kindly allow me to repeat the assurances of my un- 
feigned respect. 

C. D. Ebeling, Professor and Public Librarian. 


Hamburgh, Dec. 6, 1809. 

I have the honour to return Blodget's book, with many 
thanks. I copied therefrom a great many materials of more 
recent date than those I am possessed of, or could find in 
the Reports of Congress, or in Tench Cox's View, and such 
books. The style and method of the author is certainly to 
be overlooked ; but, besides that, he is rich in information 
on the state of the Union, and I should wish he would con- 
tinue his collections. It spares a great many troublesome 
researches to a foreigner. * 

The favour done me by your kindness concerning the 
map of North America is very great, and I shall make the 
best use thereof. A very intimate friend of mine, formerly 
six years my pupil, and now in London, shall take care of it, 
as he will return soon to our country. 

C. D. Ebeling. 


Hamburgh, December 7, 1809. 

I must excuse myself of a strange error with regard to the 
newspapers. Those you have had were old ones of 1807, 
intended for the bookbinder, to be inserted into the volumes 
of that year he had with him. Another parcel, containing 


those of the present year, was retained. These I take the 
liberty to send you now, as, unhappily, it is not possible for 
me to bring them myself and see how you do. I hope all 
is better, and you are perfectly recovered. Perhaps, if you 
keep yourself at home, these papers may serve as a pastime, 
being of a more recent date. 

As for me, I fear a fever is approaching. I shall meet it 
with patience. I only regret that it keeps me at home, and 
deprives me of the honour and pleasure to wait upon you. 

C. D. Ebeling. 


Hamburgh, December 8, 1809. 

The undersigned, desiring to visit Paris from motives of 
curiosity and amusement only, has the honour to request 
that a passport for that purpose may be transmitted to the 
officer of police in Mayence, where he (the undersigned) 
proposes to be in the course of this month. 

Lest any doubt may arise as to his country, he would add, 
that his person and his handwriting are known to Mons. le 
Compte de Volney, to Mons. d'Hauterive, and to many other 
French gentlemen who have travelled in the United States. 

A. Burr. 


Hamburgh, December 9, 1809. 

Mr. Burr takes the liberty of requesting that Monsieur de 
Bourrienne would be pleased to superscribe and forward to 
the minister of police in Paris the letter herewith enclosed ; 
or, if he should deem it more proper, that he would, in his 
correspondence with that minister, make the demand in Mr. 
Burr's behalf. 

Mr. Burr has been for several days confined to his cham- 
ber by indisposition (an ague in the face), which has delay- 
ed his departure, and deprives him of the honour of waiting 


personally on Mons. de Bourrienne. He offers respectful 
compliments and apologies for this trouble. 


Altona, December 9, 1809. 
My face is in no better order than yesterday. There is 
reason to fear that I must submit to further extractions. At 
this rate, by the time I am in condition to travel, I shall be 
without money and without teeth. What consoles me is 
the hope, by another day's delay, of seeing an end to Ho- 
sack's troubles. Inform me whether you made the proposed 
visit, and the result. If favourable, I will go to-morrow in 
spite of teeth or weather. A. Burr. 



Altona, December 10, 1809. 

Mr. Burr presents respectful compliments, and inquires 
whether it would be perfectly agreeable to Mr. Menard, that 
letters which may be received in Hamburgh for Mr. Burr 
should be placed in the hands of Mr. Menard for trans- 

If Mr. Menard should be possessed of any of the Ameri- 
can newspapers received by the last arrivals, Mr. Burr would 
be greatly obliged to him for the loan of them for a few 

Mr. Burr is so far relieved from the complaint in his face 
that he hopes to be able to leave town to-morrow. 


Hamburgh, December 10, 1809. 

I am very glad to hear of the restoration of your health, 
and heartily wish its continuance. It is a misfortune for me 
that my evil did not cease, and kept me from paying you 
my respects. It went to a favourable crisis, but it still pre- 
vents me from going out in this bad weather. May this last 


have no influence on your health during your whole journey, 
which I heartily hope may be prosperous. 

I here join a letter to my brother, who will have the hon- 
our to introduce you to the sister of Mr. Bollman, Mrs. 
Derupfwolf. Her husband is a very able apothecary in 
Wells, on a large place called Sheland. The other family 
lives at Diepholt, beyond the Weser, if I am not mistaken. 

I don't know whether Mrs. Sievening has seen the letter 
in question. Certainly she will be glad to read it, as she in- 
terests herself about Mr. Bollman's welfare. Be assured, 
sir, of my great respect, and persuaded that I shall be happy 
if ever I can execute your commands, or in anything be ser- 
viceable to you. C. D. Ebeling. 


Altona, December 10, 1809. 
At Stockholm, in October last, I became accidentally ac- 
quainted with your son Diedric. We travelled together to 
Gottenburg, and passed some days there in the same lodg- 
ing-house. I have never, on so short an acquaintance, been 
so much interested by any young man, and I do most cordi- 
ally felicitate the parents of such a child. He has charged 
me with a letter to you, which I have promised to deliver 
personally ; for this purpose I propose to pass over to Har- 
bourg, and thence to go directly to Sulingen by the dili- 
gence. This notice is given lest you might be abroad. I 
am on my way to Berlin, and shall pass one night only 
with you. I make no apology for writing you in English, 
as Diedric has informed me that you read it perfectly well, 
but if you should prefer nous causerons en Francois. 

A. Burr. 


Brunswick, December 20, 1809. 

The name of the gentleman whose residence I wish to 
discover is Wille. The only other indications I can give 


are, that he is the principal clergyman and president of an 
academy in one of the small towns of Germany. The first 
object of my young friend Robinson is to learn the language 
of the country, and for that purpose he desires to have board 
and lodging in some plain, quiet family, where German only 
is spoken, and spoken with purity. A. Burr. 


Brunswick, December 24, 1809. 

At the moment of my leaving Altona I was advised by 
Mons. de Bourrienne that my passports for France had 
been allowed and forwarded to Mayence. My destination 
being thus settled, I will, with pleasure, accept the letters 
which you were pleased to offer me. Madame M. had 
the goodness to mention a friend whose acquaintance she 
thought would be particularly interesting to me ; and in 
such matters I value the judgment of a woman above that 
of a hundred men of equal understanding. Say so to Ma- 
dame Menard, that if she will honour me with quelque petite 
commission from Paris, she shall see with what zeal and 
punctuality I will execute it. Your friends, Messrs. Lebecs, 
have received me with much politeness. Louis, who mar- 
ried the daughter of the prefect, has two very fine children, 
and will soon have another. As my route will be by way 
of Wiemar, it will be the middle of January before I shall 
leave Frankfort. Your letters for Paris may therefore be 
addressed to me at that place, to the care of your correspond- 
ents, Messrs. Freres Bertina. A. Burr. 


Nieustadt, December 16, 1809. The diligence came in to 
Sulingen at three P. M., and at four I got in and we moved 
on towards Nienborg, which is again my route. Arrived 
there at eleven. Two passengers in the diligence. A 
pleasant Frenchman, and a German who speaks only Ger- 
man. They were going to Hamburgh. So that at Nien- 


borg we parted ; first having taken tea together, for which 
paid ten bon gros — very dear. I am quite satisfied with the 
diligence. It is spacious, warm, well cushioned, and, as we 
never go off a walk, got a good nap. But, alas, from Nien- 
borg to Hanover it is an open wagon. Submitted, there- 
fore, once more to the experiment of post extra. The fellow 
charged six bon gros additional for a covered calash, which 
is an imposition. Left Nienborg at twelve and arrived 
here at six, the distance being two miles and a half. Think 
of such a rate of travelling. Not quite twelve English miles 
in six hours. The calash, too, was badly closed, so that I 
suffered with the cold. Nevertheless, slept three hours, and 
find myself refreshed and well. The family all asleep when 
we arrived. In five minutes had a good fire, and in fifteen 
excellent coffee, bread, and butter, served by a girl, the 
model of good-humour. There must be good-humour nat- 
urally, when it is exhibited after being waked, &c, in a cold 
frosty morning. 

Nieustadt is on a little river ; a branch, I suppose, of the 
Aller. An excellent stone bridge ; gates, but no walks. 
Has about one hundred and fifty houses. 

Hanover, December 16, 1 809. Arrived at eleven this morn- 
ing, my last postillion being much better than his predeces- 
sor. From Nieustadt to this place you are the whole day 
between rows of trees planted on each side the road, which 
is also ditched on each side and raised in the middle ; but 
it is only the sand thrown up, so that the road is very pretty 
and very bad. On leaving Nieustadt, saw to the right a 
range of blue hills (the first I have seen since crossing the 
Elbe), distant, apparently, about four leagues. There are 
hopes, therefore, of getting off this tiresome plain. 

Had two letters from Luning to Haase and to another per- 
son. Took lodgings with the former, a cheerful man of 
seventy. The letter procured me a good room and good at- 
tendance. The other, Mr. Menzzer, is quite a young man. 
He has been running about with me all day. It is a beauti- 


ful little town, containing sixteen thousand inhabitants. The 
river, a branch of the Aller, is made to surround it. Prom- 
enade and extensive rows of trees everywhere, but nothing 
of its former splendour. Many valuable and curious things 
taken to Paris. Many of the first families removed to Eng- 
land. The only garrison here is a small regiment of West- 
phalians ; very fine men. 

Sent my card to Salcette, and left another for son Excel- 
lence Madame de Decken. Mr. Menzzer procured me a 
ticket to the concert, and thither we went at half past six. 
It is given and executed by the gentlemen of the town, ama- 
teurs and performers. No tickets sold. Admittance only 
to those invited. There were, I think, near thirty perform- 
ers. The room appears to be about one hundred and twenty 
feet by fifty. Well lighted by seven lustres pendant from 
the ceiling. Ornamented with eight or ten statues, large as 
life, nearly plain. Ceiling horizontal, and about sixteen feet 
high. The room was very full. At the intervals between 
the pieces or acts, they walk about and talk. Mr. de 
Spilcker, conseiller de la cour de justice, got introduced to 
me, I don't know how ; a well-bred man of thirty, speaking 
French and English. He ciceronied me about the room ; 
presented me to General St. Simon, commandant de la 
ville, who had served with Moreau and spoke of him. To 
Madame de Decken, who immediately proposed some par- 
ties, dinners, suppers, &c, and when I announced my in- 
tention of leaving town to-morrow, absolutely forbid it. I 
yielded, and agreed to be at her command Monday evening. 
There were several handsome women, and many comely, 
with very fine complexions, hair, &c. The young ladies 
put up their hair in various simple and pretty ways ; no 
caps or headdress ; married women, generally hats or caps. 
Of particulars I dare not attempt any. The music pleased 
me, particularly two songs. But Madame de Decken, 
who is scientific, and from whose judgment there is no 
appeal in any matter of taste, was not satisfied. She intro- 


duced me to her daughter-in-law, Madame la Baronne de 
Wangenheim, handsome, graceful, ladylike woman; tres 
belle taille. Home at nine. No supper, having had tea be- 
fore I went out. For dinner, took a small bowl of soup, 
finding myself heated by the journey. Learning that the 
diligence, a covered wagon, leaves this for Brunswick on 
Tuesday morning, resolved to go with it. The difference 
of expense is some indemnity for the delay. 

17. Waked this morning at seven, and found myself in a 
high fever, with a difficulty of respiration. Threw off the 
bedclothes, but no relief. A strong smell of burned wool led 
me, at length, to suspect the cause of this strange malady. 
The door to my stove is in the entry or hall, so that the fire 
is made without coming into my room. The boy, in great 
kindness, had, at an early hour, heated the stove to that de- 
gree, that a pair of woollen stockings (my fine Edinburgh 
knit stockings) and a pair of culottes, which I had hung at 
least three inches from the stove, were so burned as to be 
ruined. Got up, opened the window, and found I could 
breathe well enough ; but I assure you I have been all day 
much the worse for the baking. 

At ten came in Mr. Menzzer, and at eleven I went to 
Mons. de Spilcker's. Having early received a card from the 
governor, General la Salicette, called on him and sat a few 
minutes. A man of prepossessing physiognomy and pleas- 
ing manners. He engaged me to dine with him to-morrow. 
Just before I had engaged myself to De Spilcker, but he 
very kindly agreed to let me off. Mr. de Sp. then went 
with me to Mr. Commander General St. Simon, who asked 
me to dine either to-day or to-morrow ; being engaged both 
days, was obliged to decline. To the first librarian, a very 
amiable old gentleman, who received me most kindly. To 
Madame de D.'s, who was out; sent up my card to Mr. de 
D., who received us. Avery dignified and courteous man. 
Home at one. Found the card of Madame de Decken. 
At the moment of my return came in Mr. de Patje, who in- 

Vol. I.— Q 


troduced himself to me. Hearing of my arrival, and wish- 
ing the honour of my acquaintance, &c, &c, which is cer- 
tainly civil and hospitable in a high degree. An intelligent 
and well-bred man. 

At two went to dine with my friend Menzzer (who had 
invited me also yesterday), en famille. Met there, among 
others, Mr. Palm, an interesting young man ; a great friend 
of Erick Bollman. This at once made us acquainted. To 
the theatre. Hamlet. I admire very much the Theatre au 
Palais, where I was to see Hamlet in German, translated 
from Shakspeare. There is parterre and five rows of boxes. 
No gallery. As in Edinburgh, there is a place assigned for 
]es courtisannes. The curtain is, of the ornament of the 
theatre, the thing most worthy of notice. I will endeavour 
to get a description for you. It is about the size of that in 
Philadelphia; but in every part of the house you hear dis- 
tinctly. I saw nothing very remarkable in the performers. 
The style of acting a good deal like that in England. Stayed 
only two acts, having engaged to go to the " Theatre Philo- 
sophique" (sleight of hand). Here met Madame de Decken 
and la belle K. ; with the latter went home. The tricks and 
sleight of hand were very fatiguing to me, but I was indem- 
nified by the ventriloquism. I am satisfied, however, that 
it is an acquirement ; an act, and not, as many have supposed, 
a natural gift. 

18. For fear of another baking, had forbid my fire to be 
made till I should be up and order it. At ten came in Mr. 
Palm. He has exactly the features, the profile, and charac- 
ter of countenance of John Swartwout, and his height, but 
not so lusty ; more blonde ; younger by ten years. Went at 
eleven to see President Patje. Out. On returning home 
found the card of le Conseiller Feder. A visit from com- 
mandant the General St. Simon, a very handsome young 
man. From Mr. Meyer, le ministre de police. Walked out, 
and, seeing the door of a church open, went in. Surcharged 
with gilding and ornament. Two galleries. The panels 


between the first and second gallery, a suite of paintings ; 
forty or fifty Scripture history. Nothing remarkable. 

Evening. No, indeed ; looking at my watch, it is half past 
one, and, therefore, philosophically speaking, Tuesday morn- 
ing. Mr. Palm promised to call on me. and I waited from 
twelve till four, but he came not, which I very greatly regret. 
Something has prevented, for lam sure he wished the inter- 
view. Took hack to go to dinner, and on the way called on 

Menzzer. Saw also madame, but la belle not there. 

Thence to La Salicette's. There were three French ladies 
and about a dozen gentlemen, of whom only le President 
Patje appeared to me to be German. Le commandant was 
there, and offered me letters, which I very gladly accepted, 
particularly one for Mayence. Now, if you have not for- 
gotten your geography, that would tell you where I am go- 
ing, which has hitherto been kept secret. At that moment 
came in Mr. Menzzer, to give me my ticket for the diligence, 
which he had procured (and now it occurs that he must have 
paid for it), and to take leave. 

It is too late to give you an account of the party at Mr. 
Decken's, or to relate the affectionate letter and present of 
caravan tea received this afternoon from Mr. Luning, the 
father. Mr. Menzzer tells me that the diligence goes atfive 3 
and that he will send a servant to call me at half past four. 

Brunswick, December 19. I was up at half past four, and 
we were off at five. As I got into the diligence, saw, by 
the light of the lamp, a very pretty youth, apparently seven- 
teen or eighteen, whom, but for the dress, I should have sup- 
posed a girl. La Caval. and her lover are two itinerant mu- 
sicians. They amused me much on the road. At parting, 
each of them slung a box on the back, and marched off 
cheerful as birds. 

We arrived at eleven this evening. We have been very 
industrious. Eighteen hours to make this eight miles. The 
country for about half way is the same sandy plain with 
which you have been so fatigued. Then less sandy, and 



perhaps a little more fertile, but still a plain. Panet is the 
first town in Westphalia; but we had no " visites" of police- 

It will be matter of curiosity to you to see a bill of the 
expenses of this mode of travelling, say for the eight miles. 

Paid at Hanover, I don't know for what, to the wagon-meister, four bon gros . 4 
Douceur, now established by law, to each postillion, four bon gros ; three 

postillions 12 

To the other two wagon-meisters, two bon gros each 4 

Fare of passenger, seven bon gros per German mile 56 

Breakfast, coffee, bread and butter 7 

Luncheon (bread, butter, cold beef, and beer) 4 

Pipe and tobacco 1 

Bon gros 88 

Twenty-four bon gros to a dollar ; say three dollars and sixty-two cents. 

Now and then a little appearance of blue hills, still to the 
right. We seem to be riding parallel to them. Passed 

through the burned village of . Among the ruins a 

fine, large, ancient Gothic church. The poor people are 
very busy rebuilding. Walked over the town of Panet. 
Everything looks old and decaying. It seems to have been 
formerly fortified. 

Lettre de L. Menard et Co., a Messrs. Freres. 

Lobecke et Co., Brunswick. 

De Professor Ebeling, a Herru Etats Rath Von Zimmer- 
man, Braunsweig. 

Sent the above, with my card, chez Brendecke ; also lettre 
de C. H. Donner, a Mons. Conseiller d'Elat de Zimmerman, 

I wrote Zimmerman a note that I would call at eleven, 
and went with it myself at ten. Sent in the letters and card. 
He, hearing that I was below, invited me up, and I sat half 
an hour. Mr. Zimmerman is the author of that statistical 
account of Europe which you have seen. He wrote it in 
England and in English. Author, also, of many things 
which you have not seen, but which you will see. He is 
about seventy-two, cheerful, animated, and extremely frank ; 


of prepossessing countenance and manners, simple and 
courteous. Talking on American affairs, I happened to 
express a sentiment not usual. He turned to one of his 
books and read me the same idea. You know how such 
an incident advances an acquaintance. Thence to the 
Hotel d'Angleterre, where found Hosack and Robinson. 
We were very glad to meet. Hosack had got out of his 
trouble. Agreed to dine at my quarters. Strolled about 
the town. Went into St. Michael's and another church ; 
both Gothic. The latter has a splendid and beautiful altar- 
piece. Neither of them very large ; also, the cloister (nun- 
nery), which alvvavs fills me with the most painful reflections. 

Returned to my quarters, and, while we were at dinner, 
two of the Lebecke's came in. (Note — the usual dining 
hour in this place is one o'clock.) One of them invited me to 
pass the evening and sup, and, seeing my two friends, whom 
I mentioned as my countrymen and companions, he invited 
them also. At six he sent his carriage for me, and we went. 
He resides with his father-in-law, the prefect of this district, 
being, of course, the first in point of rank. The house is a 
very spacious building, on the square by the cloister, and 
is called La Prefeture. There were about twenty-five 
present, and nearly an equal number of either sex. Sev- 
eral pretty women. Madame Lebecke, wife of the elder 
partner of the house (I believe uncle of the other), is the 
handsomest and youngest woman I ever saw having a son 
twenty-three years of age. On the first floor, which you 
call the second story, there were a suite of four large rooms, 
which we occupied. Then a ballroom about sixty or sev- 
enty feet square, and twenty or thirty high, finished with 
taste and expense, which is the centre of the house. Of 
course, the same rooms on the other side. The company 
were easy and social. Cards, conversation, cakes, lemon- 
ade, sangaree, &c. At eleven, hot supper. I played chess 
with le fils, &c. Home at twelve. 

21. At ten came in Robinson ; soon after, Hosack, with le 


Baron de Schale, governor du palais. He proposed to go 
with me to the mint. As we were going out, met Monsieur 
Mercier, commissaire general de la haute police, a Bruns- 
wicker, to make a visit. He agreed to join and walk with 
us. The mint is not a very large establishment ; about fifty 
men employed. They coin for their neighbours also. Got 
a sample of their small silver coins, new and shining, to add 
to Gamp.'s collection. The baron left us at the mint. Mer- 
cier walked about with me. I like him much. 

At three De Zimmerman came to take me to dine, and he 
had had the politeness to invite, also, Hosack and Robinson. 
It was at a restaurateur's that we dined-y-Professor Empe- 
rius et de Florincourt, both speaking English ; very intelli- 
gent. Hosack and Robinson went off at six to go to the 
concert. I sat till nine. Much conversation on American 
and German affairs. 

22. Went at ten to Zimmerman's and to Mercier's, who 
engaged me to dine to-day. To Baron de Schale's, where 
introduced to M'lle. la Bar., a pretty, genteel, amiable girl. 
To the museum by appointment with Emperius, who has 
the charge of it. Mr. Denon had taken to Paris some of 
the most curious articles ; but much remains. Several 
heads, real antiques, Grecian and Roman. Collection from 
Herculanenm and from Egypt. Called at the prefect's; 
being near two, they were at dinner. Left card. Strolled 
an hour. At three to Zimmerman's. Home at four. Took 
coach to go to dine with Mercier at five-y-D'Escalonne, Cont. 
des Posies, and De Valentine. Off at eight. Mr. M. would 
attend me. Engaged to breakfast with Mercier. 

Costume of the paysan a very long white coat of canvass 
(sail duck), lined with red flannel ; waistcoat various colours, 
generally striped, red and green predominant; large hat, 
cocked before and flapped behind. 

Women. The cap generally white, close to the head on 
the back, reaching not quite to the ears ; huge baskets, not 
like the pretty little Altona baskets. No public women. 


After leaving the mint Mr. Mercier went with us to the 
lacquered ware manufactory. The most famous in all Eu- 
rope for that ware. In it are upward of twenty painters 
employed. Am very sorry that I cannot stay here long 
enough to get your picture put on a small box, for here are 
artists of the first merit. 


Brunswick, January 3, 1810. 

Your letter from Cassel only reached me yesterday. I 
received it with particular satisfaction, and beg you will be 
good enough to entertain me often with such tokens of your 

The two articles of intelligence mentioned by you are 
certainly of a very important nature, and one of them must 
have fixed seriously your attention, though it must be now 
allowed that eighteen months ago it would have been of ma- 
terial consequence to your interest to have known as much 
of that affair as you do at present. Nevertheless, it is my 
opinion that your advances to somebody will be welcome on 
the subject, and I advise you not to let the opportunity slip. 
I hope to hear from you on that topic from Paris. 

Your baise mains tres respectieurs to the Lady O. have 
met a very kind reception ; and, in return, you have her 
thanks and compliments. P Mercier. 

23. At half past ten to Mercier's to breakfast a la four- 
chette. Fearing there would be only wine and meat, took 
coffee before I went. Met there De Valentine, Mr. D'Es- 
calonne, Controleur des Postes, and a young man, supposed a 
relative of Mercier. Home at twelve, when Zimmerman 
came in and sat half an hour. Story of Archentloiz, a 
gambler and swindler. His fraud on Baron Berkley, of Zu- 
rich, for which the baron caused him to be imprisoned at 
Berlin. Received a note from Mercier, stating that the gen- 
tleman proposed as compagnon de voyage for me to Cassel 
had made a different arrangement. Thus 1 am condemned 


either to wait till Monday night for the diligence, or to take 
post extra. 

Since writing the above, which was about two P. M., I 
have been deliberating on the important point mentioned in 
the last paragraph, and have at length resolved once more to 
submit to the horrors of post extra tout seul, as far at least 
as Gottingen. As usual, therefore, I have everything to do; 
everything to pack up, the most dire of all labour, and twenty 
letters to write, having not yet begun. Have been employed 
as follows : at three to Zimmerman's, by appointment (note, 
took no dinner, my breakfast a la fourchette sufficing)' 
sat an hour with Zimmerman. He is a most interesting 
man. At the age of seventy-one he has the animation, the 
ardour, and the sensibility of youth. Replete with science, 
and a mind really vigorous and correct : withal frankness 
and cheerfulness, which render him a very interesting, social 
companion. Would have stayed longer, but had engaged to 
meet Robinson and Hosack at half past four. R. and H. 
came, and with them Zimmerman fils. They all sat more 
than an hour, and till I wished them gone, as I expected 
Mercier at six ; but the young Zimmerman entertained us 
very much with anecdotes of various personages ; of the 
Duke of Brunswick ; Captain Helvig, son of the professor of 
this place ; of the late Dr. Zimmerman, author of " Solitude," 
&c. He died insane at Hanover. His son is now mad. 
My friend here is no relation, or very distant. 

At six came in Mercier. He is a native of the island of 
Martinique. Educated in Philadelphia. Has served eleven 
years in the French armies. Is here commissary-general 
de la haute police. Does not look more than thirty. Has 
a wife, Francoise, long indisposed, and supposed incurable. 
While we were talking, Zimmerman le pere came in to bring 
me a letter for a friend of his in Weimar (you will find out, 
presently, all where I am going, which I. did not intend). 
These two men, though living in the same town, had never 
before met. Zimmerman lives very retired, continually 


writing. He went off and left Mercier, who sat till nine. 
Gave me two letters to his friends at Cassel. There is a 
rumour that the king will not be there till the thirtieth, though 
he had appointed the twenty-fifth. 

Gottingen, December 25, 1809. I was too busy yesterday 
to write you a line. We must, therefore, go back to Sunday 
morning. I rose at seven. At half past nine went to Mer- 
cier to prevent his calling on me. He had already got out 
and gone to my lodgings. Fortunately, we met in the street, 
and he came home with me. Sor. again to Baron de Schale. 
Out; but my servant and pilot, who spoke only German, 
hearing me also ask for M'lle. la Baronne, brought her pell- 
mell down stairs into the court in dishabille, and to see she 
knew not whom, nor for what. Went up and sat half an 
hour with m'lle. ; a very pleasing, pretty, amiable personne. 
Thence to Labecke's. He had gone that day to Cassel ; but 
saw the beau pere le prefect. Thence to Zimmerman's, 
where half an hour. He gave me a letter for the celebrated 
astronomer, Mr. Gaus. Home, and met going in to see me 
Mr. d'Escalonne, l'lnstructeur des Postes. He had got me 
a carriage ; that of Monsieur Otto, l'lnstructeur-general des 
Postes de Westphalie, and would take me with him to see 
Mr. Otto. Went, and found him and his wife, an English 
woman. A very sprightly, charming Yorkshire girl. They 
begged me to take breakfast with them h. la fourchelte at 


half past one. Agreed. Mercier came in and walked home 
with me. Talked of X. (Mexican) matters and things — the 
moment favourable. Home ; wrote Menard and Prathes, 
the bookseller at Hamburgh. Also a note to Robinson, to 
tell him to call at three. To breakfast at the hotel Roi de 
Prusse (natalis). Sat down at two ; three courses of meat ; 
variety of wines and coffee. It was to me exceedingly like 
dinner, having breakfasted at eight. Met there D'Escalonne, 
Mercier, and Otto. Sat till four. All very gay. All talk- 
ing English except Escalonne. A good deal of X. again. 
All want a hand, Monsieur Otto gave me a circular letter 



to all the postmasters on the road ; something to expedite 
me ; being in German, I could not read it ; but it made the 
postmeisters amazingly active. Every one, after reading it, 
made me a most profound bow. 

Got home a little past four. On the way met M'lle. la 
Baronne and walked with her. Found Hosack and Robin- 
son at my quarters, and they helped me to pack up. The 
horses came before I was ready, punctually at five, as I had 
ordered, with the handsome carriage of Mr. Otto. Off at 
six, and arrived here about noon, this 25lh of December, 
being Christmas day. The first three miles flat as before, 
then more and more hilly. Better settled and cultivated. 
Nothing very remarkable, except about one mile back, saw 
the ruins of a romantic castle on the summit of a hill on my 
left. Find, on inquiry, that it is one of those enchanted cas- 
tles, where was held in durance a lady, who was delivered 
by the valiant knight R. I regret exceedingly, for your sake, 
that I did not go to see it, you do so love enchanted castles. 
One of the towers is almost entire, and is very lofty. 

The distance from Braunschweig (Brunswick; all these 
different spellings are from authority) to this place is about 
fifty English miles. The road very bad, though the greater 
part of the way chausse (turnpike) ; immediately on my ar- 
rival sent my two letters to the professors Heeren and Gaus. 
Mons. Heeren came in almost instantly, and found me dress- 
ing. Agreed to call in one hour, which he did. Walked 
to Professor Gaus, l'astronome tres celebre un jeune homme, 
peut etre 28 to 32. Will relate to you an anecdote of his 
history, very honourable to him and to Zimmerman, who 
discovered him. To the Observatory. The largest tele- 
scope is about ten feet long and one diameter. The Observa- 
tory is one of the castles (rotundos) of the old walls. Thence 
to the library. Two hundred thousand volumes. 

Took tea with Professor Heeren. Home at six. Took 
tea again, and have ordered my horses for four to-morrow 
morning. Snowed all yesterday till near noon to-day. Not 


fast. Now chiefly melted. Only increases the cold and. 
the mud. Was very chilly last night, so resolved to take 
a sleep to-night. There are now here about five hundred 

Cassel, December 26, 1809. This is now the capital of 
the kingdom of Westphalia. Notwithstanding my resolu- 
tion, did not go to bed till eleven last night. At four was 
waked, but so imperfectly that I turned over and slept till 
five. It had been snowing all night, and there are three or 
four inches of snow on the ground, which makes the travel- 
ling even more tedious than usual. Snowed hard ; always 
wind ahead on land. Was glad to keep myself close ; 
scarcely looked out till we got to the end of our first stage, 
three miles (about sixteen English miles). Munden is at 
the confluence of the Werts and the Fulda, which together 
form the Weser. As you approach Munden, the north bank 
of the Weser being very high (I should suppose three hun- 
dred feet) and very steep, a road for some hundred yards is 
cut in the side of the mountain. To your right a hedge and 
a fine view of the town, which has the appearance of great 
antiquity. You cross the Werts on a very solid stone 
bridge. Stopped at the posthouse, where were several 
pretty children, and two pretty, genteel-looking girls ; the 
youngest, about sixteen, Louisa, tall, graceful, had just re- 
ceived cadet, a very handsome guitar, but I could not per- 
suade her to give me a tune. Got breakfast, and off at 
twelve, having been detained one hour to get my carriage 

On leaving Munden, you leave the Fulda on your right, 
and a like mountain on your left, into which a road is cut as 
before. This hill is cut into walks, and laid out into whim- 
sical gardens to the very top, within half a mile English and 
more of the town. Then you leave the river and ascend by 
a gentle acclivity. It appeared to me to be an English mile 
from the bottom to the top of this hill. Much such a one as 
that you rise in coming from Fishkill to Peekskill, Woods 


on each side till you approach the summit, which is a plain, 
whereon is a village and church. After rising and descend- 
ing several considerable hills, you open at once on an exten- 
sive valley, surrounded by mountains. The Fulda winding 
through the valley, and in the centre of it Cassel, of which 
you have a perfect bird's-eye view, being, I should suppose, 
more than two hundred feet above it. From the first view 
of Cassel till you reach it may be about two English miles, 
following the road. The approaches are extremely pictu- 
resque. Cross the Fulda on a very handsome stone bridge. 
At three I was put down at the Hotel de Westphalie, where 
I have an indifferent room, and a prospect of bad attend- 

Rising that long hill we overtook a very old man, evi- 
dently exhausted by the storm and the fatigue, with a 
younger one, about thirty, by his side, aiding him. The 
young man addressed himself to the postillion to ask a 
place for the patriarch. The postillion referred him to me. 
The young man turned to me. Made me a speech with an 
accent the most pathetic, and a countenance full of sweet- 
ness and solicitude. The pantomime was eloquent, for I 
understood not a word, though every syllable was perfectly 
intelligible. The old man cast a pensive look of humble 
expectation. I did not wait to hear out the speech. The 
drama spoke most feelingly. We all assisted the old man 
to get in, and we put him down at the door of a decent 
house in the village. Three comely young women ran out 
in all the snow, and seemed to strive for the first embrace. 
An old woman at the window partook of the joy at his re- 
turn. He told them that he was indebted to me ; and I had 
a hundred courtesies, and be danke mucKs, and might, if I 
had been out, have had as many kisses. I never saw the 
scene half as well acted on any stage. That man, thought 
I, has lived happy, and will die happy. 

While dressing, sent out my letters, with cards to the 
following : 


From Mercier to ]e Count de Furstenheim, who was 
with the king (Jerome) in the. United States ; now Premier 
Ministre d'Etat. 

A Mons. de Bercagny, Prefect de Police. 

A Mons. Alleye, Employe dans le depart. d'Etrang., from 
Gen. St. Simon, at Hanover. 

A le Col. Wolff, Commandant le Chev. leg. du Guarde 

From Professor Zimmerman, or his son, to le Baron de 

To le Comte de Levinkjelm, with three lines of titles. 

Enough, surely, for the four days I have allotted to this 
place. There was no theatre open at Brunswick. Here is 
both a French and a German. There being an opera at the 
French to-night, I am going to take a seat incog, in the " Par- 
terre noble." 

11 P. M. The theatre is small, but very beautiful. The 
king's box crimson and gold. Gilded lattices'. The house 
is lighted by a lustre, suspended from the middle of the ceil 
ing, containing forty-nine Argand lamps. The auditors may 
see each other very distinctly. There was not a performer 
remarkable for beauty, or voice, or diction. M'lle. Deletre 
much in the style of Mrs. Johnson, but more animated ; the 
best. Got near a sensible, conversible man. Upon the whole, 
was much amused, and got the worth of my sixteen bon gros ; 
exactly half a dollar, which is the highest price for any seat 
in the house. The bill is enclosed to save me the trouble of 
answering a dozen questions. The orchestra good. About 
thirty performers. The whole house (four rows of boxes) 
may be able to contain six or eight hundred. Did not see a 
single striking face (though there might have been fifty 
which I did not see). The side boxes not brilliant. The 
king not arrived. The convocation of the states postponed 
till the 10th of January ; won't stay here, that's pos. 

27. Rose at 8. Off before breakfast to the stagehouse 
(posthouse) to see about the ways and means of getting off, 


whither I have not told you. To Gotha and Weimar; and 
for what? Ay; that you'll know when I get there. A dil- 
igence goes at 1 P. M. Friday the 29th. The day after to- 
morrow. In that I go. No more extra post. 

After breakfast called on Mr. Maylau with my letter of 

credit for the enormous sum of ; no matter, it shall 

carry me to Paris, hussy. Then took coach and went to 
see the celebrated palace, now called Napoleon Hohe. Went 
through the buildings. The main building all new furnished 
from Paris ; the right wing with the furniture of the late 
prince. The old palace, higher up the mountain, in ruins, 
with arms, armour, and furniture of the Middle Ages. Had 
not lime to go to see Hercules on the top of the mountain, 
nor the immense Orangerie. Two statues and two pictures 
of the king; not one of the queen. The maitre, keeper, or 
prem. valet who shows the house, was in the same capacity 
to the expelled prince. Much like a gentleman ; amused me 
greatly. The bedrooms. The Cyprian Alcove, lined with 
mirror ; not, however, for her majesty to see her royal face. 

Home at three ; paid two dollars to one, and one dollar 
to another (showers) at the two palaces. Instead of dinner, 
walked out to see the town. It is really unique in many 
particulars. I will endeavour to buy some tableau, for I am 
bad at description, nor is it possible to afford the time. Home, 
at 5 and had tea. Gave up the opera that I might, write to 
you and make notes. 

Only think ; not one of my cards returned, nor any mes- 
sage. A gentleman in regimentals (a subaltern) has called 
and inquired for me ; but left neither message nor card ! 
The streets of Cassel are badly lighted. It is said to con- 
tain about nineteen thousand inhabitants. They are build- 
ing a new penitentiary and workhouse. What a pity they 
know nothing of Panopticon. 

Snowing all day, and about six inches on the ground. 
These mountains are parts of the Hartz, of which Bruken or 
Broken, famed in legend, is the highest. About the height 


of our Alleghany. The Giant's Mountain ! another of 

Booths, tents, &c, are in all the squares and large streets 
in Hamburgh, Brussels, Cassel, &c. (a sort of fair). All 
kinds of wares, especially toys. Gampy would run mad to 
see them. Horses of all sorts, sizes, and colours. Some 
mounted with men, some with women astride, sticking out 
their toes and going at such a rate. 

The watch in Hamburgh and Brunswick have the rattle, 
and also a sort of trumpet, sounding like those of Gampy. 

Swedish watch. The bident with spring, on a pole eight 
feet long; to catch a man round the neck or body, and hold 
him quietly at a distance. It seems to be presumed here 
(Sweden) that a man who is disorderly must be either drunk 
or mad, and, in either case, ought not to be hurt. In Eng- 
land he would be first knocked down, and then questioned. 

28. Mr. de Marten, very celebrated as the author of a 
book on the law of nations, " Relations Exterieurs" being 
the only man in this place whom I had any real wish to see, 
sent him my card, with a message that I should call on him 
at any hour he would be at leisure in the forenoon. Re- 
plied that he would be happy to see me from eleven to 
twelve. Sor. to Meylert's about money. He promised to 
call on me at two. To several booksellers' to get map and 
tableau of Cassel. Bought you a beautiful map of the Na- 
poleon Hbhe and its environs, for which paid the enormous 
sum of one dollar and a half. The bookstores here are 
humble things. Thence to the posthouse again, to be sure 
of the diligence. The man put me quite in a fever by tell- 
ing me that it had just gone! Only think of the horrid al- 
ternative of waiting here a week, or taking post extra for fif- 
teen German miles ! It put me quite out of breath. For- 
tunately, the man was mistaken. The diligence goes at 
three P. M. to-morrow. 

At twelve to M. de Marten's. A tall, handsome man, 
about forty-two. Dark hair and eyes ; very sprightly in his 


manner. He received me with very great politeness, and 
thanked me over and over again. Expressed great regret at 
my determination to leave town to-morrow. Home at one. 
Read Moniteur de Westphalie till two. Dinner at table 
d'hote. Six at table. Not one who could speak French. 
A very young professeur from Koningsberg was the only 
one whose countenance strongly invited acquaintance. 

At three, Meylert not coming, went again to the post- 
house, and actually paid for a seat in the diligence, so that 
you will no longer dare to doubt whether I go to-morrow. 
To convince you, hussy, here is the receipt. Oh, I forgot 
to tell my dear little Gampy he would have jumped out of 
his skin to see it. Such a family and such music. But I 
must give him the particulars. 1st, the principal person- 
age was a jackass ; 2d, two monkeys dressed in regimen- 
tals, one in green, the other in scarlet ; 3d, an enormous 
bear ; 4th, a drummer and bagpipe. But they did dance in 
such a style, and the monkeys played so many tricks to the 
poor bear, and Herr bear did so growl, and Gamp, did so 
laugh. But I'll tell him all about it next time. 

Yesterday I must have been possessed by the devil. A 
pretty little girl about six years old came into my room, with 
a little guitar in her hand, and, muttering a few Words in 
German, began to sing and play. Could you imagine any- 
thing more calculated to fascinate me ? I drove her rudely 
out. To be sure I did give her a gooden groshen, which 
was probably much more than she expected ; but I was un- 
kind. One minute after I was sorry, and sent for her, but 
she was not to be found ; and I have been all day looking 
out for her in vain. There are troops of these singers and 
players of all ages and sexes. Several of them have amused 
me very much. One in particular, a girl of about eleven, 
has a very fine voice, and which she accompanies with her 
violin in a charming style. Have a great mind to bring her 
out to the United States for you. She would teach Gamp. 
German, and would presently serve him other purposes. 


She is quite decently dressed, but, as all the girls of the lower 
order are here, bareheaded. Snowing all the while and very- 
cold, yet playing out doors, and, of course, without a glove. 
She must be as tough as a little white bear. I will bring 
her out for little Gamp. 

I am to-day more civil to all these little creatures, to atone 
for the barbarity of yesterday. How truly English that was ! 
Not a visit from any one of my six addresses. Tant mieux. 
I have seen De Marten, and all I wish to see, and shall get 
off the sooner, and henceforth you will see fewer delays. 

Ecoutez. At Gottingen Professor Heeren told me two 
very important articles of news. 1st, The divorce of em- 
peror and empress. The manner of it is noble and worthy 
of him. 2d, The emperor's assent to the independence of 
Mexico and the other Spanish colonies. Now why the 
devil didn't he tell me of this two years ago ? 

Bischausen, December 30. This place is four miles west 
from Cassel. Sat up till two on Thursday night, pretending 
to write, and got ready for setting off on Friday. At nine 
sent to Meylert, who came over with twenty-three Fred, 
d'ors, which I had agreed to take. At eleven received card 
of Mons. Alleze, who sent word that he had not sooner been 
able to find me. At twelve came in De Marten and sat 
half an hour. He offered many allurements to change my 
determination of leaving town. The most powerful, and 
which, indeed, made me hesitate, was his conversation. He 
resembles Gallatin, with more of fashion and animation, and 
something younger. Happening to mention the resemblance, 
it came out that his belle mere was born a Gallatin and Gen- 
evise. Mr. de Marten is a Hamburgavise by birth. 

At two came in Bercagny, le com. general de police. I 
was in my travelling costume. My trunk packed and ready. 
He apologized over and over again for the delay of his visit 
(business was the burden of it). Asked me to dine. Pro- 
posed various parties. It was too late. I had really deter- 
mined to go. Mr. Bercagny is a very gay, cheerful man of 


about forty. Looks too good-tempered for his office. He 
sat till I wished him gone, and gave signs of impatience, for 
I feared to lose my passage in the diligence. At three punc- 
tually went to the stageoffice with my baggage. There were 
no signs of going. It was blowing and snowing violently. 
After pacing the courtyard about twenty minutes, I fortunate- 
ly found the conductor, and very fortunately he could speak 
French. Told me the diligence would go a little after five, 
and begged me to be punctual. I was punctual ; then it 
would certainly go at six. By way of consolation, went to 
my quarters and took dinner. Was in the field again at six, 
and determined not to quit it. At seven we set off. The 
storm had risen to a tempest. Our road lay right through 
the mountains, something like those about Croton and Peeks- 
kill. The snow had become deep, and in many places ex- 
cessively drifted. We were six in the wagon. I had the 
worst place, which is everywhere the lot of a stranger, ex- 
cept in Scotland and Sweden. The storm in our face ; the 
wagon badly covered ; we were all covered with snow. 
Every half hour we got fast in some snowdrift. Once we 
were obliged to send back a postillion an English mile for 
additional horses to drag us up a mountain ; and at another 
time to send as far forward to get men and tools to dig us 
out of the snow and open a path. These operations cost 
us about two hours each, between twelve and five in the 
night. We arrived here at two P. M. this day, having been 
nineteen hours indefatigably employed in getting over four 
miles, about nineteen English miles. And what do you 
here? And why don't you go on ? Infandum regina jubes. 
But I will tell you. The diligence goes no farther on my 
route till six A. M. to-morrow. Having resolved against 
post extra, here I wait, with all imaginable patience, in a 
humble inn, where I am received with extreme good-humour 
and filth, and having dined on potatoes and drank beer, and 
since some execrable tea, which was unnecessary, I am now, 
at ten, about to undergo the operation of stewing and freez- 


ing, as heretofore described, there being no sort of covering 
except the down bed. 

I suffered a good deal with the cold last night. My com- 
panions appeared quite at ease. They were in constant 
good-humour. Sung a great deal, two of them having very 
fine voices. Among them all, during the whole nineteen 
hours, I did not hear a single tone or expression of ill-hu- 
mour or impatience. 

31. At six A. M. up and ready to move, so soon, at least, 
as I shall have swallowed my coffee, which is on the stove 
by my side. Take notice, madame, that I never again get 
under one of these infernal down beds. It has been a night 
of extreme fatigue. 

Gotha, December 31, 1809. At the moment of writing the 
last line above, the wagon-meister came a third time to in- 
form me that the diligence was waiting, and added that the 
passengers (I had before understood that there were none) 
were growing impatient. Disposed of my coffee, paid my 
bill, 32 gooden groshen, and packed up my loose articles 
with all possible despatch, and at half past seven we were 
under way. 

The passengers were three paysans going to Eisenach. 
They strove to amuse me by details regarding the country 
through which we were passing, and the incidents of modern 
times. If my pipe were out, they would run through the 
snow one hundred yards to fetch me fire, &c. We had six 
horses to drag us up the mountain. These mountains are 
no more than great hills. At every quarter of a mile a vil- 
lage. The soil is better here than in the plains of Hanover. 
At three we changed horses and postillion. Oui new pos- 
tillion was an angel ; quite inspired. We went on a trot 
more than half the way, and once he actually galloped for 
near two hundred yards. At four we were at Eisenach, 
having made five miles in eight and a half hours. A most 
wonderful transit for this region. 

Eisenach is in a valley of three or four leagues in circum- 


ference, and several hundred feet below the surrounding 
mountains ; one of which conceals it from your view till you 
enter the suburbs. It may have about ten thousand inhab- 
itants. The plain, however, is in view. Eisenach was (is) 
a walled town ; the walls of stone, now in decay. On the 
right, as you enter, a castle, about one hundred feet above 
the town, walled in, and capable of defence (before cannon 
was invented). It is a neat town. Has a theatre open this 
very night ; formerly the residence of majesty ; no, that must 
be a mistake. 

These little walled towns are a great nuisance to a trav- 
eller. Searches and questions. The theatre would have 
detained me ; but I did wish to examine the noble ruins of 
a castle on the very summit of a mountain immediately be- 
yond (on this side) the town. It is exactly the scene of a 
fairy tale. Here, no doubt, many a fairy damsel has been 
confined by diabolical enchantments, and delivered by valiant 
Christian knights. But a matter nearer home engaged my 
attention. The postmaster, who speaks French, informed 
me that the diligence must wait till that from Frankfort ar- 
rived, which was not expected till midnight, and might be 
later. Having been two nights without rest (happy New- 
year, the clock strikes twelve ; a band of music is playing 
near my window, guns firing, as with us, &c), and undergo- 
ing great fatigue, I determined to take posthorses to Gotha. 
Went to a tavern, took tea, and at five was in my calash. 
The postillion was a slow-motioned rascal, who was five 
and a half hours bringing me to this place, and my first busi- 
ness was to go personally to the diligence-office and se- 
cure a place for the morning. The expense of post extra is 
here beyond all bearing. Before Eisenach, we enter the 
kingdom of Saxony (Charles Loss's kingdom) ; and here I 
am in a great auberge, where no creature speaks a word of 
French or English ; have had a supper brought which I did 
not want and did not order, and twenty other misintelli- 
gences, which I will tell you another time ; but, expecting to 


be called at half past five, must bid you good-night. Good- 
morning, this first of January, 1810. It has been snowing 
all day, and is now raining very hard. Having a bed with 
coverture, and a chauf-lit, I promise myself a few hours 

Note, the infernal douanieur and commissaries de police. 
For your amusement I enclose a copy of the paper I have 
signed. It will puzzle their highnesses. 

Gotha, January 1, 1810. Was really up at six and break- 
fasted before seven ; not the better for the wine. Raining 
very hard. How sorry I feel for the lower order of people 
when it rains on a holyday. They have so few enjoyments, 
in Europe especially ; nowhere so few as in England. It is 
now said that the diligence will not go till nine. 

At Eisenach saw the first sleigh that I have seen since 
leaving America. They were pretty little things. Fine 
horses, ornamented with chords, and tassels, and bells. 
Gentlemen and ladies. Saw a great many pretty faces the 
hour I was there among les servantes and bourgeoise. Dis- 
figured by a strange headdress, and all false hips ; even 
girls of five years old. At the tavern I caught one to ex- 
amine those hips. She screamed as if I was going to eat 
her, to the great amusement of twenty spectators. 

Forgot Kreutzberg, a little town in a plain (a hollow), in 
the midst of the mountains, where are extensive saltworks. 
A pretty scene as you descend the mountain. It is three 
miles west (the other side) of Eisenach. 

The Frankfort stage (in which I am to go to Weimar) not 
yet arrived. Determined to wait for it. Will go out in all 
the rain to see if there be anything to amuse you. There 
are plenty, I know, but not visible at this hour. Besides, I 
dare not be long absent. 

Just as I had finished the last sheet, a message from a la- 
dy, now somewhere in this great house, that she was going 
alone in a carriage to Weimar, and a proposition that I should 
take a seat with her to go immediately. Voluntiers, ma- 


dame. I understand this to be an overture of economy, and 
not of gallantry. She may be deformed, and ninety, for 
aught I have learned. From Weimar you shall hear the 
result. Weimar, Weimar, for which I have gone seventy 
miles out of my way; have expended so much time and 
money, and all this for the lovely D'Im. I shall, at least, 
have the satisfaction of having performed my engagement, 
perhaps the only reward. But how little did I know how 
much I should regret the time. Something I told you a few 
days past has inspired this impatience. Little, leaile ray of 
light. Adieu. To Weimar. We shall arrive about midnight. 

Four P. M. toujours Gotha. The Frankfort stage not 
arrived. The postmeister now says that it is probable the 
rain and melting of the snow may have so raised the rivers 
as to render them impassable (Dumfries), and that, of course, 
there can be no conjecture about the arrival. Very pleas- 
ant, madame, to be a whole day in a place where there is 
not a being who can understand a sentence I say, nor be 
understood by me. This is not the worst; I could amuse 
myself very well, could go to church, or to see some of the 
fine things ; or, as at Gluckstadt, could make acquaintances ; 
but my great apprehension of losing the diligence keeps me 
from being abroad more than half an hour at a time. Nev- 
ertheless, I have been all day roving ; have made some ac- 
quaintances, some discoveries about these false hips, several 
little adventures ; know the town. 

Every lady you look at, sitting in her window, nods to 
you. I drew strange conclusions at first, but how danger- 
ous are rash inferences. Have seen only one beautiful wo- 
man. Lo, the diligence arrives. I see it from my window. 
"But what has become of the lady ?" Too long a story to 
tell, and worth nothing when told. 

Have been over to see the diligence. It goes at seven. 
The price to Weimar is about one dollar and seventy-five 
cents. There are two passengers, of whom one speaks 


French. A very forbidding phiz, but not worse than my 
own. The weather mild. 

Weimar, January 2, 1810. At six last evening, at Gotha, 
went to the stagehouse. These posthouses are not always 
houses, but there is always a room with fire for the passen- 
gers. Here sat with my two companions till eight. I was 
amused by the bourgeoises, who were continually coming 
in to visit some one belonging to the house. A vigorous, 
active, athletic race. Reminded me of those German wo- 
men spoken of by Tacitus and Caesar. Their laugh might 
have been heard a mile. At eight we embarked and moved. 
But Gamp, is tired and must go to bed. He will try to de- 
vote a few minutes to you to-morrow. 

3. Had a fine sleep. Have breakfasted, and am refreshed. 
Now to go back to the wagoning at Gotha. Going in and 
out of these towns, you pay a toll for passing the gate. It 
was warm. The wagon well-cushioned, and our very slow 
motion relieved us from the jolting, though we were without 
springs. At the end of a mile the postillion stopped at a 
tavern, and I went in, as I always do, to see, &c. The 
hostess is the picture of Megara. She asked me if I would 
have brandy. No. Beer. No. She then turned to her 
husband and the postillion, the only auditors, and abused me 
with a profusion of curses. A fellow who would come in, 
and warm himself by her fire, and drink nothing. The pos- 
tillion informed her that I was a Frenchman who understood 
not a word of German, and I affected to understand nothing. 
At going out I very civilly bid her good-night. She threw 
back her head, and, with the most malignant expression, de- 
manded one grochon for having warmed myself by her fire, 
which I paid her, and again bid her good-night. The wagon 
being closed, I saw nothing. Arrived at Erfurth at two in 
the morning. Took a servant to show me the houses where 
the Emperors Napoleon and Alexander lodged while form- 
ing the treaty in 1806. Got coffee after an hour's delay, and, 
without undressing, lay down to sleep till called to continue 


our journey. Was waked by the servant at half past six to 
know if I would have breakfast. Again at seven to know if 
I would have my boots cleaned. These inquiries being an- 
swered in the negative, and with great good-humour, I rose, 
and, after two hours' delay, we moved about nine. An open 
country, with gentle swells and extensive plains of rich soil, 
and highly cultivated. No enclosures. The cattle are not 
suffered to go at large. Destitute of wood. Two English 
miles before reaching Weimar, you are on an elevated plain, 
terminated by hills more distant. An extensive horizon on 
every side. You do not suspect a valley till, within half a 
mile of Weimar, you discover the town in a vale one hun- 
dred feet below you. 

I was not deceived in the phiz of my companion. He 
was morose to rudeness. A merchant from the neighbour- 
hood of Frankfort, and, being bound to Leipsic, left us at 
Erfurth. The other, who came with me hither, a most 
amiable youth. A sub. in the Chasseurs of Saxe devoted 
himself to me with constant assiduity. At two arrived and 
put up at the Elephant. Not a creature in the house speak- 
ing a word of French. Was shown into a very, very small 
triangular room, coarsely furnished, and no bell. Have you 
no larger room ? No ; so I found this very good. Let me 
see, I don't recollect where I breakfasted ; in fact, I think I 
had not breakfasted at all. Ordered tea. Opened my trunk, 
and sent out sundry letters. 

At four came in the Baron de Schrade, who introduced 
himself to me as the brother of la Baronne de Stein. Pres- 
ently a message from la Baronne de Stein, asking me to 
call and take tea. Message from Monsieur de Bartuck, 
apologizing that he could not call till the morning. From 
la Princesse Caroline, requesting to see me in the morning 
at eleven. Then, in course, my landlord expressed his dis- 
satisfaction with my room, and asked if I would not prefer a 
larger. Most certainly. In five minutes myself and bag- 


gage were transported to a large, handsome, well-furnished 
room, with every convenience. 

At six to la Baronne de Stein-y-sa fille Madame la Ba- 
ronne d'Egglustein, la Baronne de Knebel, dame d'hon. de la 
Princesse Caroline, all in calico and en famille. Tea made 
at the table, of which and biscuit (rusk) I partook. Sat about 
an hour. Then home, and engaged in fifty nameless occu- 
pations for the residue of the evening. 

The Elephant is on one of the principal squares. Look- 
ing out of my window just at dawn this morning, saw great 
numbers of people, principally women, erecting tents and 
slight sheds all round the square. It must be either a great 
market-day or a fair. After breakfast walked out for an 
hour to see the show and the people. It is a kind of fair. 
Made one pleasant acquaintance. At ten came in Mons. 
Bertuck ; a frank, sprightly, sensible man, of much learn- 
ing, and in liaison with all the literati of Germany. Appears 
about fifty-five, but says he is sixty-seven. Has promised 
to announce me to Wieland and Goethe, and gave me some 
instructions as to my duty towards the court. 

At eleven to la Princesse Caroline. A very lovely, in- 
teresting woman. Met there la Baronne de Stein and others. 
They inquired with great interest about America, &c. At 
twelve to Bertuck's to get further instructions. To le Baron 
de Schrade, where remained half an hour. To le Mare- 
chal de la Cour. He was indisposed and invisible-y-ma- 
dame sa femme, whom I met the first evening chez Madame 
de Stein, and la belle soeur, Madame d'Ez. Told me that 
M'lle. Gore would be glad to see me (an English lady of for- 
tune, resident here for many years, sister of Lady Cooper, now 
in Italy). Went there and sent in my address. Denied ! 
To Madame de Stein's. Out, which was true, for I met her 
on my way home. 

Just after I got home came in an elderly man superbly 
dressed, with sword and chapeau bra. I supposed he must 
be a baron, at least. He very formally delivered a message 

Vol. I.— R 


from G. A. le Due Regnant, requesting me to dine with him 
the same day at half past two. There was no refusing ; so 
made my toilet ; got a sedan chair (much used here) and 
went au palais. But, just before going, the valet who attends 
me repeated a hundred times with great emphasis some- 
thing which I could not comprehend, nor could any way con- 
ceive to be of the least importance ; but there happening to 
be below a gentleman who spoke French, with his aid I dis- 
covered that the valet wished to inform me that, before going 
to court, it was indispensable that. I should send cards to 
certain great officers of court, in which the gentleman said 
the valet was right. Gave him two cards, and he went off 
very happy. 

Arrived at the palace, was shown into a drawing-room 

where was nobody ; presently came in , maids of 

honour, two very pretty girls, and au fait to their duty. They 
led me into an adjoining room, where was presented to S. 
A. la Duchesse Regnant ; to S. A. la Duchesse , sis- 
ter of Emperor Alexander ; au prince hereditaire, a very 
amiable, well-bred young man of about twenty-five, and 
finally came in le Due Regnant. The gentlemen led each 
a lady in to dinner. I was placed on the right hand of le 
prince hered., vis-a-vis la Comtesse de Peyster, dame d'honor 
Princesse Marie (de Russe), a very interesting face, et les 
plus belles Maries. Marie is very handsome, and does credit 
to her rank and birth. But I must stop with details, and 
only make short notes to talk from. 

La Baronne Knebel asked me to tea to-morrow. (Invi- 
tation of the Princess Caroline.) Home at half past five, 
and six to the theatre. Much amusement. The battle of 
Jena terminated in this place; in the town. 

4. Note from Bertuck, that he would call at ten to take 
me toWieland's and Goethe's. At ten pere et fils called. 
Went first to Wieland's; then to Goethe's. To la Baronne 
de Stein's, tete-k-tete half an hour. Promenade through the 
park ; crossing the Ulm. At six to la Baronne Knebel, chez 


lui Princesse Caroline. Tea and cheerful confab. Met 
there M'lle. Gore, who began an apology : " Madame toute 
belle femme a le droit de faire la coquette." This day would 
make two hundred pages if written out. 

5. At ten by appointment to Bertuck's. Met there Mons. 
de Muller, counsellor privi de la regene, et envoy extraordi- 
naire de Weimar a Paris. To Madame Wollzagen's. Met 
there la belle de Reizenstein. M'lle. has lost no ground to- 
day. We ran over the United States. Her recollections 
charmed and astonished me. At four to Madame Wollzagen, 
by her own appointment. Denied, but why, could not com- 
prehend. Her domestic told me in German a very long 
story, and with great animation and zeal, of which I under- 
stood not a sentence. Wrote a note to Berluck that I would 
call to see him if at home and disengaged. Then sat to read- 
ing the details of the battle of Jena, &c, when M. de Muller, 
whom of all men in this place I wished most to see, came in. 

6. Had a baking this morning, and lay in a torpid state 
till eight. Before ten came in Bertuck, tils (a young man 
of talents and learning). Went together to the atelier de 

sculpture de Mr. , a young man of extraordinary talents ; 

thence to Madame la Marechale d'Eglefsteins, by invitation, 
delivered by Mr. Muller last evening. Met there about half 
a dozen of each sex, and of the most distinguished. Le 
poete Falk would have amused me much had it not been 
for Reizenstein. Stayed till near one. Chocolate, biscuit, 
and cakes. All the repast on these morning parties. Ma- 
dame la Mar. made me an apology on the part of la duchesse. 
She supposed I had bid conge to the court, and, therefore, 
had not invited me. To Madame la Baronne de Stein, where 
half an hour. A very sensible and well-bred woman. She 
told me what I did not know nor suspect, that la Princesse 
Caroline would be glad to see me any morning. 

Home at two. Found a note from Madame de Wollza- 
gen, inviting me to tea this evening ; to which replied that 

I was engaged with Bertuck. At five to Bertuck's. He is 



full of all sorts of information, and seems to take pleasure in 
communicating it. At six Bertuck fils went with me to the 
play. The duke was there in plain dress, and in his little 
open side-box, without an attendant. The duke pays liber- 
ally to the support of the theatre. A serious comedy, of 
which I will send you a copy, was performed, perfectly to 
my satisfaction. Near me was the Professor Weisser, 
Mile. Goldacker, et two sisters. 

7. At ten to Bertuck's. To M'lle. la Baronne de Kneble. 
Out. To la Baronne de Stein. Out. To M'lle. Reizen- 
stein. Out. Chez Goethe, where found them all ; also les 
deux soeurs Goldacker; la Com. de Peyster, and belle as- 
semblage. A musical party a midi. (But, going in the 
street, met Madame de Schopenhausens, who asked me to 
meet a small party at her house at six.) De Reizenstein 
said she would be at Schopenhausens's, so resolved to go. 
Walked with her. Early in the morning one of huissiers 
called with an invitation from the duke to dinner at half past 

Yesterday saw in the street a girl of three years old ma- 
king a stand and refusing to move. Two ladies trying to 
prevail on her to go. But no. Went to see the child ; very 
lovely. One of the ladies, la Com. de Peyster, whom I 
recognised, spoke formally. The other I did not recognise 
nor notice. It was la grand duchesse. Relating the story 
to Madame de Stein, I told her I had met the little princesse 
with la Com. de P. and a jolie fille de chambre ; all which 
was reported to the grand duchesse. Had to settle this 
when we met at dinner. About thirty at table. Le grand 
salon. Message just before coming off. that le grand duke 
asked me to pass the evening. Tea and cards. There is 
a ball to-night, to which I am resolved to go. 

At five came home from dinner. Off directly to Bertuck's, 
thence to Schopenhausens's. There were two brothers and 
a sister from Jena. A most charming family. Was obliged 
to leave it at half past six to attend le grand duke. De Rei- 


zenstein had not come in ! but understood I should meet 
her at court. She was not there. La grand duchesse en- 
gaged me at her table at whist-y-Mr. de Stein, de Lensiho- 
ten, Hollandais. La princesse speaks English extremely- 
well. French like a Parisian. Fine hand and arm. Elbow 
perfect. A most beautiful assemblage. The Americans 
known here are Smith and Poinsett,* both of South Carolina. 
Erfurlh, January 8, 1810. Felicitate me, my dear Theo- 
dosia, on my escape from the most critical danger of my life. 
I have been, as you know r , in pretty many dilemmas and 
jeopardies, but in no one that called for so much effort and 
determination as this ; and even now, at the distance of fifteen 
English miles, I do not feel myself quite safe. Yet, having 
ordered posthorses for six in the morning, not choosing to 
hazard the lapse of two or three hours to wait for the dili- 
gence (for, possibly, I may be pursued), my escape may, I 
think, be considered as accomplished. How shall I apol- 
ogize to la Baronne de Stein, to whom I was engaged for 
to-morrow evening, when she promised I should see all that 
was beautiful or brilliant in Weimar and its vicinity ? How 
to the good and amiable Weiland, whom I had promised to 
meet this evening ? How to De H., whose friendship has 
been so disinterested and may be so important ? At this 
time, probably, he is writing letters for me. But I have es- 
caped. That is my consolation. I do really believe that 
De Reizenstein is a sorceress. Indeed, I have no doubt of 
it ; and, if I were president of the Secret Tribunal, she should 
be burned alive to-morrow. Another interview, and I might 
have been lost ; my hopes and projects blasted and aban- 
doned. The horror of this last catastrophe struck me so 
forcibly, and the danger was so imminent, that at eight 
o'clock I ordered posthorses ; gave a crown extra to the 
postillion to drive like the devil, and lo ! here I am in a warm 
room, near a neat, good bed, safely locked within the walls 
of Erfurth, rejoicing and repining. If you had been near 
* The present Secretary of War. 


me, I should have had none of this trouble. The history of 
the day must be deferred till my head is composed. 

Gotha, January 9. As I was writing the concluding line 
of the preceding page last evening (about one o'clock), an ill- 
looking fellow opened my door without knocking, and, mut- 
tering in German something which I did not comprehend, 
bid me put out my candle. Being in no very placid humour 
at the moment, as you see, I cursed him, and sent him to the 
lower regions in French and English. He advanced, and 
was going to seize the candle. My umbrella, which has a 
dirk in the handle, being near me, I seized it, drew the dirk, 
and drove him out of the room. Some minutes after I 
heard the steps of a number of men, and, looking out of my 
window, saw it was a corporal's guard. It then occurred to 
me that this Erfurth, being a garrison town, with a French 
governor (De Vismes), there might, probably enough, be an 
order for extinguishing lights at a certain hour, and I had no 
doubt but the gentlemen I had just seen in the street were 
coming to invite me to take a walk with them. So I bundled 
up my papers, and put them in my pocket to be ready for 
a lodging in the guardhouse. It was only the relief of the 
sentinels going round; and who the impertinent extinguisher 
was I have not heard. 

At half past seven I was off without breakfast. Ascend 
a very long hill. A small fort on the left. Stopped by the 
guard, as usual, at the gate, to give your name, &c. After 
rising the hill, a plain the whole way, about fifteen English 
miles. An open plain ; not a fence ; not a grove ; not a 
house, save two small tollhouses. Many villages on the 
right. You pass through only one. About two English 
miles before reaching Gotha, a parcel of poor-looking houses. 
A row of large trees on each side of the road the whole 
way. Very cold. Arrived at Gotha at eleven. After get- 
ting breakfast and dressing, sent a letter to Mr. Reichard, 

with my card ; also, cards to others, and walked out. 

came running full speed ; and, spite of all I could do, joined 


me and walked with me. Le baron arrived at two. At five, 
dinner chez moi. Reichard, counseiller de guerre, came in 
and sat a few' minutes ; and, while I was dining, Mons. le 
Baron de Salish, marechal de la cour, on the part of the 
duchess, to ask me to pass the evening and sup au palais 
with a small select party. Cards (Boston) with la duchesse, 
and won. About nine the duke came in. A very handsome, 
tall, graceful blonde. Engaged me in conversation, so that 
I could not again join the card-table. At supper was on the 
right, and the duke on the left of the duchess ; very cheer- 
ful. M'lle. le Bronne de Dalwigk, dame d'hon. Much talk 
of the United States. Was greatly astonished by some of 
the remarks of the duke, manifesting sensibility and senti- 
ment. He has flashes and detached solitary ideas which 
are extraordinary and admirable. He detests the English, 
though nearly allied to the royal family. The duke showed 
me his boudoir, beautifully fitted up. The design by him- 
self. But the most interesting object to me was the little 
Princess Louisa, in her tenth year. His only child. Born 
of a former marriage. A fine, healthy, animated child. Very 
handsome. I did very honestly express my admiration of 
her. At coming away, the duke asked me to dinner to- 
morrow at two. Home at half past eleven, and somehow 
quite fatigued, of which I was not sensible till I got home. 

11. It must have been very late when I went to bed, for 
I rose with reluctance at half past seven. Wrote to Rei- 
chard requesting his convoy to see the cabinet des medailles, 
said to be the third in Europe. At nine a huissier of the 
duke to ask me to dine to-day at two. He came back after 
five minutes to say that the dinner was to be in the duke's 
apartments. Called on Reichard at ten, and went to the 
cabinet des medailles, which is in a wing of the palace. It 
is, indeed, very rich. The list and description is in sixteen 
volumes folio. That sounds very large; but I am pretty 
sure that I had the XVIth in my hand. A great many of 
Alexander. Of the Roman coins a complete series, from 


the first consul to the last emperor. Passed three hours in 
the cabinet. 

Home at one, and au palais at two. The salon a manger 
is magnificent. Placed as before. About thirty at table. 
Only one lady besides the family. Much talk about Mexico, 
and of la princesse for queen. How he does hate the Eng- 
lish. Of Coxe, who married M'lle. de Schale — " Men are 
fit to educate nothing but horses and dogs." After dinner la 
pet. princesse came in. Her destiny announced. She very 
frankly declared that she loved Charles. Was sent to show 
me the picture of the late duchess and of the present duke, 
and others. About two hours at table. Adjourned. After 
coffee and half an hour's conversation, the duke and duch- 
ess retired, and then the rest. The same usage prevails at 
Weimar. The only lady besides the family was M'lle. 
Vedonie de Dieskace, who is with her uncle, Baron Harden- 
berg, from Allenberg. Agreed to be of the party, but em- 
barrassed at hearing that no maids beyond eighteen would 
be permitted. 

12. At ten le Baron de Turnmel called with his carriage 
to take me to the Observatory. The old building being in 
decay, a new one has been constructed under his direction. 
The locale is magnifique. Three hundred feet above the 
city, distant about one English mile. Extremely well sup- 
plied with instruments. But the most interesting object to 
me was Bernard de Lindenau, the professor, the occupant, 
who already, at the age of twenty-five, has celebrity as an 
astronomer and mathematician throughout Europe. His 
appearance is in the highest degree prepossessing. Sensi- 
bility, modesty, intelligence finely blended. His story is 
quite a romance. Was gay, extravagant, dissolute. Got in 
love and was beloved. His mistress died. He shut him- 
self up. Went nowhere. Saw no one. Devoted himself 
to science. Was known to le Baron Turnmel, who pro- 
cured for him the place he occupies. 

He presented me a copy of a book he has lately publish- 


ed. Tables Barometriques. The introduction with great 
pleasure. You will see that he is not merely a mathemati- 
cian, but a man of thought and sentiment. The son of the 
baron, a fine lad of about seventeen, was with us. Home at 
one. Yesterday sent my card to M. de Kunkel, counseiller 
inter, de S. A. R. M. l'Electrice de Hesse, nee Princesse de 
Dannemare. Received message that her highness would 
be glad to see me after dinner this day. 

At two au chateau to dine. A party of more than thirty. 
One stranger. A Prussian general. Le Com. de P. beg- 
ged me to cede to him ma place to-day next la duchess, as 
he was a stranger just arrived. The table is always cheer- 
ful. Le duke extremely gay. Having said yesterday that 
I had your picture, after dinner he insisted that I should send 
for it, which was done by one of the huissiers. You are 
exhibited and sufficiently admired. His highness was quite 
gallant to you. La princesse asked me to her concert this 

Home at five, and went out with Reichard to see Gallati, 
professor of history, author of a history of Germany, which 
is esteemed the best of its kind, being, as he said, a mere 
summary, in ten volumes quarto. It has gone through six 
editions, and has been translated into French and Russian. 
He presented me a small statistical work, having heard that 
I was making inquiries on such subjects. Home at six, and 
learned that a servant of S. A. R. l'Electrice had been to say 
that she expected me ! Now, to say the truth, I had totally 
forgotten S. A., and her condescension in giving me audi- 
ence. Off I went, however. Was received by M. de K. 
and announced. Then, passing through several rooms, was 
presented. After salutation she sat on a sofa, and begged 
me to be seated in a chair by her side, which I obeyed. M. 

de K. and M'lle. , dame d'hon., stood. She is mother 

of la Duchesse Reg., aunt of Gust. IV. and of the King 
of Denmark. Much conversation about Sweden, especially 
as I had seen Gust. IV. and his family. After half an hour 



came in S. A. la Duchesse Reg., and a few minutes after 
I retired. S. A. R. thanked me and said many civil things. 
Her palaces, &c., are now occupied by King Jerome. Her 
husband in Bohemia. 

Home, and then to the concert. Besides the ducal family 
there were eight ladies and about twenty gentlemen. About 
thirty musical performers ; many of them have salaries from 
the duke. Madame played the violin, and her daugh- 
ter the piano, extremely well. After concert an elegant sup- 
per. I was seated beside S. A. and M'lle. de Dalbrigk. 
With the latter much conversation about her lover, who has 
behaved like a true Englishman. She is a very charming 
woman. Will tell you the story at large. 

La P. Louisa was at the concert. I demanded a souve- 
nir; to which she agreed, and would think what it should 
be. Proposed a garter, and a deal of laugh about it, &c. 
Home at half past ten, having been asked to dinner to-mor- 
row in case I should stay. It must have been Wednesday 
evening that I called, with M. de Reichard, on le Baron de 
Falkenberg. The most extraordinary of eighty-three that I 
ever beheld. He is prime minister, and attends to all the 
duties of the office ; works generally till twelve and one 
o'clock ; reads without spectacles ; is cheerful and animated ; 
fine teeth, and features well preserved. His voice as firm 
as at forty. Madame a very charming, ladylike woman, 
about fifty-five. She presented me l'Almanac de Gotha in a 
very beautiful form, as you shall see. 

13. That's impossible, for Monday was Newyear's day. 
You must look back and see where the error commenced. 
Friday, January 12, 1810. You will suspect that I have 
taken winter-quarters at Gotha. Not quite so ; nor is the 
delay mere nonchalance. But I have no time to reason, or 
explain, or comment, or apologize. Mere notes of facts is 
all that I can attempt. We will dilate and fill up the can- 
vass with the interesting details (it is only minute details that 
interest) viv. vo. 


Rose at seven. At nine to Reichard's. At ten came in 
M. Dekunkle, to thank me in the name of S. A. R. and in 
his own, to make compliments, &c. I gave him yesterday 
a small Swedish coin, having a good likeness of Gus. IV., 
which he gave to S. A. R., and whereon they had the polite- 
ness to set great value. It is one of Gampy's collection ; but 
I've got the like, or would not have given it to any prince or 
princess in Europe. 

At twelve to M. De Turnmel. Out. Left card. The 
brother Turnmel is author of many pretty and very gallant 
things. The huissier came in to know if I would stay to 
dinner. Yes. At two went to dinner au palais. La 
duchesse indisposed, and did not appear. Had my place. 
Delwigk proposed to me to pass a few minutes in her room 
after dinner. Did so. Showed me the picture of her lover, 
which I very honestly (not very kindly, however) told her I 
did not like at all. Gave me addresses of him and her. 
Home at five. At six to the comedy, as agreed, with M'lle. 
D. The dramatis persona? you will see in the bill attached 
to this. The parts were well cast, and played to perfection. 
I laughed a great deal, as did M'lle. D. Everything ex- 
pressed in the bill was really performed, and perfectly well 

Just at this moment, ten o'clock, comes in a huissier, with 
commands of la Princesse Louisa, and a bouquet of her own 
drawing, a " souvenir." The bouquet is really wonderfully 
executed for her years. The border in handsome taste. 
You shall see and judge. But, on examining, I found no 
name or inscription to verify this important transaction. 
Twelve o'clock. Have done nothing towards packing, but 
the most interesting part of the evening has not been told. 

At the com. met le ministre le Baron de Turnmel. He 
insisted that I should take a seat in his coach, with his 
brother, the author, and visit le premier minister le Baron 
de Frankenberg. Agreed, though I had put off my court 
paraphernalia, and was in my travelling costume, having 


bona fide resolved to leave Gotha to-morrow. Met le Baron 
de Frankenberg in full dress ; and in the salon, lo ! the duke 
himself and Madame de F. We five were all. Sat round 
the teatable and took tea. The duke perfectly amiable. 
Renewed the subject of my picture. Found a great deal of 
fault with the painter. (He has taste and skill in all the fine 
arts.) In the original, said he, there must be dignity, ma- 
jesty, genius, gentleness, sensibility ; all discernible in the 
picture, but imperfectly expressed. Would have had a 
copy if there had been time. Promised to send him one. 
He wished very much that a friend of his in Paris, S. A. S., 
la Duchesse de C, &c, should know me. Asked if I would 
take a letter. Certainly. 

Le ministre Baron de F., learning that / was a coin and 
medal hunter (see again, you little villain, I could choke 
you), offered me several of the coins of Gotha which are not 
now seen in circulation. Sat about two hours, and home 
just before ten. The duke took a most affectionate leave 
of me. 

13. I shall really go this morning. Have been very hard 
at work packing. Your picture took me half an hour at 
least, you hussy you. Last night, after writing you, passed 
an hour with the Baron Strick. It would seem that every 
incident of my life is known throughout Germany. Duels, 
treasons, speeches, gallantries. Le Baron S., a young, hand- 
some man, formerly minister plenipotentiary from Holland, 
and now Chamberlain du Roi de Prusse, overwhelmed me 
with all sorts of attention. Introduction to his friends at 
Paris, Holland, &c. Indeed, more in this way than I can 
tell. He has nous et connaissances from Germany and 
England. Knows everybody, and is everywhere well re- 
ceived. I showed him Bollman's letter to Jefferson. Burr's 
conge au senate he had seen before. 

Wrote early this morning to la belle B. de Del., request- 
ing that she would prevail on ma Princesse Louisa to add a 
name and date to the bouquet. Just now a note from S. A. 


S. le Duke, with a letter to A. S. la Duchesse de C. Too 
full of business to write you any more. 

Eisenach, January 13, 1810. You see, madame, that, in 
spite of all your predictions to the contrary, I did leave 
Gotha to-day; for once you were out. It was at half past 
one that I got into a chaise, with horses post extra. Was 
here at five ; an excessively cold day, snowing a little all 
day. It does not know how to snow fast in this country. 
We can snow more in four hours than they in four days. 
All yesterday, from two in the morning, it snowed what they 
call hard, and there is not yet four inches. 

At leaving Gotha, after passing the gate and bridge (thank 
Mons. le ministre de Turnmel, these walls are now prostra- 
ting and filling up the ditch), you rise a hill, a gentle declivity. 
It may be called an inclined plane, for one and a half Eng- 
lish miles. We were forty minutes getting to the summit, 
and then we were not at the summit, for, after descending a 
very little, we rose again still higher. The distance to this 
place is about fifteen English miles. The first ten or eleven 
you pass through three villages. The last two or three miles 
English is almost a continual village, and the country ex- 
tremely romantic and picturesque. The preceding part is 
quite an open country ; not a tree, fence, or house, except 
in the villages ; gentle, bold swells ; all the way under culti- 
vation. But let us go back for a moment to Gotha. Gotha, 
I bear thee in kind remembrance. 

The bouquet was sent back, with the addition of a name 
and date, by the fair hand of the Princesse Louisa, accom- 
panied by a very pretty note in English from la Baronne de 
Dalwigk. Answered the note of S. A. S. le Duke. Re- 
ceived a letter from De Reichard to his son-in-law, le Baron 
de Goekhausen, at this place. Sent letters, with my card, to 
Madame la Baronne de Beckholsheim nee. To M. de 
Scheiler, Conseiller de legation de S. A. S. Mons. le Duke 
Regt. de Saxe Weimar, Eisenach. The gentlemen above 
named called within an hour, and proposed various things 


for my amusement. Agreed to meet the club to-night. 
M. de Scheiler has passed six years in Great Britain, and 
speaks perfectly good English. Passed an hour with the 
club, about twenty gentlemen. The Prussian gentleman 
whom I met at Gotha quite another animal here. Called on 
le Baron de Beckholsheim, son of la baronne above men- 
tioned. It is most unfortunate that the mother is absent on 
a visit to some friend near Erfurth ; very unfortunate. She 
is one of the most distinguished personages in Germany for 
learning, wit, talents, grace, &c. Left the club at nine. 
Walked the streets half an hour. No accident. A beautiful 
little town. "Walled and fortified. What nonsense. This 
has been much the coldest day this year, and really cold. 
Would be called cold at Albany; but perfectly calm. 

14. Could not keep myself warm in bed, having ordered 
a mattress, thin and hard, and two thin quilts (called cou- 
vertures) ; added my greatcoat. At ten to the posthouse to 
see about diligence. None goes to Frankfort before Tues- 
day P. M., and then not direct, but some miles about, and is 
between three and four days gi?ing, day and night, from this 
to Frankfort, which, by the direct route, is twenty-one miles 
German. What's to be done ? 

Thence to le Baron de Goeckhausen, beau fils de Rei- 
chard, a sensible young man. Stayed but a few minutes. 
Thence to Massovices's, and he and I went together, as 
invited, to breakfast a la fourchette with Steickler. Met 
there Mr. M'Intosh, a Scotchman, who has been many 
years in North America, and in Asia and Africa. Had an 
immense fortune, which he lost by the French revolution. 
A very intelligent, amusing man. 

After breakfast, Mons. Steickler took me in his sleigh to 
Wilhelmothal, chateau de plaisance de Due de Weimar (we 
are here again in his dominions). Met here several ladies. 
They all spoke French very well. The road is exceedingly 
romantic for nearly two miles English, in a very narrow 
valley, the rocks and mountains hanging over us ; then, about 


one mile English rising the mountain. Descending about 
the same, the chateau in a valley of half a mile diameter 
below. Fires had been ordered, and we had coffee and 
cakes. M'lle. is cheerful and pretty. Home at half past 
four. The cold most intense. I was almost perished, and 
had to bake an hour before I got thawed. Mr. Roese, seeing 
that I admired a picture of the Duke of Weimar, which we 
saw au chateau, procured and presented me one. At seven 
to Mons. de Streiber's. A small club. Five of each sex- 
y-Madame Roese, who is very handsome. She is from 
Gotha. Cards. Won a Thaler at whist. Supper, with a 
variety of wines. Home at eleven. 

I much wished, for your sake, to have visited l'ancien 
chateau de Wartzbourg, which is on the summit of the mount- 
ain overhanging this town. You can imagine nothing more 
romantic than the site. It has been famous in story more 
than eight hundred years. It is a fine ruin ; but part hab- 
itable and inhabited. The sieges, the battles, the enchant- 
ments, the imprisonments, &c, render it very famous. Lu- 
ther, too, was there, and had some squabbles with the devil. 
Threw his inkstand at his majesty's head, and the mark of 
the ink still visible. But the snow and ice have rendered 
the mountain impracticable, and the castle absolutely inac- 

Mr. M'Intosh came in this morning and sat an hour. I 
admire his constancy and his loyalty. He is a prisoner on 
parole, as being a British subject. Has corresponded with 
Washington. One of the letters now in the museum at 
Weimar. Met many very pretty faces in the streets. The 
lamps here are suspended on wire, attached to the houses 
on each side. The same in several other towns, and in Al- 
tona. Eisenach has about nine thousand inhabitants. 

15 Still colder than yesterday, but perfectly calm. Called 
on Mr. Roese. Saw his beautiful wife and her jolie amie. 
Madame has lately lost two children. One a fine boy about 
three years old. Thence to General Letocq's. This is the 


general whom I met chez le due a Gotha. He is now in 
the service of the King of Naples. Yesterday he sent me a 
card of invitation for this evening, which accepted. Thence 
to one of the manufactories de Mr. de Striebel. Home to 
thaw, and then walked about the town and its environs for 
near an hour. Inscription on an old building : " Heic sunt 
pulvis umbra nihil." Got home frozen stiff, though I had 
on my greatcoat and caloshes. Baked an hour, and then 
dinner. Scul. Mon hote is a native of Hanover. Speaks 
French freely, and is very communicative. He suspects that 
I am an Englishman, and has intimated how much, &c. 

This duchy, separately from Weimar, paid a contribution 
of 150,000 E.'s en argent. More than two hundred thou- 
sand troops have passed through. Always maintained by 
the inhabitants ; free quarters, which must have been more 
than double the contribution. Recollect that the Duke of 
Weimar was in arms against the emperor at this time. At 
four came in M. de Striebel, to inform me of the best means 
of getting to Frankfort. The best will be the expense of 
about twenty-five dollars ! The worst, i. e., the diligence, 
which goes a circuitous route, and is three days and three 
nights on the way, always going, would be about twelve 
dollars. Truly, as the weather is and is like to be, I should 
not like to hazard my precious carcass in a wagon without 
springs, and badly covered, three days and three nights. 

At half past six to General Letocq's. A very elegant 
party. The rooms in very beautiful style. It is the house, 
the rooms, the furniture, and the taste of Madame la Baronne 
de Beckholsteim. Her son was of the party. A very ac- 
complished young man, with a lovely wife, to whom he was 
married a few months ago. Cards, chess, supper. I played 
two games with the general and won both. It was a very 
cheerful party. One present, a young man of fortune, of 
talents, and learning, would bring me home in his carriage. 
Chez moi about half an hour. At half past eleven not so 
cold. A gentleman who keeps regular meteorological notes 


told me this evening that the thermometer (Reaumur's) was, 
at seven o'clock this morning, at 20| below ; and at eight 
o'clock, 19^ ; and that for ten years the cold has not been 
so intense by many degrees. 

Hunnefeld, January 1G. To this at seven. Went early 
to the postoffice, to see about the diligence. It is expected 
at two. But, after much deliberation, resolved to take post- 
horses to Fulda, whence a very convenient diligence goes 
on Thursday to Frankfort. Called on Streiber at his man- 
ufactory, and sent card of conge to General Letocq. At 
two set out. About two English miles winding round the 
mountains, along narrow valleys. Ascend mountain, and, 
descending the same, pass a small town. At two miles Ger- 
man from Eisenach to Berka, where changed horses and 
carriage. Two miles farther, change again. Three miles 
more to this place ; frozen to an icicle, and so resolved to 
thaw and bake till seven. 

Hannau, January 17. Laid on a sofa last night without 
undressing. About seven got my breakfast, and at eight 
continued my route ; bitter, bitter cold. Arrived at Fulda at 
ten, formerly the sovereignty of the Bishop of Fulda, beauti- 
fully situated in an extensive valley, on the small river Fulda. 
Though a small town of about ten thousand inhabitants, it 
exhibits much magnificence. You see twelve or fifteen 
steeples or towers as you approach. In every direction 
chateaus, &c, rows of trees. There are many things here 
worthy of notice ; but the distressing intelligence that no dili- 
gence goes hence till Sunday, left me the sad alternative of 
either waiting here four days, or continuing in the same ex- 
pensive way. Resolved on the latter, and ordered horses 
immediately. While they were getting I walked about the 
town. This being a Catholic bishop, everything is stamped 
with that character. Crosses on the houses. The mile- 
post, a crucifix twelve or fifteen feet high, with a wooden 
Christ as large as life ; sometimes carved on stone. The 
bishop still resides here, with a pension of forty thousand 


florins from the great emperor. The residue of the revenue 
goes to the emperor. The bishop was dethroned some years 
ago by the Prince of Orange. " Sic vos non vobis." 

Arrived here at eleven, and, after giving my name and 
other particulars, am allowed to go to bed, and write this 
while I am thawing. About two or three miles English 
before arriving here, looked out and found we were on a per- 
fect plain. Till then, or thereabout, it was continual mount- 
ain and hill ; but the road excellent, and at every quarter of 
a mile German a town or village. 

Frankfort, January 18. Arrived at ten this morning. A 
continued plain. A ridge about one German mile off, on the 
right ; scarcely visible by reason of the fog or mist, which 
is eternal. I have not seen a clear American sky since I 
left the United States. Something like it in Sweden. Ap- 
proaching the ridge as you approach the town, it is seen 
covered with vineyards and beautiful little houses. 1 took 
quarters, as advised by Reichard, at Empereur Romaine 
(Roniesehe Kayser), and, as usual, was shown into the third 
story. The room, however, is decent and comfortable. 
Those on the first floor (second story) are all occupied. 
Sent letters to Mons. de Bethman, consul de Russe. To 
Messrs. Bansa et fils, and cards to Chiron, Saracin, et B. 
(my bankers!!) To le Comte de Buste, beau pere de la 
belle Comtesse de Buste, a Weimar, dont je vous ai parli 
sur le nom de De Peyster, which is the Allemand pronun- 
ciation of De Buste. M. le Comle de B. is premier minis- 
ter, and, in the absence of the prince primate, who is now at 
Paris, represents royalty here. To Mons. le general-com- 
mandant Sweiger. To the commissaire de police. These 
commissaries of police are fellows very formidable to stran- 

Presently came in the valet de M. de Bethman, to request 
that I would dine with him to-day at one. This was doing 
things right; but the hour surprised me. Went at one to 
dinner. A magnificent establishment. He is garqon. His 


mother (60) lives with him, and does the honours of the 
house with great civility and real hospitality. There were 
about fifteen. A mother and daughter of the celebrated 
name of Euler, and nearly related to that distinguished man. 
Another young lady. The French intendant of all the 
French provinces in Germany ; a very intelligent, well-bred 
man. A young man resembling Otto ; but the two Eulers 
and the mother recommended me to talk to the daughter, 
who, she said, spoke French much better than herself. I 
obeyed her, and was much amused ; a sensible, amiable girl 
of seventeen. 

Home at five. Immediately after my return home, receiv- 
ed, under cover from Bethman, tickets of admission to the 
Cassino, to the Musee, and to the Cabinet Literaire. Three 
charming lounging-places. The first and last under the 
same roof; a most elegant establishment. The other oppo- 
site, and appropriate to its name. The place of exhibition 
of the productions of Frankfort artists. Mr. B. called in 
the P. M., and we went to the Cassino and Cabinet Literaire, 
where you meet persons of the first grade, and no others. 
The nature of the establishment, and how maintained, must 
be explained verbally. You find here a library, new publi- 
cations, all the gazettes and periodical publications of Eu- 
rope. Maps ditto. Can have any refreshment and any 

To the Comedie Allemand. The opera of Camilla. Be- 
ing perfectly acquainted with the story, having had the 
French translation while at Stockholm, of which you will 
find a note and a comment, I was much amused. The the- 
atre is convenient and handsome, without being splendid ; 
the parts well performed ; the orchestra excellent. One 
superior male voice, and two good female. The best a lady 
from Vienna, who has married and left the stage ; but loves 
the business, and performs when she likes. Left the com- 
edie at the second act, being very cold, and having an en- 


gagement. My tea is ready. The good Luning's caravan 
tea and other matters claim my attention. 

19. I have none but this great, thick, ugly paper, which 
you hate so, and it is now too late to get any other. So this 
or nothing. Very pleasant night. Rose at seven. Receiv- 
ed cards from the general-commandant Baron de Svveyer 
and le Comte de Buste, who ought to have been first named. 
Cards from Chiron and Saracin. My landlord sent to know 
whether it would please his excellency to have a larger 
room, and on the first floor. Yes, certainly ; but not to-day. 
You see how things go. Mr. Elfinger, " libraire tres cele- 
bre," sent a clerk with a civil message, tendering his services ; 
new publications, &c. This at the instigation of Bethman. 

A man of grave appearance, d'un certain age, dressed and, 
powdered, presented himself. I supposed him to be Mare- 
chal de la Cour. He undeceived me by saying that he un- 
derstood I wanted a commissionaire d'affaire. Then I con- 
cluded that he was merely a broker, and told him it was a 
mistake ; that I had no sort of business to transact. He 
bowed, and said he had been sent to me by the landlord ; 
and " Pray, sir, quelques d'affaires de votre etat ?" " Pour 
faires vos petites commissions de mon apportez ses mes- 
sages, netloyer ses habits et bottes." Mr. Kayser was re- 
ceived as valet de place. 

To Bethman's at twelve. Out. To Cassino. Read news- 
papers, and saw, and was introduced to, many people. Stay- 
ed till three to avoid the hour of dinner, which is at one ; an 
hour at which it would be useless to me. Bethman engages 
me to dine with his sister on Sunday, and with himself on 

Young Mons. Bansa, who is nephew of Streiber, came in 
this morning to offer civilities. A very pleasing young man. 

At six to Cassino, it being ladies' night. There were, 
perhaps, one hundred people ; about equal of each sex. 
The ladies who most caught my attention were the Prin- 
cesse de , M'lle. la Baronne de Ende. There were 


many very handsome ; several handsomer than these. " Sir, 
allow me to interrupt you to ask who is that beautiful crea- 
ture with the blanche bon?" "That, sir, is my daughter; 
shall I have the honour to present you ?" 

" Pray, count, what fine, voluptuous woman was that you 
were just now talking with ?" 

" Who, the very tall one, with the bon rouge ?" 

" Exactly ; a most striking figure." 

"That, sir, is my wife. Ha ! ha ! Venez ici, ma chere, 
Mon. le Col. B. desire vous connaitre." 

This was rather too much for one evening. Having two 
other engagements, was obliged to go at seven to la music, 
which is open every other Friday evening for exhibition and 
declamation, and, as I presumed, on subjects of science. 
On entering, a very comely and very young lady was on the 
rostrum, declaiming with much grace and animation ; at 
which made great eyes. It was an actress. Her manner 
was very pleasing. To the concert au maison rouge ; met 
there Mons. Eslinger, who introduced me to Mr. Gerning, 
author of Travels in Italy. The music was really fine, sur- 
tout the horn, which was played in a style I had never wit- 
nessed. There was also Mr. , a gentleman of fortune 

and consequence, with his mistress, a very pretty, modest- 
looking girl, to whom everybody spoke with civility and re- 
spect, as to other dames. 

"Went back again at, half past eight to the Cassino, to 
which the principal inducement was D'Ende. There were, 
perhaps, a dozen card-tables. Some backgammon, but all 
the most beautiful women were walking the floor in the suite 
of rooms, five or six, well lighted, and perfectly well warm- 
ed and perfumed. 

" Pray, m'lle., is there any law forbidding a gentleman to 
walk with a lady ?" 

"Poh ! folie! Comment peut y avoir un tal loi." 

" Mais done n'est ce pas contre les bienseances ?" 

" Tout au contraire." 


"Alons c'est permi que je marche avec vous V 

" Certainement." 

And so I did an hour. No other male walked with a lady. 

Le Baron d'Ende, who is charge des affaires delacour de 
Saxe Gotha, lold me he had received a letter from the ven- 
erable Frankenberg about me (A. B.), requesting his atten- 
tions, &c. Very good in Mons. de F. Met, also, General 
Baron Sweyer, andle Comte de Buste. Home at ten. Le 
Baron de came in and gave me a very pressing invi- 
tation to visit him au chateau. Went in to see the table 
d'h6te. Nothing very remarkable, but told me they expect- 
ed me to dinner. 

20. Wrote the commandant at Mayence, enclosing the 
letter of General St. Simon, and requesting that he would 
inquire whether my passport had been sent from Paris. 
Note to Chiron and Saracin about exchange of money. To 
Elsinger's to fouiller in his library. Think to buy you a 
dictionary and something for Gampy, to be sent to Ham- 
burgh. At twelve to Cassino. At two to the music, which 
is open from two to four P. M. once a fortnight, to see the 
paintings. None but the works of Frankfort artists are ad- 
mitted. The day being cold, the company was less than 
usual. A few ladies ; Madame Cavina is handsome, a stri- 
king veuve. M'lle. Kock, an artist, is very pleasing. Sev- 
eral others handsome ; but I have not yet a decided pref- 
erence. Home at half past four. Sent card to-day to le 
Baron d'Ende, which was immediately returned by a visit 
in person. 

21. At ten to Gerning. Happening to mention les D'J., 
he avowed himself the lover de 1'ainee. He has some 
choice paintings and some very curious antiquities from 
the Herculaneum and other places in Italy. Among other 
things, brass and iron stamps, with letters and names, evi- 
dently for marking things, which ought to have led to the in- 
vention of printing. Some fine Etruscan vases. At twelve 
to Ende's. Le baron out, but les dames received me. Sat 


half an hour. Ma belle, which is the cad., has lost nothing 
at the second interview. Pleasing, but not dangerous, like 

that infernal . Home. Note from Belhman that he 

would call at two to take me to dinner. At six to Mr. Sar- 
acin's ; having met him in the street to-day, he asked me to 
dine ; being engaged, was obliged to decline. So went this 
evening. A pleasant family-party of a dozen. Came in 
also Madame Dumont, et m'lle. sa soeur de Mayence. 
M'lle. a sprightly, well-informed lady. Tea, &c. Home 
at nine. 

22. At eleven took hack and went to Eisenberg, to see 
le Baron de Wallschmitt, marechal de cour du Prince 
d'Eisenberg. Out, but sat half an hour with la baronne. 
A very pretty promenade. Home at one. At half past one 
to dine with Belhman. Met there Madam Gogel, whom I 
saw at Gottenbufg ; a very charming woman, speaking 
French and English. Also, editeur du Journal de F., en 
trouve beau coup de A. Burr. Conversed much about 
America. Home at five. To Mr. Fuhs's, who had sent me 
a ticket for the ball ; called with his carriage to take me. 
There were about one hundred ladies ; a great many very 
handsome, and many dancing very well. Les deux soeurs 
d'Ende were there. Princesse Marie beautiful. Two 
Mayerhoffs (baronnes or comtesses), very handsome. M'lle. 

le Lunet, elegant and striking, from a resemblance 

stronger than I have ever seen to a person once dear to you 
and me. But my attention to beauty was interrupted by a 
communication from young Bansa that he had answer from 
Mayence, and that my passport had not arrived ! No an- 
swer from Meynier, which looks black also. 

23. Certainly, madame, you owe me great obligations for 
writing you at all at this moment. Lo ! the catastrophe of 

my hopes. Mr. called at ten this morning, and with 

an air of mystery, with hesitation and unaffected embarrass- 
ment, said that he had a letter from his friend at Mayence, 
advising not only that no passport for me had been received, 


but there were advices from Paris concerning me extremely 
unfavourable, and requesting I might be advised by no 
means to hazard my person within the territories of France. 
After thanking him for the communication, I told him I 
should go to-morrow to Mayence, which you know is now in 
France, and asked a line of introduction to his friend. He 
seemed to consider my resolution as madness ; declined giv- 
ing a letter, from the danger which must ensue from any ap- 
parent connexion with me. 

At eleven to Bethman's. Saw him in his house. A vast 
establishment ; and after his mother, in chateau. Thence 
to Saracin's, to whom I told the story. He is not fright- 
ened, and voluntarily offered a letter to his friend at May- 
ence. Thence to Cassino, where, among many others, 
saw Farci ; engaged to dine with him at the hotel where 
he lodges. Went at one. A very pretty, sensible, amiable 
landlady. He came home with me to smoke a cigar in my 
room. Engaged to meet me at the theatre au paterre, and 
show me a beautiful woman. At six au theatre. The or- 
chestra is the best I ever heard. The scenery very fine. 
M'lle. was there ; really beautiful. 

On entering my room this evening, found on my table a 
very polite letter from Meynier. Too polite. " No pass- 
port had been received, nor any notice of the application." 
Nothing farther. Continue in the determination to go to 
Mayence to know the state of things, but must stay to the 
masquerade ball to-morrow, and to sup on invitation of Sar- 
acin, who promises that there shall be belles. 

24. At ten to Saracin's. At twelve to Cassino. There 
met le Comte de Rode, min. plenipo. de Prusse a Madrid 
et Lisbon. Le jeune Comte de Westphalia. Le Prince 
Frederic de Hesse. Alexander Goutard, and others. Gou- 
tard invited me to pass the evening on Sunday. At four, 
Comte Rode called with his carriage to take me to Prince 
Frederic's. Home at seven. Soon after, Mr. Saracin called 
with his carriage and took me to pass the evening. An as- 


semblage of about fifty. Cards, conversation, &c. At 
eleven au bal masq. given at the theatre. Stayed with Sar- 
acin till four this morning. 

Mayence, January 25, 1810. Headache. Took no break- 
fast, but paid for one. Message from Eslinger that Ma- 
dame B. claimed me as a relation, she being the grand- 
daughter of Daniel Burr, of Harwich. Called on Eslinger 
to apologize for not seeing ma chere cousine till my return. 
Home. Invitation from Bethman to dine, which could not. 
Embarrassed with packing up. A bill of forty-seven flor- 
ins, besides my valet de place ! At twelve took diligence ; 
being the last, went outside, and was nearly frozen. At the 
halfway-house a civil young man gave me his place inside. 
There was a soldier's widow who had served fifteen cam- 
paigns, and was yet handsome. Went over the Rhine in 
traineau, drawn by two, and then with M. took lodgings. 
Sent card to General Meynier, and to le prefect le Baron 
Jean Bon St. Andre. To Kayser, to whom had a letter from 
my kind friend Saracin. Mr. Kayser called immediately 
and invited me to go to the theatre with him. Agreed. He 
called at six with his carriage. Met there his wife, a love- 
ly, beautiful woman, who is a grandmother, her daughter, a 
French gentleman and wife. Both the comedy and the 
afterpiece amused me very much. I laughed a great deal. 
Home at ten. 

26. At ten went by appointment to see General Meynier. 
Un brave, frank soldat. Unfortunately, just now Gouteaux. 
Thence to the prefect le celebre Jean Bon St. Andre, now 
baron, &c. His appearance justifies the character we had 
had of him. Met accidentally a young man of very intelli- 
gent countenance. Exchanged looks and made acquaint- 
ance, but not a word said. The prefect cannot give me a 
passport for Paris. Must write and get one from the minis- 
ter of police at Paris ! ******_ 

About an hour afterward received a note from the young 
man, requesting permission to call and introduce himself. 

Vol. I.— S 


It seems that, in order to discover my lodgings, he had gone 
to the guard who watch the gate and made the inquiry. 
Never take the advice of one who is agitated or alarmed. 

To the prefect's for my passport. Bureau shut. To the 
secretary; he had not the passport. I might call at the 
bureau in the morning, but told me that I should not have 
come to Mayence, unless I meant to stay there till the answer 
should be received from Paris, and that I must remain at 
Mayence under surveillance de la police. Now this will be 
not very convenient, for I am engaged to-morrow evening at 
Goutard's (not Sunday, as supposed), and to dine on Sunday 
at Mons. de B.'s. To a coffee-house ; took coffee and played 
chess while the young man was preparing for me. I had 
scarcely left the door of my friend when I was stopped by 
two soldiers. After some parley, understood from them 
that it was not permitted to walk in the street at that hour 
without a lamp, and that I must go with them to the guard- 
house. There are various ways of getting along in this 
world. After some explanation, they agreed to escort me to 
my lodgings. Home at half past eleven, and am now going 
to bed. That matter of the passport sticks in my throat. 
There is no possibility of going one mile without a passport. 

Frankfort, January 27. Waited till ten very impatiently 
for P., who had promised to call on me very early. Then 
sent to him to know whether he would be at home if I 
should call. Yes ; called and passed half an hour. Thence 
to the prefect's. Received in the most polite and amiable 
manner. Compliments paid and returned. I might stay at 
Mayence, or go to Frankfort, or wherever I pleased, save 
the interior of France. Returned my passport. Handed 
him the letter which I had addressed to him, requesting that 
he would apply for me to the minister of police at Paris. 
All right. Thence to Kayser's. Saw him and his belle 
femme. To a libraire, where bought Gray's poems for la 
job, whose name I will try to get. Paid bill in the house, 
and mon valet de place. The moment you arrive at any 



town, if to stay six hours, you are saddled with a valet de 
place, whose pay per day is from three livres to a dollar. 
Wrote note of conge to P. Crossed the Rhine en traineau, 
and got to the diligence-office just at twelve, the hour of 
setting off. Got number nine, being the last place, and 
again outside. Met again la guerre. Exceedingly cold and 
suffered much. Arrived at Frankfort at five. Went first to 
Saracin's to hear the news, and to inquire for private lodg- 
ings, as I must necessarily be here at least a week. As I 
got to the Rom. Kayser eight or ten carriages drove up. It 
was the C. D. R. of Sweden, Gust IV., with his family and 
attendants. My room on the first floor was taken, of which 
I was very glad, for I got. one as good on the second floor 
for half the price. 

Dressed, and at half past seven to A. Goutard's. It was 
a mistake. That liitle hussy the V. led me into the error. 
The ball to-night is at another Goutard's, with whom have 
no acquaintance. Very glad of it, for I was but half thawed, 
and had much to do, i. e., to think what, and how, and where, 
in case I am excluded from France, of which there seems 
little room to doubt. This is probably the work of the United 
States' minister;* for certainly I have claims to protection, 
if not to hospitality, from France ; and then I had hoped to 
do the emperor and myself so much good. 

28. At ten to Saracin's. Went with his young man to 
look at rooms, but could not be suited. Determined, how- 
ever, to take the worst of them rather than endure longer 
the expense of this hotel and my valet de place. At one to 
Cassino. Saw no acquaintance who chose to recognise me. 
Read the papers and off. Called this morning on le Com. 
de R., who received me very kindly, and said many things 
for which I am greatly obliged to him. Sat till seven P. M. 
Dressed and went to Goutard's. An immense party of all 
that is titled, and much untitled good matter. Perhaps sixty 
dames. The young ones are in a room by themselves. A 

* General John Armstrong. 



very bad arrangement. Procured a wonderful cold, and so, 
after making half a dozen bows, came off. My host, howev- 
er, was very polite and attentive. To Cassino, where read 
newspapers an hour. Home at half past nine. Tea a la 
Gamp. Ruminating on the statu quo till one o'clock ; and 
now bon soir. 

29. At ten to see about lodgings. Looked at several ; 
but a new difficulty occurs. No longer can receive a stran- 
ger in his house without the license of the police. S. recom- 
mends that I call on Com. de Buste for this purpose, which 
shall do to-morrow. At eleven, C. D. R. gave me some 
clew to the coldness. I thank you very much. Resolved 
to wait here the result of my application for passport. To 
Cassino at one. Walked a mile out of town. Still very 
cold. Home at three. Remain till eight, then to the Cas 
sino ball, my good friend Saracin having furnished me with 
a ticket. Met about thirty ladies ; all noble ; not one bour- 
geoise. The three Swedish officers who attend Gust. IV. 
all claimed my acquaintance, and was amused to talk over 
Sweden. A few other acquaintance. Mr. Bethman senl 
his domestic this evening to offer me a ticket for the ball ; 
but I was provided. Home at eleven. Same symptoms 
this evening as before. 

30. I sleep always but a single nap, and without dreaming. 
Have not had a dream in six months. Walked round with 
my valet de place to look at rooms. Think I shall fix on 
the bookbinder's. To Count de Buste. He had gone to 
Mayence for a week. To Saracin to know what was to be 
done. He advised that, as soon as I had fixed on my lodg- 
ings, for they must be designated, he would apply to the 
police for me. 

Received a letter from my cousin, John Conrad de Ron, 
giving a history of his branch of the family of Burr, and 
invitation on the part of his sister to call and take chocolate 
with her some morning. Reponse, and proposed to call on 
madame to-morrow at eleven o'clock. Called on De Ron, 


who is to leave town to-morrow. Gave me a friendly invi- 
tation to come and pass a day with him. 

Mr. Belhman's domestic to invite me to sup to-night 
after the play is over. Ruminating till eight, then to Cas- 
sino. At nine (play over) to Bethman's-y-the three Swe- 
dish officers ; M. Euler. Good supper and wine. 

31. Hail me in my new lodgings, in a little back yard. 
The access is a perfect labyrinth. Two neat small rooms 
and a lumber-room, prettily furnished, for three florins per 
week : about one dollar and one eighth. Did you ever hear 
anything so bon marche ? Heavy, heavy headache. No 
breakfast. At eleven to ma cousine to take chocolate. 
Swallowed a dish of chocolate ; might as well have swal- 
lowed arsenic. At one to Saracin. Had fixed on the book- 
binder's ; the mistress, the maid, and the boy being all 
cheerful, good-natured faces. He (Saracin) sent to the po- 
lice, and the license was instantly granted. Paid my bill, 
and at five was installed in my new lodgings. I am really 
more than content.. Mr. and all the household have that 
promptness to oblige that forestalls one's wishes. The mis- 
tress and servants speak French enough for my purposes. 
Madame says she has a charming friend, who speaks Eng- 
lish perfectly, whom she will bring to see me. 

My new style will put me out of society ; but, in the first 
place, madam, that I am already ; and, in the second, my 
ducats will be of more use to me than their dinners. S. and 
C. D. R. approve the arrangement. I have had my tea in 
my own fashion, and have not felt so much at home in many 
months, except at Luning's. The juice of four lemons car- 
ried off my headache, the chocolate notwithstanding. 

to m'lle. la baronne de dalwigk.* 

Gotha, January 13, 1810. 
I beg pardon, in the first place, for writing to you at all. 
In the next, for writing in English ; but great exigences defy 
the restraint of forms. 

* See Journal 12th and 13th January, 1810, p. 392, 397. 


I have received, with enthusiasm and delight, the elegant 
bouquet made by the beautiful hand of my lovely Princesse 
Louisa ; but I have searched in vain for a name, a date, an 
address, an inscription, something to denote the donor and 
the occasion. Alas! all is blank and silent. Allow me to 
entreat your influence with my adored princesse to induce 
her to add her name and a date. The bouquet is sent for 
the purpose by the bearer of this, who will wait your orders. 

On another subject, interesting to yourself, be assured of 
my punctuality and zeal. It is with regret that I bid adieu to 
Gotha. I shall bear with me to my native forests the rec- 
ollection of the charms and hospitalities of its court. 

A. Burr. 


Frankfort, Jan. 20, 1810. 

Mr. Burr has the honour to transmit a letter with which 
he was charged by General St. Simon, and he hopes he may 
be pardoned the liberty of requesting that General Meynier 
would have the goodness to inquire whether Mr. Burr'3 
passports have been transmitted from Paris. His excel- 
lency, Mr. de Bourrienne, at Hamburgh, was pleased to take 
upon himself the trouble of making the necessary application 
in Mr. B.'s behalf. 

Mr. Burr proposes to remain at Frankfort until he shall 
be favoured with the reply of General Meynier. He offers 
salutations and respectful compliments, and apologizes for 
this freedom. 


Mayence, January 22, 1810. 

J'airecue, la lettre, dant vous aviez bien volu vous charger 
pour moi, de la part de mon ami, le commandant de Hano- 
vre, ainsi que le billet en Anglois qui accompagnoit cette 
lettre. J'ai mille remerciements a vous faire d'avoir bien 
voulu en etre le porteur. 


Quant au billet, je me suis empresse nou d'aller moi 
metne chez le prefet et ant incommode; mais de lui ecrire 
sur la demande que vous formez ; le prefet dont je vieu, de 
recevoir la reponse, memarque que non seulement il n'a 
point de passeport pour vous, monsieur, mais meme que vous 
ne lui aviez pas ete annonce par Monsieur Bourrienne, quoi- 
que ces sortez d'annonce au prefet par des agens diploma- 
tiques, soient recommendees par les instructions de S. E. le 
ministre de la police generate. 

Je suis fache que mes information, n'aient pas en pour re- 
sultat de vous annoncer le passeport que vous allendiez. 

Le general de div. commandeur la place. 


Mayence, January 26, 1810. 

Dr. Perkins, who had the honour to meet Colonel Burr 
this morning at General Meynier's, requests the permission 
to pay his respects to the colonel. The doctor should think 
himself happy if, by his knowledge of this country and of 
the different languages spoken in it, or by any other means, 
he could render himself useful to the colonel, or make his 
stay at Mentz agreeable. 


Mayence, January 22, 1810. 

I have received the letter from my friend, the Commandant of Hanover, which 
you were kind enough to take charge of for me ; also the accompanying note in 
English. I have a thousand thanks to tender to you for having been willing to 
be the bearer of it. 

As to the note, I hastened not to go myself to the prefect, being indisposed, but 
wrote to him in reference to the question you ask. The prefect, whose answer I 
have just received, remarks to me that not only has he no passport for you, sir, 
but that you have not even been announced by Mr. Bourrienne ; although these 
reports from diplomatic agents are recommended by the instructions of his excel- 
lency the minister of the general police. 

I am sorry that the result of my inquiries does not enable me to notify you of 
the passport you were expecting. 

General of Division commanding the Post. 



Frankfort, January 28, 1810. 

I have received your obliging letter of the 7th inst., and 
regret that it is not in my power to give you any information 
respecting the relation of whom you inquire with so much 
solicitude. It is, however, my intention to pass through 
Holland, where I shall not fail to make inquiry. 

My family is of German origin, and, as I have understood, 
derived from that branch of the family which settled in Hol- 
land more than a century ago ; but I cannot, at present, give 
you any particulars of the genealogy. A. Burr. 


Frankfort, January 29, 1810. 

I came to this place some days ago, and have been also 
to Mayence, with intent to visit Paris. It is now said that I 
must wait the orders of the minister of police at Paris, and a 
]ine, in the usual form, has been addressed to him for the pur- 
pose. This delay is extremely inconvenient. If it be mere- 
ly the course of official duty, I have no reason to complain. 
Circumstances, perhaps misconstrued, have led me to sus- 
pect that the objections were somewhat out of the usual 
course, and therefore I take the liberty of asking your in- 
terference with the minister of police to expedite the trans- 
mission of my passport. I rely on your candour to inform 
me if there be any objection, either personal or political, 
which is insurmountable. Address to me at this place, to 
the care of Chiron and Saracin. 

It may be deemed necessary, or at least proper, to add a 
word respecting my views. When I formed the design of 
visiting Paris, it had no other object but that of gratifying 
the very natural curiosity of seeing the capital of the world. 
The great men, and the various things it contains, and the 
wish to see you and a very few others in whom I took a 
personal interest. But the publication more recently of a 


message from the emperor to the Senate has furnished a 
further and more imperious motive. It has led me to be- 
lieve that I can, better than any other man, perform a service 
greatly desired by the emperor and by another country. 

It would be equally improper and useless to explain 
myself further in this way ; but, to avoid misconception, I 
would add, that the communication and proposal which I 
desire to make have no reference to the United States, its 
government, or politics. A. Burr. 


Frankfort, January 29. 1810. 

This is the fifth time I have written to you since Septem- 
ber last. Four too many, if they should have been all 
received. I cannot, however, reproach myself with the 
crime of importunity, as you might at any time have put an 
end to it by a single line. Having received no reply, I am 
left to conjecture whether my letters have failed to reach 
you, or whether you are averse to answer them. The object 
of all these letters is to ask a passport to visit Paris. It is 
not, I know, immediately in your department to grant pass- 
ports ; but if there should be any doubt in the mind of the 
minister of police, it is in your power to remove it, if you 
shall choose so to do. If not, please to say so by a note 
addressed to mc at this place, to the care of Chiron and 
Saracin. A. Burr, 


Frankfort, February 1, 1810. Mr. Bansa's clerk came in 
before I was out of bed this morning, with a letter from M. 
de Streiber, enclosing one of introduction for Bethman. 
Sent it with a note, and also E. B.'s letter for perusal. At 
eleven to Mr. de Rode. Sat half an hour ; he was packing 
up to return to his chateau, about five leagues from town. 
A magnificent establishment, as is said. To Cassino at one, 
where an hour reading newspapers. Home at two. The 



French louis which I bought at Hamburgh are ail light. A 
loss of three florins on each. Fortunately, have but ihree left. 

At three to Saracin's. Much conversation, but nothing 
new. This afternoon, my hostess, who is always thinking 

of something to oblige me, brought in Madame , a 

smart, sprightly, comely English woman, who stayed and took 
tea with me. Projects for the amusement of Gamp, advance. 

Ruminating all the evening. A new essay to change the 
state of affairs will be made to-morrow. Invitation from 
Bethman for Tuesday evening, to sup, &c. 

2. My rooms are so small and the ceilings so low, that, 
when the stove is heated, I am suffocated, the hot air being 
above ; while my head is in an oven, my feet are in an ice- 
house. Got up this morning later than usual, stupid, and 
choked with a cold. At twelve to le ministre Hedouville. 
He was engaged, but appointed one o'clock. To Cassino 
to pass the interval reading newspapers. Cut all my friends 
to be beforehand. At one to the minister's ; an amiable, 
intelligent, well-bred man. Received my communication 
with courtesy, and engaged to transmit it forthwith to Paris. 
A reply cannot be expected within twelve days. Have a 
great mind to go to Weimar. 

At three to Eslinger le libraire. He has caught the 
infection. Passed an hour looking over books, but bought 
nothing. I wish to send you so many that it will end in 
sending none. Yes, a good French Dictionary, if one there 
be, I will send. Tea at six, and at seven came in Saracin 
to take me to the museum. The music was fine. Two 
airs by the enchanting voice of Schonberg. A handsome 
young man introduced himself to me as from Hanover, and 
bearing a civil message to me from the beautiful M'ile. 
Karsaboom. This is ladies' night at Cassino, but did not 
go. Home at half past eight. The hostess invited me to 
partake of her supper. Agreed. The party was madame, 
her seamstress, another woman, and one of the journeymen. 
Invitation from Bethman to dine on Sunday. 


3. Rose very late. The maid makes my fire, that is, 
heats my room at seven, but 1 get stupified by the heat; 
for this I see no remedy, unless I could muster force enough 
to get up before any heat was introduced. But there is no 
exigence requiring this effort. After the answer from Paris, 
which may be expected on Tuesday, the case will be altered, 
whatever may be the tenour of that answer. 

At twelve to Cassino. Met at the door Mons. de Wielkel- 
hausen, who, having married the niece of M. Vandervelten, 
has thus become my cousin. He talked to me half an hour 
about family matters, &c. Read newspapers an hour. 
Home an hour; then to the Musee, this being the day of 
exhibition. Met there Saracin and family ; mon amiable 
cousin, mais pas beaucoup de monde. Among the paintings 
was a Cleopatra ; as usual, blonde et grande, though, in fact, 
she was petite et brune. Mon cousin proposed to me twen- 
ty different parties and promenades, all of which I declined. 
At length one, to which I acceded. It was very kind and 
very hospitable, but failed in the result. The parties not 
found. Home at five. Dressed, and waited for Saracin, 
who came at seven. To his brother's, Mons. Lars, a man 
of adoption (these adoptions are always attended with for- 
tune), he being born Saracin. There was a very handsome 
and gay party. Mons. and Madame Sehonberg ; she sang 

for us ; M. Chaumont et femme ; Madame , belle et 

superbe femme, soeur de ces deux de Mayence, whom I met 
at Saracin's; la jolie pit. Cloison, who pleased me so much 
at the Cassino's ball on Monday of last week. 

We had a great deal of charming music. La Pruss. 
sings delightfully; so Cloison on the guitar. A suite of 
four rooms well lighted. The supper elegant and the guests 
extremely gay. Home at one. My stove cold as ice. Took 
one hour to make fire, get warmed, and smoke my pipe. 

Frankfort, S. M., February 4. I have not before put S. 
M., which means sur Mein, to distinguish it from Frankfort 
S. 0. (sur Oder). Rose late. Did nothing till one ; then 


to dine with Bethman-y-la mere et two filles, Brevillieur; 
la femme Vunnixune, of which I have often spoken ; M'lle. 
Delz. is one of the finest women I meet; Mons. de Brevil- 
lieur, brother of the deceased father ; la mere was a Goutard. 
In all, we were twenty-one at table. The dinner handsome ; 
but the rapidity with which things were done is inconve- 
nient and unusual ; you would think we were eating for wa- 
ges, such is the velocity with which the courses are served. 
The moment the last course has gone round (everything is 
handed round by the servant), all rise and go off to the draw- 
ing-room, where coffee is served. A sprightly young Gene- 
voise merchant pursued me a great deal, and was very civil. 

Had also, to-day, an invitation to Madame chez souer 

de Saracin ; but Bethman's was first. Off at five, and to 

M'lle. , who lives under the same roof with her brother, 

where passed an hour pleasantly. Home at seven. Ma 
hostess invited me to her party, i. e., the English woman ; 
another English woman, native of Pennsylvania, where re- 
mained till nine. Had my tea. Wrote a long letter about 
Charles and family, to be transmitted to the parents of Mr. 
and Mrs. Loss, who live seventy or eighty miles hence. 
Wrote also to General Meynier and to Dr. Perkins at May- 
ence, requesting each of them to inform me if there was any 
news about my passports. 

5. At nine to Saracin's with my letters. Home to break- 
fast; then to work to assort papers, &c, and prepare for 
locomotion, which I feel will soon be necessary. But wheth- 
er to Paris, or to prison, or to Russia, or to the United States, 
is known yonder above, but they won't tell Gamp. At nine 
to the Cassino bal au maison Rouge, Saracin having sent 
me a ticket-y-the Endes ; M'lle. Brevillieur, who introduced 
to me her cousin, Dr. Schlosser, LL.D. I was just wish- 
ing to know some lawyer. Ma pet Ende looked very well ; 
Cloisin not there. The assembly was very full and very 
brilliant. There seems to be a sort of tacit accord among 
the bourgeoises to go only every other week. Le Baron 


d'Ende, Mr. de B., and the Saracin family were my princi- 
pal associates. Off at half past eleven. Yes, there was 
also that fine, imposing form and countenance, M'lle. de 

, who resembles Emilie de Visme. " Suspense," says 

Swifc, " is the life of a spider." 

6. Jour, the same as heretofore, because two and two 
make four ; so that, according to some logicians, twice 27 
make 54, and so on ad infinitum. Sat up till three, smo- 
king and assorting scraps. To Cassino at one. Met Beth- 
man, and the M. G. resembling Gallatin, but not the front 
nor the nose. An amiable phiz. Always meet monde there ; 
but go off about one, that being the known usual hour of 
dinner. Gamp, is more sought and spoke to these some days 
past. Bethman, who wrote to Paris about ten days ago, 
has, as he says, no answer. Perhaps they care nothing, 
think nothing about us. The moment the Rhine is open, 
will be off, if suffered. 

Saw from the Cassino windows two regiments French 
cavalry, on march to France. The horses and men small, 
but the men handsome, sprightly youths. Did not see a 
horse that would have sold at Philadelphia for one hundred 
dollars. Much talking among the men. Swords not very 
long; remarkably straight; light. Written at three P. M. 
You will have a word more on my return from Bethman's 

Got home from Bethman's at half past twelve. It was a 
very handsome party of about thirty. The supper comme 
il faut. Conversation, cards, billiards, music, filled the in- 
terval before supper, which was served about half past ten. 
The same rapidity as at dinner. The company retired about 
an hour after supper. The party was wholly of citizens, 
except General Sweyer, two young French officers, and a 
Russian envoy. Many of my particular acquaintance of 
both sexes were there. Was most occupied with Madame 
■ , who, to many agreements, adds that of speaking Eng- 
lish. She very wickedly led me into dilemma by exciting 


remarks on her brother and his wife. It happened that she 
was a beautiful woman, and that I pronounced very favour- 
ably on both. The evening passed off very well. Mr. 
Bethman has no news for me, but expects a messenger to- 
night. To-morrow, too, I shall have answers to my letters 
to P. and M. At Mayence to-morrow night. 

7. At ten to Bethman's for news. He had none for me. 
Walked an hour to find La Doug., but could not find the 
place. Home and got my bill, the week having expired. 
Voici les details, and then you will know how I live. 





Rooms and furniture 



1 bottle wine . 





1 lb. sugar 



1 lb. cheese 





] lb. butter 



Eight florins and fifty-nine kreutzers is about four dollars. 
Not extravagant. But then the contingencies : 

eu tiers, 



To servants when dining 


or supping abroad 4 



Moi .... 6 







A decanter broken by the 

stove heat . 1 
Washing ... 1 
To the servants ■ 2 

22 43 

Twenty-two florins and forty-three kreutzers is about 
eight and a half dollars. At the hotel for one week it cost me 
eighty-two florins, and I had not half the comfort. Now for 
the Cassino to read the news, of which I am told there is much 
by this mail regarding the interior. The moment of enter- 
ing the Cassino a gentleman took me aside ; told me he was 

secretary of Mr. ; that his excellency was ready to give 

me a passport when I should please, and would be glad to 
see me at eleven to-morrow. This was what I least ex- 
pected to meet at Cassino, or at all through that channel. 

At half past two to see our cousins, Madame Vander- 
valten & Co. Found there a pleasant little party. Three 


pretty girls, all cousins, setting round a large table drinking 
coffee. It is a very respectable old lady. Her husband a 
comte, but she does not assume the title. At four to Saracin 
to counsel. Always frank and kind. Home at five. Tea 
at seven. To Saracin's, and sat half an hour. Agreed to 
go to the bal masque. Said that there will be many honnetes 

One o'clock. Have returned early from the ball. It was 

very full, and much more brilliant than the first. It seems 

that the honnetes dames are resolved not to be chased from 

their favourite amusement by the demireps. The latter 

were, however, the great majority. For want of the language, 

I was a mere spectator. I conceive that it may be made 

very charming. My head, however, is full of other things. 

That message, and the channel through which it comes ! but 

to-morrow — to-day (being near two in the morning) will 


February 12. My maps being locked up, and the con- 
ducteur refusing me access to them till we reach Metz, which 
will be to-morrow P. M., can give you no account of my 
route. But we are about one hundred and ten English 
miles from Mayence. But, as you have heard nothing from 
me since Wednesday the 7th, it is necessary to go back. 

On Thursday, paid visit of conge to Bethman, to Baron 
d'Ende, to G. Saw not one of them. Mr. B. was engaged, 
and sent message by the servant asking me to dine to-morrow 
(Friday), which declined, having resolved to leave town. Sat 
a few minutes with Madame la Baronne. Dined with Sar- 
acin en famille at half past one. Thence to Madame Vander- 
vahin, our cousin. Sat half an hour. Yesterday sent for 
her inspection the picture, of which many pretty things were 
said. Home at half past four, but, not feeling a disposition 
to go to work, went out and walked half an hour. 

I forgot to say that before dinner went to see if the Com. 
de R. had returned to town. He had just arrived. We 
met like old affectionate friends. He was engaged to dine 


with Com. de B., to celebrate the birthday of the prince, and 
so we arranged an interview at ten at his house. At ten 
went and passed nearly two hours. Much information about 
Paris. Talked to him of Mexico, in which he entered 
warmly and predicted success. Home at twelve and worked 
till three. Made a long list of letters to be written before 
leaving Frankfort, of which wrote not one. Did nothing but 
what had a direct reference to my object. If they will only 
hear me, and Hedouville says they will. 

Rose at seven Friday morning. Worked hard, but did 
not get through the assorting, transcribing addresses, &c. 
Had visits from Saracin, Fuhs, his son-in-law, and from 
Com. de R. Got to the S. office at twelve, and, for the first 
time, got inside. Most alarming account of the rigid visita- 
tion at Cassel, used at Mayence. At Cassel the search was 
very slight; and at Mayence, where I supposed my pockets 
would be examined, met a good-natured looking fellow, 
who asked where I would lodge. "Au trois Couronnes." 
" Allez y et votre baggage vous suivra en cinque minuttes." 
In effect, in five minutes my baggage came, not having been 
opened and no douceur paid. Went direct to the prefect's to 
get my passport vised. He was out, and would not be home 
till ten. Gave a livre to the servant to deliver him a mes- 
sage, requesting that he would vise my passport to-night. 
Called and left card at Kayser's. Then home. The dili- 
gence was to go at six next morning. Little chance of 
seeing the prefect to-night, and so went off to hunt his sec- 
retary. He received me civilly, and agreed to do the busi- 
ness, which he was half an hour doing, while I played with 
his two beautiful children. At ten came in D. and sat an 
hour. Gave me memorandum of a lady who might be an 
agreeable acquaintance. To bed at two, having spent two 
hours in assorting, &c, which got through to my satisfaction. 

At six was called. Went to take place in the diligence. 
The inside full. Four dames ; but, as two were to be taken 
up eight leagues on our way, got the privilege of riding 


inside so far. The two dames were an officer's wife, very 
pretty, and a soldier's wife. The two we took in were a 
lady and a pretty daughter. Took my station outside, with 
a young man of very decent appearance, who was going as 
conscript to join the army. He says that a substitute costs 
one hundred louis, and if he deserts the principal must 
replace him. Got to our quarters at ten, and to bed at 
twelve. Called up at four this morning, and arrived here at 
six. Ordered a room and fire, with which all this is written 
at twelve o'clock. 

Seven leagues back is a beautiful little town on the Saar, 
formerly the residence of the Prince of Nassau. His elegant 
palace being manifestly an aristocratical structure, was burned 
by the Jacobins when they carried war here early in the 
revolution. The palace was then a hospital, and there being 
no time to remove the patients, they were also burned. The 
church (one of them) is a very elegant little building. On 
the opposite side of the town, along the banks of the Saar, 
saw fields of the stubble or stalks of Indian corn, the first I 
have seen since leaving the United States. But have not 
yet seen, on this side the Rhine, a single vineyard. They 
say it is too cold, though on the other side, even in the 
neighbourhood of Fulda, nearly one hundred miles north of 
this, all the hills.. were covered with vines. No interest or 
amusement of any sort with the dames. I am supposed to 
be a Swede. 

All the country I have passed through since crossing the 
Rhine, till within a league of this place where I now write, 
was formerly subject to different German princes, and has 
been conquered by and incorporated with France since the 
revolution. Hitherto, of course, everything has been Ger- 
man. Here all is French. The language of the family ; 
the manners ; the hostess, a very handsome young woman, 
extremely attractive and polite ; our conducteur is French 
by birth, but not by manners. He is, in all respects, the 
chief of the party. Does the honours of the table, &c. Met 


an interesting young sub-officer, speaking perfectly good 
English. I am very bad company and unsocial, my head 
being so full of Mexican affairs. 

Paris, February 16, 1810. Left Chalons at five yester- 
day. The day, yesterday, was fine spring weather. The 
atmosphere tolerably clear. I rode outside to enjoy the 
beauty of the scenery. We breakfasted at Epernay, the 
centre of the fine vin Champagne country, and we drank 
several sorts. Thence along the Marne for some leagues ; 
the mountains on each side are covered with vines, but the 
land on the north side of the valley is of ten times more 
value than that on the south. An arpent of the former is 
said to be worth from two to four thousand dollars ! 

Rode all night, and arrived here at twelve this day. My 
room (the only vacant one in the hotel) is up two flights of 
stairs, about fourteen feet square ; paved with brick, very 
coarsely furnished ; a large, very large, ill-constructed fire- 
place. No quantity of wood can warm the room. The 
wood is brought, five split sticks (such as Gampy would 
take in one hand), for thirty sous. The sous is about equal 
to one cent. This room is forty sous per day. 

My compagnon de voyage, Major Thomas, took me to a 
coffee-house to dine. The expense, with two bottles of wine, 
was sixty sous each. Thence to a coffee-house au Palais 
Royal. A dish of coffee, ten sous. Walked an hour under 
the arches, which is the evening promenade. Saw not one 
beautiful or very fine woman. The best, you know, is al- 
ways good l'aime. 

17. My first business this morning was to address a note 
to the Due de Cadore, ministre des relaliones exter., which 
went by a messenger, twelve sous. Thence to Hauterive. 
Out. Left my name. To Mr. Schoel, libraire, with letter 
from Bertuck. Out. Left the letter, but no card. To Dr. 
Swediaur, with letter from Baron Striek. Sat half an hour 
with the doctor. A man of sense and science; frank and 
cheerful. Gave me very kind reception. Home at four. 


A bowl of soup in my room for dinner, eight sous, with bread. 
Tea in the evening, thirty sous. A note from the Due de 
Cadore, appointing Monday, two P. M., for an audience. 
Home and alone all the evening. 

18. Breakfast, tea, brought from the lemonadieres, thirty 
sous. The tea very bad; coffee rather worse. At twelve 
to Comte de Volney's. Out. Left card. Having heard 
nothing from Hauterive, wrote him note, requesting inform- 
ation about several of my. acquaintance. Out, and got no 
answer. Much trouble about outfits for presentation to- 
morrow. Tailor, chaponier, &c. 

About five with Major Thomas to dine at any coffee-house 
or traiteur au affiche ; dinner of four courses for twenty-four 
sous. Went in to make experiments. Had for twenty-four 
sous a very good dinner and a small caraffe of common wine 
each. Took another bottle of vin Baug. blanc at thirty sous 
in honour of the house. The waiter expects nothing from 
you at these places. On the way went into a shop, vingt 
cinque sous le piece, and bought each a couple. A most 
curious collection of all manner of things, each being twenty- 
five sous. Thence to a coffee-house and took coffee. Thence 
au Coffee-house des Aveugles, i. e., a cellar vaulted, eighty or 
a hundred feet square, well furnished. Music and orchestra 
of blind performers. Entrance gratis. We were four, and 
took beer and biscuit, three sous each. Thence au Coffee 
des Milles Colonnes, celebrated for the beauty of the mis- 
tress. The rooms are supported by colonnes, and every pier 
filled by mirrors. The reflections give the idea of boundless 
space and numberless colonnes. The lady at one side, eleva- 
ted about two feet ; a kind of throne, from which gives orders 
and receives money most graciously, and for twenty louis — 
but that must be a lie. We had a hot sangaree. Thence 
au Caffee des Varieties. Pantomimic and dramatic per- 
formances are given. Entrance gratis. It was so crowded 
that we could not get in. Left my companions and got 
home half past nine. 


19. Rose late, which always stupifies me. Wrote a note 
to Hauterive requesting an answer. Got an answer. He 
knows nothing of Delage or Senat, or of any one of the sub- 
jects of my inquiry. Being dressed by one, and having an 
hour to spare, went to , to whom had a letter of intro- 
duction from Duke Reg. de Gotha. Out. Left letter and 
card. To le Prince de Benevent. Out. Left card. The 
porter said, if I wished to see him, I must address him a line 
and get his hour. Thence to le Due de Cadore. Here I 
was denied, not being on the list of receivables, and not 
having brought with me the duke's note. Fortunately, the 
porter of the day was a woman, her husband being sick. 
After much negotiation, got admission to the antechamber. 
Sent in my card and was received. Had an hour's conversa- 
tion ; all in French, and I was in bad order. Home at four. 
Soup, &c, for dinner, fourteen sous, bread included. No- 
thing is furnished at the hotel where I lodge but rooms, 
wood, candles, and wine. 

At six au theatre Francois. It was full, and no admission 
could be had. Told my valet to take me to the nearest 
theatre. Paid three livres for a place. It was a rope- 
dancer. The first performance, a boy of about seven years ; 
the second, a girl of six ; the third, a lad of twelve ; the 
fourth, a pretty girl of sixteen. Then succeeded three men 
who did wonders. You would think these fellows were 
made, like Benlham's tongs, of air and steel. Made a very- 
pleasant acquaintance, who was in the adjoining box. She 
invited me to sup, which I declined. How wonderfully dis- 
creet ; but then I engaged to call on her to-morrow. How 
wonderfully silly. Home at nine. 

20. Rose again very late, and, of course, very stupid. 
The first thing I did was to call on my valet, and tell him 
that I would dismiss him if I was abed one minute later 
than half past six to-morrow. He swears by all the saints 
that I shall be up at half past six. At one to Lepine's, to 
whom I committed your watch to be put in perfect order. 


He knew it immediately, and, by turning to his book, told me 
the day it was sold. He showed me many superb clocks 
and timepieces. Several of curious construction and his 

Went to several shops to hunt for American maps, but 
found none of any value. Called again on Schoel, whom I 
met. A most charming, prepossessing, frank, open Ger- 
man face. Full of bonhomie. We shall be good ac- 
quaintance. Gave me some useful information, and an ad- 
dress to Mons. de Valkenaer, who is to give me more. 

At three came in le Comte de Volney. He had peruke, 
and I did not recognise him. Turned his profile ; still me- 
connaissable. Gave me his name, and we embraced. Sat 
an hour. Have not been out since five, and have made but 
one meal. Tea, bread and butter. 

21. Still hard winter. With my great chimney and small 
room ventilated at a thousand crevices, and wood at twenty- 
five sous for five small sticks, I suffer and freeze. Lay 
abed till near ten this morning to keep myself warm. Sent 
my valet to hunt Barnett, late United States' consul. He is 
out of town, and Adet, whose address he brought me. At 
one called on Scherer and Fringestin, with the letter of Sar- 
acin. Saw Scherer, who invited me, in the name of his wife, 
to a party this evening, which declined. His establishment 
is vast and splendid. To Schoel's to get Volney's new 
book. Home by way of P. R. Took a room on the first 
floor ; wooden floor, something better furnished than the 
other, but I fear no warmer, at fifty livres per month, with 
liberty to quit sooner on paying a little more. 

Being out of humour with my the at thirty sous, and 
very bad, bought for six livres. Had the satisfaction to 
make my own slop in my own way. I have by this means 
learned the prices following : Butter, 36 sous per lb. ; coffee, 
110 sous per lb.; bread is reasonable; for four sous I got 
my day's allowance and more. 

22. Last evening, after writing the preceding page, read 


three hours in Bentham's notes on Judiciary. It answered 
the purpose of talking with him, and I caught a ray of illu- 
mination from his genius. This ray regards my own imme- 
diate concerns. At ten went to hunt Adet, whom I found. 
He recognised me immediately. Made an appointment to 
meet him au corps legislatif at two. Hence to Volney's. 
Out. To Bovet and Bourdillion. Saw Bovet, who told me 
that young Bourdillion of Frankfort had announced me sev- 
eral days ago. Thence home, and at two au corps legisla- 
tif. The building is so immense and so intricate that I 
was a long time finding the right way. Mons. Adet met 
me, and we walked through the building and talked for half 
an hour. Home at four. After dinner walked two hours in 
and about Palais Royal, where the eye and ear may be al- 
ways amused, and the other senses, if you please. Wrote 
a note to Due de Cadore. 

While I was dining a gentleman came in with a written 
message from the Rev. Mr. I. Burr, Chanoine du Chapitre 
Collegi al de Rheinfeld en Suisse, inquiring if I were not 
son of Zacche Burr, Mer. d'Ostende, and hoping that we 
were very nearly related. I regretted that I could not claim 
the honour of any very near relationship ; but I shall write 
a line to my coz. 

23. There is no end to this winter. By way of variety, 
there is now a sort of sleet. Yesterday we had a little snow. 
Don't know at what hour I go to bed or get up, for your 
watch is in the hands of Lepine himself, who told me when it 
was sold, to whom, and for how much. He promises that it 
shall be put in complete order. At twelve to-day came in 
the celebrated Captain Haley. The first American I have 
seen. Told me that Vanderlyn is in Paris, and hunting for 
me. I thought him in Rome. How glad — Major or Col- 
onel Hunt and Barnet are on a tour to sell lands. 

At one, the weather notwithstanding, to Mons. , the 

celebrated geographer. Was received. Showed the maps 
I wished to examine. Offered to lend me any and to give 


me several. Passed an hour with him much to my satisfac- 
tion. A sensible, cheerful man of about forty-five ; I believe 
a German, but speaks French and English. Home at four. 
Before going out this morning, sent my note to the Duke de 
Cadore. Have no answer yet. This evening a card from 
Mr. and Madame Scherer, to pass the evening on Thursday. 

24. Did not go out of my room yesterday after dinner. 
Voila, eight days in Paris without having been to a theatre 
or place of amusement, though I am in the very centre of 
theatres, bals masque et non masque, and shows of all 
sorts. I had set my heart on one object, and that one suf- 
ficed for occupation and amusement; but two days having 
now elapsed since my note to the duke, and no reply, I may 
conclude that my hopes of business are at an end. 

Though to bed at one, did not rise till near ten. At one 
to Captain Haley's, whence sent a note to Vanderlyn, re- 
quiring him to present himself. Roved two hours. Home 
at four. At twelve Major Thomas came in to take leave ; 
he goes to Portugal. 

25. Rose at nine. Perhaps this great torpor may arise 
from having left off my evening tea, which was a very great 
luxurv, but certain objections which you can divine. Wait- 
ed till half past eleven in hopes of seeing Vanderlyn, but 
he came not. Is it possible that he too can have turned 
rascal ? 

Out at twelve to Comte de Volney. Sat half an hour. 
Gave him several commissions, which he undertook cheer- 
fully. The sessions of the senate are always secret. No 
one admitted. The treaty with Sweden proclaimed in all 
'form on yesterday. Forgot to tell you that I met one of 
the processions yesterday on the Pont Neuf. 

The Carnival must have commenced, for I meet in the 
streets persons in the most fantastic attire. Some covered 
from head to foot with slips of various-coloured paper, imi- 
tating plumes ; others k l'harlequin, &c. The weather has 
become mild. Two days of strong south wind, with mist. 


Dinner; but first au bain, thirty sous. On return from bain 
found a card of Vanderlyn. Went at six to find him, a full 
league. The address must be wrong, for at the place 
named he was not known. Called on Captain Haley on re- 
turn. He tells me that S. Broome is here, and desirous of 
seeing me ! Home at eight. Did not go out again. De- 
termined to make further attempt to get hearing. 

26. At nine to Captain Haley's to get him to show me 
Vanderlyn's quarters. He had given me the wrong number, 
71 instead of 72. They were half a mile distant. Found 
Vanderlyn. He is the same as formerly. Took break- 
fast with him. An hour looking at his pictures. Marius 
on the ruins of Carthage obtained the gold medal in 1808. 
I see nothing in that line to exceed it. Other admirable 
things, both original and copied. Then walked to his shoe- 
maker's. Thence to St. Mar. Gate, where Madame Senat 
lately lodged, that is to say, six years ago. No person at 
the house had any recollection of her, so that matter must 
be given up. Thence to the Louvre. The statues and the 
pictures ; the Venus de Medicis, Apollo de Belvidere, Lao- 
coon, &c. The gallery containing the paintings is fourteen 
hundred French feet long ; about fifteen hundred and fifty 
English, besides a very large hall. Home at four. At six 
to the little Vaudrille theatre. Home at half past ten. The 
theatre is small and very plain. No scenery but a change 
of rooms. Parterre, orchestra, and five rows of boxes. For 
the first and second row of boxes and the orchestra you pay 
six francs. All the parts extremely well acted. 

27. Vanderlyn came in about nine and took breakfast 
with me, and went with me to Fonzi, the dentist. 

28. Fruitless tour to find Fonzi. Had a visit from Comte 
de Volney. Called on Adet. Received a note from the 
minister of exterior relations, appointing M. Roux to treat 
with me. To Piquet's, where bought a map of the Gulf of 
Mexico for nine francs. 



Frankfort, February 4, 1810. 

Charles Loss, of Thunningen, who married Miss Engels, 
is settled in New- York. I became acquainted with them 
about a year after their arrival in America, and we have ever 
since continued in habits of great intimacy. He (Charles) 
is now comfortably established ; has a pleasant house, a lit- 
tle box with a few acres of land, on which he has planted a 
vineyard, nearly opposite the city, on the east bank of the 
Hudson. He holds the office of surveyor in the city, and 
has been much employed as a land surveyor. He is uni- 
versally and justly esteemed for his integrity, fidelity, and 
honour. When I parted with him on my leaving the Uni- 
ted States in June, 1808, he gave me the address of his fa- 
ther, and of the father of Mrs. Loss, of which I enclose you 
a copy. I have added the names and ages of their children ; 
there is probably an addition by this time. 

I beg you will do me the favour to communicate these 
particulars to the parents of Mr. and Mrs. Loss, or Mr. D. 
Engels. Should they be in good circumstances, I would 
wish to induce them to send some aid to their amiable chil- 
dren in America. A sum in money would be of great use 
to them, and no man in America is more capable of placing 
money to advantage than Charles Loss ; and the period is, 
in every respect, very favourable. For, in the first place, 
there would be a profit of more than twenty per cent, on the 
remittance ; and, in the next, the circumstances of the Uni- 
ted States afford, at this moment, unusual opportunities for 
vesting money to advantage. You can inform the parents 
how remittances can best be made. I had like to have for- 
gotten poor Adolphus. He is a good, amiable young man; 
but has not the talents of his brother Charles. 

Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Charles Loss had the remotest idea 
that I should say anything to their parents about pecuniary 
aid. But having, since our first acquaintance, enjoyed their 

Vol. I.— T 


entire confidence, I know that a competent sum would just 
now be of the utmost importance to them, and might greatly 
advance the permanent respectability of their family. 

I enclose also the original memorandum, in the handwri- 
ting of Charles, which you may transmit to either of their 
parents if a safe opportunity should offer. A. Burr. 


Paris, March 1, 1810. To the chaponier's, the greatest 
rascal in Paris. Paid fifteen francs for using a hat and 
sword one hour, and twenty-seven livres for a round hat. 
But, thank God, I am quit of him. To Vanderlyn, with 
whom left the picture, to be put in the hands of an engraver. 
Home at one, and at two to Roux, with whom an hour. A 
sensible, amiable young man. Home at half past three. 
At eight to Scherer's. Was the first arrived. They were 
coming in till past ten. Danced till two. Tea, cakes, lem- 
onade, ices, sangaree. Finally, soups, all served round. 
Left at three. Carriage-hire, going and coming, four francs 
ten sous. 

2. At nine to Hauterive's. The porter said his master 
was abroad, which was a lie, and that madame was too in- 
disposed to see any one, which was another. That he was 
charged by monsieur to say to me, in case I should call, that, 
if I had anything to communicate or require, it ought to be 
by letter, as his engagements, &c, did not allow him the 
time to see me ! There's for you. 

To Mr. Roux's house at ten, to make supplementary com- 
munication. Passed half an hour. Home at eleven. Coach- 
hire, four francs. At one to Baron d'Alberg, minister of 
Bad. Out; left letter and card. To Scherer's to get sun- 
dry addresses, and to get him to find Louisa Marlow. To 
hunt General Walterstoff, but could not find the house. 
Home at three. Coach-hire, three francs ten sous. At four 
to De Zauche's, the geographer. Bought two maps for four 
francs. Home at six ; a little stupid or so. 


3. Again to Scherer's to get the address of Walterstoff, 
but did not get it. To Volney's. Out. To Mons. la Case, 
whom saw ; very civil ; has been in the United States. Re- 
ceived a note from Baron d'Alberg to dine with him on 

Au Theatre Franqois, where saw the new tragedy of Brun- 
chart, and after, the Barbier de Seville ou Figaro, par Beau- 

marchois. I thought M'lle. better in tragedy than 

Madame Duchesnois, who is the Siddons of Paris. Sat 
next an English lady. 

The emperor came in during the third act, and was vis-ci- 
vis de moi. Had a good view of him. There was clapping 
in the pit when he entered and when he went out. As he 
retired he made a slight bow. 

March 10. Just one week since I have written you a line, 
for which I have no apology to offer. The emperor attends 
service (mass) every Sunday at his chapel. He also attends 
frequently reviews in the Tuileries. To assist at either re- 
quires a ticket, and I have not yet had influence enough to 
procure one for either. 

Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday I was very busy prepa- 
ring a letter intended to be presented to the emperor. When 
it was nearly done, something occurred which altered my 

On Monday dined with the Baron d'Alberg. There was 
a Count Louis (senateur, I think), General Vallance, two 
ladies, and five other gentlemen. Gamp, was of so small 
account that neither chair nor plate was provided for him, 
and he stood a minute after all were seated. Mons. le Baron 
d'Alberg is a man of about thirty-two, madame about the 
same. He has been created a duke by the emperor. 

While I was preparing my letter I had occasion for some 
maps, which, on my first visit to Valkenaer, he had offered 
to lend me, but which I then declined. On Wednesday 
went to him to ask the loan. He denied havine made such 
offer, and treated me rudely. Monday had a note from Ma- 



dame L., requesting an interview. After leaving D'Alberg's, 
called on madame. A sensible, well-bred woman. Has a 
daughter about sixteen. The husband of madame has been 
in America six years, having, as I take it, abandoned wife 
and daughter. Adet has not returned my visit. 

On Monday evening with Vanderlyn at the opera. The 
scenery, and ballets, and decorations are charming, and that 
is all. On Tuesday a minuit au grand bal masque at the 
Theatre Imperial. There were very few characteristic 
dresses, and of about one thousand people, it appeared to 
me that at least nine hundred ennuied themselves. I was 
without mask. Took seat in the boxes, promenaded a 
little the room, and came off at two o'clock. 

A gentleman remarked that the English had no word to 
express ennui, which he thought the more remarkable as 
they were so subject to that evil. No, replied le Comte de 
L. In England it is conceived to be the natural state, and 
synonymous with existence, and, therefore, no word requi- 
site. This P. M. wrote note to Adet to remind him of the 
ticket for the chapel. He answered that he had applied, 
and it had been refused. 

Thursday called at Fonzi's to take Vanderlyn to the 
Theatre Comique. There were Madame F. and Mr. de 
Castro, and we stayed and passed the evening there. De 
Castro is very charming. The other sensible and amiable. 
I have been running all this week to booksellers to hunt 
something, particularly dictionaries for you. There is no 
good dictionary of the French language. The National In- 
stitute are now occupied in that affair, and their work may 
be expected to appear about the year 1835; so a distin- 
guished member of that body informed me. 

Yesterday called on M. Roux to know if any answer. 
None ; but the minister hoped I would not be impatient to 
leave Paris. To-day called again on Mr. R., and, after con- 
versation, agreed to take dinner with him en famille. There 


were, besides him, madame, and fils, two gentlemen and a 
lady. Was amused and something more. Home at nine. 

My friend, Captain Haley, has left town for a fortnight. 
Le Comte Del. also for eight days. Cannot hear of Delage, 
Senat, or Marlow. At this late hour, am going to make a 
slop tea. 

11. The tea kept me awake till four, and then I locked 
my door to prevent the coming in of the servant as usual at 
seven. Slept till ten, which have had reason to regret. 

1st. D. Swede, whom I wished much to see, called at nine, 
and I was reported out. 

2d. At eight came a note from Mons. R., informing me 
that Mr. M. would conduct me to the Tuileries, and procure 
me admission to see the review at half past nine ; that too 
was lost. I did, however, call on Mr. M. about half pasfc 
eleven, and he was still waiting for me ; but the Tuileries 
gates were shut, and there was no entrance. We were 
turned off very rudely. Thence to Short's. Saw Mr. and 
Mrs. — — . Met several regiments passing the bridge, coming 
from the parade. At three to Madame L. She tells me of 
several ladies of my acquaintance ; among others, Mrs. Rob- 
ertson (Reid), whom you knew at New- York, he having died 
six months ago. Am to meet Madame M. at Madame L.'s 
on Tuesday evening. 

Home at four, and have not been out since. Vanderlyn 
came in at eight, took tea, and stayed till ten. Have a vile 
sore throat since four days. It grows worse and yields to 

12. Rose at nine, quite choked with sore throat. Walked 
out an hour before breakfast, though a chilly morning. To 
hunt your dictionaries, but have not purchased. There is 
not yet any very good dictionary. A new edition of the 
academy, by Moulardier and Le Clerc, not being issued under 
the proper authority, has, I am told, been condemned. It 
is, however, in our shop offered for sale, at the enormous 
price of eighty francs, in two volumes. The Dictionary 


Critique of Feraud, not pretending to be a complete diction- 
ary of the language, in three volumes, may, at the same time, 
be had for thirty-six francs. That of Gettel, in two volumes 
octavo, for fourteen francs. The last two I shall buy for 
you, and the new edition of the Dictionary des Synonymes. 
But how they are to be got out to you is a circumstance not 
yet foreseen, all commerce on both sides being prohibited. 

Home, and took some tea and bread, which swallowed with 
difficulty. At one to Swediaur's, and gave him a louis pro- 
fessionally, the first cent spent in this way in ten years. 
He tells me nothing new, but, with the ordinary remedies, 
thinks I will be able to speak and swallow in three or four 
days. The latter is of little consequence to me, you know ; 
but the former may be of very great, having yet a hope of 
being called on for explanations, &c. 

The doctor gave me the address of another bookseller, 
Mr. Paschaud, Genevoise. I was very agreeably surprised 
to find a beautiful, sensible, well-bred woman. Sat half an 
hour, and engaged to call again as visiter, though I am yet 
incog. Called on my shoemaker, who is as faithless as any 
American mechanic. Home at three. 

March 28. Looking over my scraps, I cannot find that I 
have written you a line since the 12th inst., nor have I any 
sort of apology to offer for the negligence. Not want of 
leisure, for of that I have but too much. 

It was on that day that I saw Madame Paschaud, and I 
have been there regularly twice a day. Have passed every 
evening with her save one. Have walked with her ; been 
to the opera ; dined there two or three limes en famille. 
She introduced me to her sister, who is married and settled 
here ; also to the very venerable and interesting Mons. Su- 
ard, eminent for his literary talents and acquirements. Ma- 
dame is about the size and form of Mrs. Madison, though 
some ten years younger, still larger. Very black hair and 
eyes. A fine, clear, fair brunette, with the complexion of 
full health. Her husband is at Geneve. I rather think that 


she must be the cause that I have not written you. This 
evening she goes to a ball, so that I am home at ten (having 
just now left her), which is at least one hour earlier than 

Have dined once with Swediaur. A pleasant, social party 
of eight ; among them Oelsner, to whom he had introduced 
me some days before. Oelsner introduced me to a very 
singular and amiable man, d'une certain age, le Comte de 
Slubrendorf. There met the celebrated Abbe Gerard and 
a Polish nobleman. 

Yesterday called on Mrs. Robertson, the widow of Dr. 
Robertson, who has here a very elegant establishment. She 
is amazingly well preserved. She told me that young T. 
Butler and one of his sisters are here for his health. Called 
on them, but they were out. 

Was at a ball at Scherer's on Thursday. There were 
several fine women. A young Swiss, of the name of De 
Rham, introduced himself to me. He has been five years 
in the United States. Left New-York in December last. 
Intimate with the Laights, &c. A young Frenchman, Paul, 
also just from Philadelphia. He met me in the street and 
claimed my acquaintance. 

The author of the Orphelius sent me a copy of her book, 
with a pretty note, which cost me a louis. Very silly. On 
Friday last, wrote to his majesty the King of Westphalia, 
asking an audience, but he had gone to Compeigne. 

Have had several interviews with Mr. Roux, and once 
dined with him. Have no reason to believe that my busi- 
ness advances, or that I shall do anything here. On Mon- 
day called on Mr. Ferris, an Irishman, related to Blenner- 
hassett. Visit returned yesterday. Called on Schwitzer^ 
who has returned the visit. He is little changed. Yester- 
day wrote the Prince Benevent, asking an interview, but 
have received no answer. Have seen Volney several times. 
Have bought you dictionaries, &c, to the amount of nine 


Dined once at a restaurateur with Vanderlyn, three franks 
six sous. He calls on me almost daily. What's next to be 
done, madame ? 

April 6, 1810. Eight days more without a line. Pas- 
chaud takes up all my time. On Wednesday wrote a letter 
to the King of Westphalia, desiring an audience. Left the 
letter in person. Within two hours after a note from his 
chamberlain, giving me rendezvous at five P. M. same day. 
Went. Passed half an hour in private with him. Was re- 
ceived graciously-y-the Count de Furstenstein (Camus), 
claimed my acquaintance. By order of his majesty, the 
comte is to aid me to translate ; for this purpose rendezvous 
chez lui at nine next morning. Thence to Paschaud's to 
dine. They had waited an hour for me. 

In the morning of the same day called on the Duke d'Al- 
berg, who always receives me kindly. Told him that I 
wanted access, &c. He gave me note of introduction to le 
Comte de S., which I transmitted forthwith, requesting an 
interview. Have no reply from this comte. At an early 
hour, same morning, called on Comte de Volney, by appoint- 
ment. Seems frightened. 

Passed the evening of Wednesday with Paschaud till nine, 
and then home to write. Wrote a short note to S. M. l'E. 
et R. At nine next morning to Furstenstein' s, to whom ex- 
plained my business, and left him my letter to translate. 
At five P. M. called and got the translation. Thence to Pas- 
chaud, where copied and sealed it, and sent it under cover to 
the comte, to be delivered as he or the King of Westphalia 
should see fit. Stayed with Paschaud till eleven. 

Rose this morning at six. My barber comes at that hour, 
and I have taken a barber for no other purpose but to be 
waked regularly. Eight sous per day. To Fonzi's at ten, 
where was detained three hours. At two to La Mormon, 
but was too late. Then in search of medals for Gamp., but 
had no success. 

Did I ever tell you that Lepine charged me three louis 


for repairing your watch? Worse still, he^says, and refers 
to his register, that he received for the watch only twenty- 
six louis. To Paschaud's at four. To Roux's at five. He 
has nothing to communicate ! 

About a fortnight ago I called on Mrs. Robertson. Re- 
fused to go to Paschaud's this evening. The only one (save 
one) since the 12th of March. Called on Madame Loige- 
rot. Raw, chilly weather, and I keep no fire. 


Paris, March 17, 18K). 

I take the liberty of asking an interview with your majes- 
ty, as well to offer personally my homage as to make a 
communication, of the value of which your majesty will de- 
termine in a few minutes' conversation. A. Burr. 

to The duke d'otrante. 

Paris, March 21. 1810. 

Mr. Burr, from the United States of North America, hav- 
ing some months ago seen published in the Moniteur the 
expression of his majesty's assent to the independence of 
the Spanish American colonies, came to Paris to offer his 
services to accomplish that object and others connected 
therewith. He asked neither men nor money. He asked 
only the authorization of his majesty. 

Mr. Burr has had conversations with persons near the 
government, and through whom he had presumed that the 
communications would .have passed to the emperor. Hav- 
ing received no answer, he proposes shortly to take his de- 
parture. But being persuaded that his communications have 
not been understood, and doubting whether they have at all 
been presented to his majesty, Mr. Burr should, with very 
great regret, leave the country without having had a few 
minutes' conversation with his excellency the Duke d'Otrante, 
for whose talents he has long entertained the highest ven- 

T 3 


eration, and by whom Mr. Burr is convinced that the value 
of his views would be promptly and justly appreciated. 

He takes the liberty of asking an audience at any hour 
his excellency may be pleased to name, and begs leave to 
offer assurances of his profound consideration and respect. 

A. Burr. 


Paris, March 26, 1810. 

My last letter to you was from Gottenburg, in October. 
I was about six weeks in Denmark and Holstein, and passed 
about three months in different parts of Germany, very great- 
ly to my satisfaction. It is just two months since my arri- 
val in this city. When I may leave it is uncertain. 

The situation of our country (the United States) afflicts 
me greatly, and increases my desire to return. Write to me 
in duplicate, one undercover to Scherer and Finguerlin, ban- 
quiers at Paris, Rue Taitbout, No. 1. The other to William 
Graves, Esq.,' merchant, No. 18 Wallbrook, London. My 
health continues without interruption ; though, if I may 
judge from the experience of only two months, this climate 
can boast of no advantage over ours. 

Transmit this letter to Mrs. Alston. It is said that Mrs. 
B. has left America. Tell Dr. Hosack that I wish to hear 
from him. A. Burr. 


Rheinielden, March 7, 1810. 

The note which I have taken the liberty to forward to 
you, through the interposition of Mr. Rougernont, banker at 
Paris, will have made you acquainted with the flattering 
hope I cherish of being your cousin. Permit me to make 
you a participant in the different assurances upon which my 
hope is based. 

My late father, in my infancy, often spake of his uncle, 
the brother of his father, who had a long time previous left 


his country, and without giving any tidings to his family. 
About forty-five years since, my father being at Bonn, four 
leagues from Cologne, met a Mr. Burr, a Protestant mer- 
chant of Heidenheim, three leagues from Boenmenkirch, the 
place of my birth, who, after having asked him if my father 
had not a relative in Holland, captain in the company of 
Ostend, showed him a letter which alluded to the death of 
this captain in Holland. My father, at the moment, not re- 
calling to his recollection his uncle Zacche, or, according to 
an extract from the baptismal record, Zacharie, allowed the 
favourable opportunity to escape of obtaining more satisfac- 
tory information from this merchant. 

Since that time we have had different reports ; and my fa- 
ther, recollecting having read in the letter shown him„by this 
merchant that this Captain Burr had died possessed of con- 
siderable property, and perhaps a bachelor, endeavoured, 
in the year 1792, to gather information on the subject. 

For this purpose I applied to Mr. Owexer, at that time a 
celebrated banker at Augsburgh, who had a brother at Am- 
sterdam, to whom he wrote. 

To facilitate his inquiries on the subject, the banker was 
desirous of procuring certain certificates which I was en- 
deavouring to obtain, when General Pichegru invaded Hol- 
land, which destroyed all hope of a relation with this coun- 
try. Since that period I have made no farther researches. 

During the year 1804, the public prints, at one time in 
Philadelphia and at another in New-York, spoke of Colonel 
Burr, vice-president of the United States ; and since that 
time, feeling a lively interest in the matter, have carefully 
collected all the information which the papers could fur- 
nish me. 

Finally, I am anxious to learn whether your respectable 
family is descended from the present one in Germany, of 
which there are two branches, the one Catholic, the other 
Protestant ; and, in either case, should be delighted to be 
honoured with a communication from vou. 


111 case you should return through Strasburgh, thirty- 
leagues from Rheinfelden, the place of my residence, if I 
could be informed of the day of your arrival in that city, I 
would be there, in order personally to assure you of the re- 
spectful consideration with which I have the honour to be, 

J. Burr, 
Canon of the Collegiate Chapter of Rheinfelden. 


Frankfort, January 28, 1810. 

Having had the honour of a visit of relation from you, I 
think it properly my duty to give you information of our re- 
lationship with the family of the Burr's in England. 

Daniel Burr, Esq., at the old family-seat of Michaelstow 
Hall, Ramsay, near Harwich, in Essex, died about the year 
1760, and left three children. 

1st. One daughter, Sophia Rebecca, my mother. She 
died many years before her parents. 

2d. His oldest son, Frederic, who died at Worms in the 
year 1790. He hath had a daughter and three sons. His 
daughter, with her mother of the Barton family, died before 
him at Bath, in England. 

a. His oldest son, Daniel, was captain in the navy, and 

b. His youngest son, John Fitz Frederic, was proctor in 
Doctors' Commons, married, but died without children. 

c. His second son, Major Newton Barton (after his moth- 
er's family name), died in the East Indies. His lady was 
cousin to the Duke of Grafton, secretary of state before the 
Lord North. He resigned for not agreeing to the war with 
the Americans. He left two children, a daughter and a son, 
Charles Barton, who was, in the year 1792, lieutenant in the 
Company's service on the Bombay establishment, and was 
with General Abercrombie at the time of the glorious treaty 
of peace entered into with Tippo.o Sultan. Since that time 
I have heard nothing from him. 


Now, whether my grandfather, Daniel Burr, hath had a 
brother or sister; as far as I can remember, I never heard of 
it. He was a native of Amsterdam, as likewise my grand- 
mother. After the death of the knight Duval, at Michael- 
stow Hall, whose heir he was, he went over to England, 
with his wife and three children, all born in Amsterdam, in 
the beginning of the last century past, and was afterward 
naturalized. If, therefore, any relation subsists between us, 
it is to be derived from a kinsman of my grandfather, Dan- 
iel Burr, Esq., quite unknown to me. Notwithstanding, I 
remain, with my sincerest wishes for your health and pros- 
perity, John Coenrad de Ron. 

P.S. My sister joineth her compliments, and begs the 
favour to let her know the hour on a morning when it will 
please you to drink a chocolate by her. 

I remember just now, from an English paper, Captain 
Burr, in the time of war with the Americans, a valiant war- 
rior. Much of him was related in our newspapers ; and I 
thought him to be my cousin, Daniel Burr, the captain in 
the navy. Therefore, by caution, I wrote to his mother, 
my aunt; but her answer was, it were not him, her son 
being in the East Indies. Very likely he was one of the 
Burr's in America. 


Paris, April 19. Raining and chilling weather. This 
climate is worse than ours. At eleven to S. P. B. to talk of 
various projects At one to Madame Paschaud's. Home at 
three. Dressed, and at five walked to M. Stone's to dine. 
Met Miss Williams,* tres Coeleb. Madame Gretanius, of 
South Carolina ; madame a Swede, and her beautiful daugh- 
ter, said to be thirteen, but might pass for eighteen. Easy 
and elegant hospitality. Stayed till half past ten. 

This day paid my monthly bills to landlord and porter, 
together eighty-six francs thirteen sous. Yesterday to the 

* Helen Maria Williams. 


imprim. De Stone, with the young German introduced tome 
by Madame Langworthy. Mr. Stone asked me to dine to- 
morrow. At half past two to Paschaud. Thence to le Music 
des Antique. To the tombs and monuments for fourteen 
hundred years past — Gabrielle of Henry IV. Home at half 
past five. Tea for dinner. 

20. Read an hour in Weiss. At eleven to the umbrella 
mender. Nothing done. To Wigerot's, where found invita- 
tion to concert to-morrow evening. Think I shall not go. 
To Fonzi's ; to Madame P.'s at four, and went with her to 
her sister's to dine en famille. After dinner walked with her 
along Boulevards to Port St. Denis, and returned ches elle 
at ten. Home fatigued. Made tea to refresh, and now, at 
half past eleven, bon soir. 

21. At eleven to Wigerot's. M. had told that Gamp, had 
related various things of her husband, though Gamp, never 
saw, never heard, nor spoke of him. Declined invitation to 
concert this evening. To Duke d'Alberg's. He always 
receives me with civility, and gives me the best advice in his 
power. To Madame Gretanius. Saw her and her beau- 
tiful daughter. To M'lle. Helen M. Williams. Out. To 
the magaz. of Mr. Stone to see him. Not there. Home to 
rest an hour. At half past three to Madame P.'s, where was 
engaged to dine at five. Home, expecting Bro., but he came 
not. Took tea, contrary to custom and to reason. Had this 
day a card from Captain Lawson, and a very civil invitation 
from H. M. Williams to dine with her on Tuesday, to 
which agreed. 

22. At eight to Vanderlyn's to breakfast. Off at ten. 
Your picture goes on slowly. At twelve to see Lawson. To 
Fonzi's to get my hat, but had not left it there. To Duke 
d'Alberg's to see for my hat. Not there ; so must be finally 
lost, i. e., exchanged for a very bad one. To le Comte de 
Furstenstein's. He nor his king not returned to town, nor 
expected these ten days. Home at three. Got twenty 
francs fourteen sous for a Fred, d'or, and twenty-six francs 
ten sous for an English guinea. 


To the Theatre Francois to hear Talma. Obliged to wait 
forty minutes in the crowd, nearly squeezed to death. 
Heard the tragedy of Manlius. Did not wait to see the 
afterpiece. For the characters, see the Gazette. M'lle. is 
very unjustly condemned. She had more of truth of nature 
and of feeling, but less of that vehement action, which is the 
taste of the day. 

23. At nine came in Lawson and sat an hour. He will 
take charge of all I can send you. Eight louis in dictiona- 
ries ! I am greatly tempted to add Moreri and Bayle, 12 
volumes folio, for four louis ! At eleven to the Prefecture 
de Police, to demand a passport for the country. What 
business have I in the country ? Why, hussy, there is the 
emperor, and the King of Westphalia, &c. But they had 
nothing to do with it, and said I must send a petition to the 
Due of Otrante. 

To Wigerot's, and walked an hour with madame and 
m'lle. in the Tuileries, where left them. To a bookseller's 
and bought the Code Napoleon, 5 volumes, and a book for 
Gampy, in all, thirteen francs. Home. Chabaud came in 
and told me my troubles about the Compeigne expedition, and 
he very kindly gave his advice and offered his aid, he being 
personally acquainted with the duke. Had to-day an invi- 
tation from Madame Robertson to dine on Thursday, which 

24. Slept till half past seven. At ten to Madame Pas- 
chaud's, with whose aid wrote my petition (a letter) in 
French to the Duke d'Otrante, and an English letter to 
Chabaud. Took them myself to Chabaud's, who, being out, 
left them. Lounged two hours at P.'s, and then we walked 
by Tuileries and Boulevards to Madame Pelough's. In- 
vitation to the marriage of Madame Pelough's daughter, on 
Thursday, to dine. Malheurusement, engaged to Madame 
Robertson, but will go and see the ceremonies. Home. 
At five to M'lle. Helen M. Williams's to dine. Met there le 
Baron de Humboldt, Mons. Haase, a French gentleman not 


named. Others came in after dinner. A very pleasant day. 
Mr. H. and M'lle. Williams engaged me to go to their coun- 
try seat at Montmorency on Sunday. 

25. To breakfast, and lounged an hour. To P.'s at eleven 
till one, and to Bib. to see Haase, who promised to aid me 
about medals. What running I have had about that little 
rascal's medals. Haase conducted me through the depart- 
ments of Grav. and of manuscripts. Showed me the most 
ancient Greek and Latin, which are of the fourth century. 
The original love-letters of Henry the IVth. to various of his 
mistresses. Patents, &c, by Charlemagne, &c. No medals 
can be had there but antiques, and those in soufre ; too fra- 
gile and too dull of appearance to suit Gampy. I got, how- 
ever, an address to one from whom, it is said, something in 
his way may be had. But my reputation is gone. Every- 
where announced as a medal-hunter. I shift it all on you. 
It is you, and not me, who are scientific in medals. 

Home for half an hour, and then to the bath. Thence to 
Pelough's to meet Pas. They were all so busy preparing 
and signing contracts, &c, for the marriage, which is to take 
place to-morrow, that I stole off, for which I shall have a 
quarrel with P. Home at eight. 

26. Rose at seven, but very sleepy and heated, as if I had 
drank two bottles of wine, though I had drank nothing but 
water. At ten came in the assistant of Madame Paschaud 
to see about packing up your books. I was astonished to 
see the mass when put together. At least four cubic feet. 
But, alas ! the greater part worthless stuff, which has been 
imposed on me in different places. Have resolved, at length, 
to transport the whole to Paschaud's, and there have the in- 
ventory and the packing. 

At eleven to Paschaud's ; there learned that Mr. le Chev. 
Chabaud had not made any application for Compeigne, learn- 
ing the arrival of his majesty of Westphalia. Posted off to 
see the Comte de Furstenstein. Out. To the King of 
Westphalia. Out. But there was the Count de F., who 


gave me rendezvous for nine to-morrow morning. The king 
leaves town this day ! Back to P.'s, and thence with the 
Chev. and Madame P. in his carriage to the house of Ma- 
dame Pelough, mere de M'lle. Thelusson. To the mayor's 
office, where the civil marriage was performed. Very sim- 
ple. Thence to the pastor of the Protestant church, a man 
of very prepossessing appearance and manners. The re- 
ligious ceremony was performed in a most impressive man- 
ner. M'lle. is a Protestant. Thence left the parties and 
went home. Was asked to the wedding dinner, but was en- 
gaged to Madame Robertson. To Mrs. Robertson's at half 
past five. Met there Mrs. Tone, widow of the Irish general, 
an interesting woman, and several others. The family of 
Evans detained by an accident to the father ; a fall and 
broken knee. A very pleasant party. Madame Robertson 
engaged me to dine on Monday. Off and to Pelough's, 
where found the whole party, about twenty-five, still at 
the dinner-table. Very gay. Songs, music, and afterward 
dancing. Off at half past twelve ; and now, at one, you ought 
to be much obliged to me for writing, seeing I must be up 
at six o'clock. 

27. Rose at half past six, quite refreshed. At nine to le 
Comte de Furstenstein. He was with the king, and not 
visible. Asked at the king's for the chamberlain du jour. 
Not yet visible. Home. On the way, called at Mesuitzie's. 
Not visible, and could make no rendezvous to-day. At ten 
to P.'s, and thence to Comte de'F. He was still with his 
majesty. Went there. A crowd of grandees; was never- 
theless received by le Comte de F., who told me that he had 
delivered my letter to the emperor and king. That all hands 
were going to Anvers, and no reply could be expected till 
their return, about the fifteenth of May. Voila, twenty days 
more of spider life. Thence to Wigerot's. A tale of dis- 
tress. Home at one. To Pelough's at two to see the new 
pair. All very well. Asked to dine, but am engaged to 
Swediaur. At four to dine. Off at half past eight, and to 


the Theatre des Varietes, to' meet the family Peloughs, &c, 
but the theatre being full, no place. Came home. 

Visit to-day from that amiable man, le Chev. Chabaud 
Latour. M. Arnold, le commis., carried all my (your) books 
to Paschaud's. Shall move to-morrow. 

28. Ran about on trifling errands several hours. At seven 
to Pelough's. Home. Took voiture, and transported my 
baggage, and took my quarters. 

29. Pleased with my new quarters. Dinner chez nous- 
y-uncle of Adelle. 


Paris, April 27, 1810. 

Agreeably to the appointment of his excellency the Comte 
de Furstenstein, Mr. Burr had the honour of calling on him 
at nine this morning ; but, not having had that of seeing him, 
takes this method of requesting to be informed whether the 
letter for his majesty the emperor, with which his excellen- 
cy was pleased to charge himself, has been delivered, and 
whether any reply has been given, or notice taken of it, or 
whether any may be expected. 

He takes the liberty of requesting that the Count de Fur- 
stenstein would have the goodness to return the English 
draught of the letter which he had the courtesy to transmit. 

Mr. Burr apologizes for this intrusion on his excellency's 
time, and offers assurances of his respectful consideration. 


Paris, April 27, 1810. 

Ma belle amie : In a most serious and distressing di- 
lemma, I must ask your pardon and your aid. 

About a week ago I engaged with a party to visit Mont- 
morency, to pass some days with a friend there. When 
you proposed to me the dinner and amusements for Satur- 
day, I thought of nothing but the pleasure of meeting you 
again. How was it possible, in your presence, to think of 


anything else ? Yes, perhaps I thought a little of your 
lovely friend. Allow me to ask you to make my peace with 
her, for I should dread a reproach from those eyes. 

I am exceedingly mortified at this shameful piece of 
thoughtlessness, and shall not feel at ease till I have the 
assurance of your forgiveness, which I shall hasten to ask 
in person the moment of my return : that may be on Satur- 
day evening or Sunday morning ; but, pray, do not receive 
me with one of your grave faces. Certainly my head must 
have been a little deranged at that moment. Not the only 
head, however, by many, that you have turned. 

A. Burr. 




AUG 3 1 1946